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they attain certain statea ages, when partners in life | take a moderate estimate, and suppose that the young die, when old age comes on, for funeral expenses, and man could "put by "six-pence a-week, and the young support for necessitous relations—all come within the woman three-pence; or the one twenty-six, and limits of Benefit Societies ; and it is possible that the other thirteen shillings in the year. From allowances at marriage might be a very useful regu- eighteen to twenty-eight is ten years, which, withlation. That is of so much consideration, indeed, out any allowance of interest, is thirteen pounds that it deserves to be treated a little at length. to the man; and from fifteen to twenty-two is

In order to confine the objects of Benefit Societies seven years, which is four pounds eleven shillings to those contemplated by the Acts of Parliament to the woman ; put the two together, and there is that have from time to time been passed for their seventeen pounds eleven shillings to furnish the cutprotection, namely those that can be averaged so as tage, besides the interest, which would provide a to adjust the payments fairly to the benefits, the legis- wedding dress for each. The whole chattels of lature, by the 10 Geo. 4. c.56. § 4, has directed the an English cottager, in the districts round London, rules to be certified by a barrister ; and in the case (and these should not be worse than the average of of a society formed after the 19th of June, 1829, it the country) do not at present amount to three requires that the Justices at Sessions shall be satisfied pounds, and often not to one pound. The marriage with the correctness of the tables of contributions, provision would therefore be a most valuable use of and benefits. But it must not be supposed that the Benefit Societies; and if it were general, it would provisions of any statute are intended to limit the save many of the other uses, as well as prevent many usefulness of the societies; for the object and ten things that are objectionable. Still, as marriage is dency are quite the reverse. The statute is framed not one of those cases that come within the meaning for the benevolent purpose of preventing the members of the Act of Parliament, it is probable that some of such societies from wasting their contributions specific establishments for marriage portions would upon improper objects. Loss by fire, being out of be better than uniting them with the relief of the employment, aud being in prison for debt, are grounds necessitous. of relief in some of those societies which have been institued without reference to the statute. Now, as not one of these must happen to any one man, no cer- Kneel, my child, thy God is here ! tain average of them can be taken ; and, as they may

Kneel in love and filial fear; happen through negligent or improper conduct, as

Love Him,—for His Grace He shows thee,

Fear Him,- for He made and knows thee. well as through unforeseen accidents, relief in cases

Thou art His, through Christ His Son, of them, provided in a formal manner, has very much

Saved by grace, by mercy won • the appearance of a bounty on inattention and idle

Lost to everlasting joy;
The real cases are proper subjects for charity. But my Saviour sought and found thee,
That a Benefit Society has “worked well" in one

And His blessings now surround thee:

Praise Him for His constant care, place, is an argument in favour of its plan ; but it is not a complete argument : for, on a subject of so

Pray to Him,-He heedeth pray'r much intricacy, there may be important elements left One of the deaf and dumb lads in the Institution at Paris out; and times, places, and occupations, vary very being desired to express his idea of the cternity of the Deity, much, both in respect of the contingencies of life, and replied:“ It is duration without beginning or end; existof the periods of life at which they happen. Those ence without bounds or dimensions; present without past or who have capacity and inclination for such enquiries, future; his eternity is youth without infancy or old age; lile and time to pursue them, cannot bestow more valuable without birth or death; to-day without yesterday or to

morrow.” aid upon their more occupied brethren, than by furnishing them with such information as that in We make laws, but we follow customs.-LADY M. W. Monquestion. If the informed part of society would, TAGUE. upon occasion, lend judiciously a little of their knowledge to the unlearned, they would do much more

I will to-morrow, that I will, real good than by giving their money.

I will be sure to do it;

To-morrow comes, to-morrow goes, Our next paper will contain some notice of the

And still thou art to do it. leading principles of Probability, so far as they are

Thus still repentance is deferred, necessary for the establishing of Benefit Societies, and

From one day to another: capable of explanation without language not in com

Until the day of death is come, mon use; and in order that the list may be the more

And judgment is the other.

DREXELIUs on Eternity. complete, a few words shall now be added on marrage portions. We shall, for the sake of brevity, suppose that,

FAITH. upon the average, youths begin to earn wages at To our own safety, our own sedulity is required. And eighteen, and girls at fifteen,—from which they could then blessed for ever be that mother's child, whose bear to spare a part, after the reasonable supply of faith hath made him the child of God. The earth their common wants. If that is denied, their marriage may shake, the pillars of the world may tremble unmust bring misery; the children must go to the work- der us; the countenance of the heaven may be aphouse, or do worse ; and the condition of society is palled, the sun may lose his light, the moon her beauty, incurable. But that should not be, and it is not :- the stars their glory; but concerning the man that ten in the dozen, even in the most unfortunate parts trusteth in God, if the fire have proclaimed itself unof England, are above that—all might be so.

able so much as to singe a hair of his head; if lions, Well, suppose that they can (and where there is beasts ravenous by nature and keen with hunger, being a can, it is the business of instruction to find a will) set to devour, have, as it were, religiously adored the begin to save a little at the ages that have been men- very flesh of the faithful man ; what is there in the tioned ; and that young men, on the average, marry

world that shall change his heart, overthrow his faith, at twenty-eight, and young women at twenty-two. alter his affection towards God, or the affection of Thirty and twenty-five would be better ; but there is God to him? If I be of this note, who shall make a some danger of bad habits heing formed. We shall separation between me and my God.--HOOKER.


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Being with my friend in a garden, we gathered each of us a This curious little animal, or rather group of animals, He handled his tenderly; smelt to it but seldom, and for each of the projecting parts of the figure con

sparingly. I always kept mine to iny nose, or squeezed it in tains an inhabitant occupying a portion of the common

my hand; whereby, in a very short time, it lost both its colour

and sweetness : but his still remained as sweet and fragrant dwelling, yet still depending on its own exertions for

as if it had been growing upon its own root. its individual support, was taken by M. Savigny near These roses, said I, are the true emblems of the best and the island of Ivica, in the Mediterranean. It is found sweetest creature-enjoyments in the world, -which, being attached to rocks beneath the surface of the sea. It moderately and cautiously used and enjoyed, may for a long never moves from the spot on which it is produced, time yield sweetness to the possessor of them: but, if once -but there it flourishes and decays.

the affections seize too greedily upon them, and squeeze them too hard, they quickly wither in our hands, and we lose the comfort of them; and that, either through the soul surfeiting upon them, or the Lord's righteous and just removal of them, because of the excess of our affections to them.

It is a point of excellent wisdom, to keep the golden bridle of moderation upon all the affections we exercise on earthly things; and never to let slip the reins of the affections, unless they move towards God, in the love of whom there is no danger of excess.-FLAVEL:

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Nothing more nearly resembles a Polypus than the ommon body in which the animal of the DIAZOMA is contained. This body is formed of cells, and spread out like a saucer-of a firm, jelly-like substance, transparent, and of a light violet colour, which is deeper at the extremity of the cells. These cells are disposed in several concentric circles, containing the animals, of a grey ash colour, which are visible through he skin that incloses them. The cells are large, projecting, flattened, and inclined in a direction from the centre to the circumference ; the various circular rows appear each to form a distinct group. Each cell has two tube-shaped pores of a purple colour, marked with six grooves, from which, when the creature expands itself, six lance-shaped feelers proceed; the largest and most projecting tube corresponds with the mouth, and is farthest from the centre.

The description of animals to which this is allied are called radiated, from the parts of which they are composed, arising from a common centre, and spreading out in a circular form like the rays of the sun. When in a state of rest, not the least appearance of life is visible, and they appear like unformed lumps of animal substance; but when left undisturbed and excited by hunger, their numerous arms are spread in search of food : and we observe instead of the slimy mass we threw down in disgust, the appearance of a group of flowers in fu.l bloom.

The Sea Anemone, so common on our own coasts, is a beautiful specimen of an animal of this class. Persons, who some years back were lowered in a Diving Bell to inspect the wreck of the Royal George, that foundered at Portsmouth, were struck with astonishment at the appearance of its deck, which was covered with mud deposited from the sea, and become the abode of numerous groups of these creatures, who with their extended arms had converted the whole surface into the resemblance of an extensive and beautiful flower garden.

An Austrian army, awfully arrayed,
Boldly by battery besieged Beograde.
Cossack commanders cannonading come,
Dealing destruction's devastating doom.
Every effort engineers essay,
For fame, for fortune fighting; furious fray.
Generals 'gainst generals grapple, gracious goou!
How honours heaven heroic hardihood !
Infuriate, indiscriminate in ill,
Kinsmen kill kindred, kindred kinsmen kill.
Labour low levels loftiest longest lines;
Men march ʼmidst moles, 'midst mounds, 'mirlst murderous

Now noisy noxious numbers notice nought
of outward obstacles opposing ought.
Poor patriots, partly purchased, partly pressed,
Quite quaking, quickly quarter quest.
Reason returns, religious right redounds;
Suwarrow stops such sanguinary sounds!
Truce to thee, Turkey! triumph to thy train,
Unwise, unjust, unmerciful Ukraine !
Vanish, vain victory, vanish victory vain,
Why wish we warfare? wherefore welcome were
Xerxes, Ximenes, Xanthus, Xavier ?
Yield, yield ye youths, ye yeomen, yield your yell
Zeno's, Zopater's, Zoroaster's zeal,
Atracting all, arts against arms appeal.


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; a

similar structure; but the second temple, that of THE PYRAMIDS OF EGYPT.

Cephrenes, is distinguished by having the SPHYNX There are few subjects which have occupied so much ranged in front of the centre of its eastern face, bearof antiquarian research as the Pyramids of Egypt, ing all the marks of having been conneeted with it and few which have better deserved the zealous in- by communications cut through the rock under quiry they have awakened. Whether the gigantic ground. Between the paws of the Sphynx a perfect character of their outward form be considered, the temple was discovered, a few years ago, by the intrepid singularity of their internal design, or the length traveller Belzoni, 'on clearing away the sand by of their duration, the mind derives a pleasing awe which it had been choked up for ages. from the great associations with which they are con- The magnificent prospect from the top of this nected. In surveying them, the genius of the past pyramid, has been described by the French traveller seems to be present, to commune with us, and to SAVARY, who visited Egypt in 1770, in glowing terms. mingle us with the earliest offspring of mankind. After occupying seven hours in ascending to its Their unchanging and apparently indestructible forms summit, "the morning light," says he, " discovered have outlived successive generations, and endured to us every moment new beauties: the tops of gilded amidst the ruins of Babylon and Rome, the ravages minarets, and of date tree and citron groves, planted of Cambyses, and the conquests of Alexander. round the villages and hills; anon the herds left the

These mysterious buildings are called the PYRAMIDS hamlets; the boats spread their light sails, and our of Gizeh, from a village of that name on the banks i eyes followed them along the vast windings of the of the river Nile, from which they are distant about Nile. On the north appeared sterile hills and barren eleven miles, forming almost a line to the westward sands; on the south the river and waving fields, vast of the city of Cairo. The platform or high rocky as the ocean : to the west the plain of Fayum, famous ground on which they stand, rises out of a strip of for its roses : to the east the picturesque town of sandy plain about thirty miles long, extending by the Gizeh, and the towers of Fostat, the minarets of side of the Nile, and sloping upwards to about eighty Cairo, and the castle of Saladdin, terminated the feet above the level of the river. The two largest prospect. Seated on the most wonderful of the Pyramids are named after two kings, Cheops and works of man, as upon a throne, our eyes beCephrenes, whose tombs they are supposed to be held by turns a dreadful desert; rich plains in which The largest of the two--that of Cheops-may well the Elysian fields had been imagined ; villages; have been considered as one of the Wonders of the majestic river; and edifices which seemed the work World, the north side being 693 feet' in length, and of giants. The universe contains no landscape more the whole building covering something more than variegated, more magnificent, or more awful.” eleven English acres-a size sufficiently monstrous to The ancients knew little of the interior structure of stagger belief, if the fact were not established beyond these giant piles. Herodotus, who lived 445 years dispute. Pliny and Diodorus Siculus, two ancient before Christ, merely speaks of an entrance leading historians, who wrote of these buildings since the to the interior, by hearsay from the priests, who Christian Æra, agree in stating that not less than informed him that there were secret vaults beneath, 300.300 men were employed in erecting the Great hewn out of the natural rock. Strabo, who lived after Pyramid; and it is added that twenty years were the Christian æra, only describes a single slanting pasexpended in the work. It may be proper to re- sage which led to a chamber in which was a stone mark, with regard to the size of the Pyramids, that tomb. Diodorus Siculus, who lived forty-four years engravings of them have rather tended to mislead; before Christ, agrees with this; and Pliny, who lived for as it is impossible to represent their real bulk on A.D. 66, adds that there was a well in the Great paper, drawings made to give an idea of their form, Pyramid, eighty cubits deep. This is all the ancients naturally tend to diminish the idea of their size, in have said about the interior. the imagination of the observer.

The Egyptian priests, indeed, assured Aristides, a The four sides of all pyramids, large and small, Greek traveller about two centuries before Christ, exactly face the cardinal points.

that “the excavations beneath were as great as the These Pyramids, with several smaller ones in a height above.” And Ebn Abd Alhokim, an Arabic greater or less state of preservation, occupy the Plain writer of the ninth century says, that the builders of Gizeh. More to the south, within a limit of twenty “ constructed numerous excavated chambers, with or thirty miles, on the same western bank of the Nile, gates to them, forty cubits under ground.” Other and at about the same distance from the bed of the Arabian writers say that these chambers contain river, there are other groupes, as at Saccara, Da- chests of black stone, in which were deposited the shour, and Ramlie. Of these the first place is connected sacred archives of King Saurid, who built the pyramid. with Gizeh by a chain of sepulchres and ruined build- Many discoveries (perhaps a burial place under ings; but there are numerous others, not so con- ground) obviously remain to be made. nected, in different places, even so far southward as The same Arab historian, Alkokim, gives an acNubia.

count of the opening of this building under the The Third Pyramid of Gizeh is that of Mycerinus ; Caliphate, from which time it has remained in the it has three smaller pyramids ranged along its south condition seen and described by all modern travellers, face. The Great Pyramid has six, and three of a to the time of the Italian traveller, Caviglia, who larger size, but much decayed on its eastern face. made a discovery of a new chamber and passages, Besides these, an extensive region of tombs, arranged about ten years ago.

“ After that Almamon the Cain streets crossing each other, and occupying the liph (A. D. 820,) entered Egypt, and saw the Pyra. same shape and extent of ground as the base mids, he desired to know what was within, and of the Pyramid of Cheops, are found along its wes- therefore would have them opened. He was told it tern side.

could not possibly be done. He replied, I will have The Second Pyramid has a line of chambers cut it certainly done. And that hole was opened for in the rock, and on its eastern side are the ruins him, which stands open to this day, with fire and of a temple. The third has a similar temple and vinegar. Two smiths prepared and sharpened the avenue; and, indeed, the eastern face of the Great iron and engines, which they forced in: and there Pyramid bears traces, though more indistinct, of a was a great expence in the opening it; and the thick.


ness of the wall was found to be twenty cubits. There have been many opinions expressed by Within they found a square well, and in the square learned men as to the object of these structures. of it, there were doors : every door of it opened into One is, that they were the granaries of Joseph. a house (or vault), in which there were dead bodies This may be confuted by the smallness of the rooms, wrapped up in linen. Towards the upper part of and the time required in building. Another, that the Pyramid, they found a chamber, in which was a they were observatories, which is accusing the hollow stone ; in it was a statue of stone, like a man, builders of great absurdity, since the neighbouring and within it a man, upon whom was a breast-plate rocks were better calculated for the purpose. The of gold, set with jewels, and on him were written | Arabians generally think that they were built by characters with a pen, which no man can explain.” King Saurid, before the deluge, as a refuge for him

Greaves, an Englishman, who visited the Great self, and the public records, from the Flood; but Pyramid in 16-18, described the passages thus opened, this opinion requires no

Josephus, the and then open, very accurately, and suspected that Jewish historian, who wrote A. D. 71, ascribes them at the bottom of a well in the Pyramid, was the pas- to his countrymen, during the captivity in Egypt. sage to those secret vaults mentioned by Herodotus; As sun-dials, they would have failed. Shaw and but he made no new discovery. Davison, who visited Bryant, who wrote in the middle of the last cenit in the middle of the eighteenth century, discovered tury, believed them to be temples, and the stone some secret chambers and passages connecting the chest, a tank for holding water used for purification. largest gallery with the central room, and an apart. Pauw, who lived at the same time with Shaw and ment four feet high over it. He descended the well | Bryant, considers the Great Pyramid as the tomb of 155 feet, but found further progress blocked up. Osiris ; and that Osiris having fourteen tombs for Caviglia was the first to discover the above suspected various parts of his dismembered body, fourteen passage. After much trouble in clearing the narrow pyramids must have been devoted to them, and opening at the end of the first or entrance gallery of the annual funeral mysteries connected with his the pyramid, he found that it did not terminate at death and resurrection. But the greater number that point, as hitherto supposed, but proceeded of writers, ancient and modern, believe it to be the downwards to the distance of 200 feet. It ended tomb of Cheops, the alleged builder. Improving on in a door-way on the right, which was found to this notion, Maillet '1760) supposed that the chamcommunicate with the bottom of the well. But bers were built for the purpose of shutting up the new passage did not terminate here : it went the friends of the deceased king with the dead beyond the door-way twenty-three feet, and then body; and that the holes on each side of the central took a horizontal direction for twenty-eight more, chamber of the Great Pyramid, were the means where it opened into a spacious chamber immediately, by which they were to be supplied with food, &c.; under the central room.

an opinion which would have appeared sufliciently This new chamber is twenty-seven feet broad, ludicrous, if it had not been exceeded by that exand sixty-six feet long. The floor is irregular; pressed by an old Moulah to Buonaparte, when in nearly one half of the length from the eastern, or Egypt (1799), that the object was to keep the buried entrance end, being level, and about fifteen feet from body undecayed, by closely sealing up all access the ceiling; while, in the middle, it descends five feet to the outward air. Another ingenious theory lower, in which part there is a hollow space bearing ascribes them to the shepherd kings, a foreign pasall the appearance of the commencement of a well, toral nation which oppressed Egypt in the early times or shaft. From thence it rises to the western end, of the Pharaohs. However, this is, after all, but conso that there is scarcely room between the floor and jecture. The utmost uncertainty exists in all that the ceiling to stand upright."

concerns these gigantic, unwieldy, and mysterious On the south of this chamber is a passage hol- buildings. Their builders, origin, late, and purlowed out, just high and wide enough for a man poses, are entirely lost in the night of ages. As to creep along upon his hands and knees, which the sides of all the pyramids face the cardinal points, continues in the rock for fifty-five feet, and then and of course give the irue meridian of the places suddenly ends. Another at the east end com- where they are situated, it would seem that their mences with a kind of arch, and runs about forty builders had made some progress in scientific knowfeet into the solid body of the Pyramid.

ledge ; and the buildings themselves, under all cir, Mr. Salt, the late intelligent British Consul to cumstances, notwithstanding their plain exteriorEgypt, was so struck by this discovery, as to express clearly show the advanced state of art in those very his belief that the under-ground rooms were used for early times. “the performance of solemn and secret mysteries."

As to the Second Pyramid of Gizeh, the ancients knew less about it than they did of the first. Hero

THE BIBLE. dotus says it has no under-ground chambers, and the other ancient authorities are silent. But the enter- A single book has saved me; but that book is not of prising Belzoni found its entrance, in the north human origin. Long had I despised it; long had I front, in 1818, and discovered at the same time, that deemed it a class book for the credulous and ignorant; it had been previously forced open by the Arabian until, having investigated the Gospel of Christ, with Caliph, Ali Mehemet, A. D. 782, more than a thou an ardent desire to ascertain its truth or falsity, its sand years before. After forcing an entrance, and pages proffered to my inquiries the sublimest knowadvancing along a narrow passage, one hundred ledge of man and nature, and the simplest, and at feet long, he found a central chamber, forty-six the same time, the most exalted system of moral feet long by sixteen wide, and twenty-three high, ethics. Faith, hope, and charity were enkindled in cut out of the solid rock. It contained a gra- my bosom; and every advancing step strengthened nite sarcophagus, (a tomb) half sunk in the floor, me in the conviction, that the morals of this book are with some bones in it, which, on inspection by as superior to human morals, as its oracles are supeSir Everard Home, proved to be those of a cow. rior to human opinions.-M. L. Bautain, Professor An Arabic inscription on the walls implies, that it of Philosophy, Strasburgh. had been opened in the presence of the Sultan Ali Mehemet.


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