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LACE MADE BY CATERPILLARS. — A most extraordinary species
of manufacture has been contrived by an officer of engineers This beautiful ruin is situated about three miles to the residing at Munich. It consists of lace and veils, with open southward of Edinburgh. It stands on a circular patterns in them, made entirely by caterpillars. The followrocky hill, and commands an extensive prospect on ing is the mode of proceeding adopted. Having made a every side ; comprehending the city of Edinburgh, paste of the leaves of the plant on which the species of caterthe distant mountains of the Highlands, and the fine pillar he employs feeds, he spreads it thinly over a stone, or
other flat substance, of the required size. He then, with a camel-hair pencil dipped in olive-oil, draws the pattern he wishes the insects to leave open. This stone is then placed in an inclined position, and a considerable number of the caterpillars are placed at the bottom. A peculiar species is chosen, which spins a strong web; and the animals commence at the bottom, eating and spinning their way up to the top, carefully avoiding every part touched by the oil,
but devouring every other part of the paste. The extreme lightness of these veils
, combined with some strength, is truly surprising. One of them, measuring 26 by 17 inches, weighed only a grain and a half, a degree of lightness which will appear more strongly by contrast with other fabrics. One square yard of the substance of which these veils are made, weighs 45 grains, whilst one square yard of silk gauze weighs 137 grains, and one souare yard of the finest net weighs 2624 grains.
GRATITUDE AND INGRATITUDE GRATITUDE is a virtue disposing the mind to an inward and an outward acknowledgment of a benefit received,
together with a readiness to return the same, or the like, as occasions of the doer of it shall require, and the abilities of the receiver extend to. · INGRATITUDE is an insensibility of kindness received, without any endeavour either to acknowledge or repay them. Ingratitude sits on its throne with Pride at its right hand, and Cruelty at its left,—worthy supporters of such a state. You may rest upon this as an unfailing truthThat there neither is, nor ever was, any person remarkably
ungrateful, who was not also insufferably proud; nor any Craigmillar Castle.
one proud, who was not equally ungrateful. arm of the sea called the Firth of Forth. The front Ingratitude overlooks all kindnesses; and this is because of the building is towards the north : over one of the pride makes it carry its head so high. Ingratitude is too doors is carved a press and a cask, in allusion, it is like the tops of mountains, barren indeed, but yet lofty; they
base to return a kindness, and too proud to regard it; much believed, to the name of Preston. It was surrounded produce nothing, they feed nobody, they clothe nobody, yet by a thick rampart, thirty feet high, with parapets are high and stately, and look down upon all the world and turrets, of which a considerable part remains. about them. It was ingratitude which put the poniard into There is an inner court of considerable extent; and Brutus's hand, bui it was want of compassion which thrust
it into Cæsar's heart. there is also a very large outer court; on the west side of which there was erected a presbyterian meet
Friendship consists properly in mutual offices, and a gene
rous strife in alternate acts of kindness. But he who does ing-house, in consequence of the indulgence granted a kindness to an ungrateful person, sets his seal to a fint, to that persuasion by James VII of Scotland. and sows his seed upon the sand :-upon the former he
The period when this castle was built is not ascer- makės no impression, and from the latter he finds no produc tained; which probably arises from the records, and tion.-Dr. South. other papers of a public nature, respecting Scotland,
THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE, No. XVI, being lost in their conveyance by sea from London to Edinburgh ; when, after having been carried away by
SUPPLEMENT FOR SEPTEMBER, Cromwell, they were ordered to be restored by
Is ready for delivery with the present Number, PRICE ONE Penny, Charles II ; but the rampart, as appears by the in
And on the 29th Instant will be published scription upon the gate, was built in 1427.
The MONTHLY PART for SEPTEMBER, Price 6d. This castle was for some time the residence of
Including the Supplement. James V, when he left Edinburgh on account of the plague. It was taken, and part of it demolished, by
LONDON: the English, in 1543, when Henry VIII invaded Scot- JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, 445, (WEST) STRAND, land, in order to compel the young Queen of Scots
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And by the Publisher's Ageuts in the following places :French servants took up their abode in a neighbouring
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Westley and Co. France; and a room in the castle is still called Queen Cambridge Stevenson
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Chelmsford. ..Guy The castle and surrounding estate belonged, so far Cheltenham .Lovesy.
Liverpool .Hughes. back as the year 1374, to the family of Preston.
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Newcastle-un-Tyne, Finlay & Charl. They now belong to the descendants of Sir Thomas
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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
GENERAL VIEW OF THE PRINCIPAL MOUNTAINS IN THE WORLD.
AN ACCOUNT OF THE PRINCIPAL MOUNTAINS IN THE WORLD.
Those majestic elevations which are found upon the and appear to descend almost perpendicularly into surface of the earth in almost every part of the world the body of the earth. In their interior there are natural are termed Mountains; and the inequalities of lesser caverns, abounding in crystallizations of great beauty, height are distinguished by the name of Hills. and various minerals; but no calcareous spar, except When several mountains occur together, covering a in the fissures or rents, which have some extent and plain, they are called Groups, and a series several an evident direction. Of this kind are the Pyrenees, miles in length is termed a Chain, or Ridge, of Moun- the Alps, the Apenines, the Tyrolese and Carpathian tains. Mountain Groups are generally highest in the mountains, with some others in Europe ; the Riphæan middle. Each group constitutes a connected whole, Mountains, Caucasus, Taurus, Libanus, and the Himboth in regard to its base and its acclivity; but it is maleh range, in Asia ; Atlas, in Africa ; and the Apalanot an entire mass, being intersected in many places, chian mountains, and the Andes or Cordilleras, in though never quite down to its foot or base. Moun America. tainous Land, is composed of single mountains col II. Another class of mountains are of volcanic lected into chains, but which, not being joined to- origin. These are either detached or surrounded with gether by a central or high mountain chain, do not groups of lower hills, the soil of which is heaped up in form groups. Hilly Land consists of rounded and disorder, and consists of gravel and other loose subundulated elevations; it is much lower than moun- stances. Many of these mountains are truncated, or tain land, and by means of the plains, which some have a funnel-shaped opening towards their summits, times constitute a part of high land, forms a transition which are composed of, and surrounded by, heaps of into low land.
lava and half vitrified bodies, making their gradual The form of mountains is generally conical, that is, increase by strata raised up and discharged into the gradually tapering from the base upwards, and air, upon occasions of the eruption of subterraneous usually terminating in a more or less pointed peak. fire. Such, among many others, are Mounts Ætna Some of the countries covered with high mountains and Vesuvius, in Sicily and Naples ; Adam's Peak, in present, in the summer, different climates at different the island of Ceylon; the Peak of Teneriffe, in the elevations, within a very narrow compass. We may Canary Isles, &c. When very high mountains of the ascend gradually from flourishing and delightful vallies, kind are covered with marine shells, their summits decorated with corn, fruit trees and vines, to pastures are supposed to have once constituted part of this covered with odoriferous alpine plants, and, near the bottom of the ocean. These mountains are usually declivities, with evergreens, and perceive the vegeta- more easy of access than those of the first class, and tion diminishing and dwindling as we advance, till, have fewer springs. at last, all organic life ceases, and the cold prevents III. A third rank of mountains, whether isolated or all further progress.
disposed in a group, are such as are composed of The first view of such amazing heights, (some of stratified earth or stone, consisting of different subwhich are not less than five miles above the level of stances, of various colours. These are produced by the sea, others four miles, and many two and three the slow deposits of water, or by soil gained in the miles) leads to a belief that they must greatly detract time of great foods. Mountains of this kind are from the regularity of the earth's spherical form : but always of small elevation compared with those of on comparing them with the bulk of the earth, they the first order, and are round at the top, or covered sink into insignificancy, bearing in reality no greater with soil, frequently forming a pretty flat and extenproportion to it than a grain of sand would bear to an sive surface; on which are found sand and heaps of artificial globe of twelve inches diameter, or than the round pebbles, similar to those which have been exlittle risings on the rind of an orange bear to its fruit. posed to the waves on the sea beach.
Mountains are supposed by naturalists to have diffe The interior of these mountains consists of numerous rent origins, and to date their commencements from strata, almost horizontally disposed, containing shells, various periods. I. Those which form a chain, and are marine productions, and fish bones, in great quanticovered with snow, are accounted primitive, or antedi- ties. These fossils are intermixed and confounded luvian, that is, to have existed before the Flood. They with heaps of organized bodies of another species, greatly exceed all other mountains in height; in general, presenting a picture of surprising disorder, and their elevation is very sudden, and their ascent steep and affording indications that some extraordinary and difficult. Their shape is mostly pyramidal; they are violent inundation, such as the general Deluge, crowned with sharp prominent rocks, from which the has accumulated in the greatest confusion and precisoil has been washed away by rain, presenting an awful pitation, foreign substances of very opposite qualities
. and horrible aspect. Their sides are less steep, and they Mountains of this class may be considered as comabound in thundering cascades, frightful precipices, and posed of the wrecks of once organized bodies. In these deep chasms or valleys. The depressions and exca- mountains we likewise find wood, prints of plants, vations correspond with the quantity of water, the strata of clay, marl, and chalk ; different beds of stone, motion of which is quickened in its fall, and sometimes succeeding each other, as slate, marble, (often full of produces a sinking or inclination of the mountain. The sea shells,) plaster stone; and ochre, bitumen, mineral, wrecks to be found at the foot of most peaks, shew how salt and alum. much they have suffered from the hand of time. IV. The strata of mountains, which are lower and There the eye meets with enormous rocks, heaped of more recent date, or formed by recent accidents, upon each other in an almost inconceivable state of sometimes appear to rest upon, or to take their rise disorder and decay. On the summit of these moun- from the sides of primitive mountains, which they tains, which are only a series of peaks, frequently de- surround, and of which they form the first steps in tached, the prominent rocks are covered with per the ascent; and they end by being insensibly lost in petual snow and ice, and surrounded by floating the plains. The strata of recent mountains are not clouds, which are dispersed into dew. These primitive always similar as to number and thickness ; som mountains are composed of vast masses of quartz, are only a quarter of an inch thick, others more than destitute of shells, and of all organized marine matter; } ten feet. In some places, thirty or forty beds suc.
ceed each other; in others, only three or four. Ac No volcano has yet been discovered on the continent cording to M. Lehmann, the lowest stratum is always of Africa ; but most of its insular groups are distin'pit coal, resting on a coarse iron gravel or sand. Above guished by such phenomena. These the Professor the pit coal are strata of slate, schistus, &c. &c. the has omitted in his estimate, upper part of the strata is occupied by lime stone and The summits of very high mountains, even in the salt springs.
warmest climates, are constantly covered with frozen It has been frequently remarked that the east side snow, in consequence of the great rarefaction of the of a mountain running from north to south, is compa- air. The line where perpetual frost commences, is ratively low, sloping off into an extensive plain, while not the same in all countries ; being lowest towards the west side is lofty, rugged, and broken. Those the poles, and highest under the equator. At the which stretch from east to west in their length, have poles it is level with the surface of the earth ; from their south side steeper than their north.
thence it rises in a curve to the altitude of 15,744 feet Baron Humboldt has pointed out a striking differ- at the equator. Hence, in some countries, places are ence between the formation of the mountains in the not only habitable, but even pleasant and comfortable eastern and western hemispheres. Mont Blanc and at elevations, where, under other latitudes, neither others of the highest Alps, rear their peaks of granite animal nor vegetable life could exist, by reason of above the clouds : but in America, “the newest the intensity of the unremitting frost. The lowest fletztrap, or whinstone, which in Europe, appears line of perpetual snow, under the equator, is, as alonly in low mountains, or at the foot of those of great ready stated, 15,744 feet above the level of the sea. magnitude, covers the mightiest heights of the Andes. In latitude 490 N. it is lowered to 15,040 feet; in Chimboraço and Antisana are crowned by vast walls latitude 43° to 46° it descends to 8,640 feet, or 908 of porphyry, rising to the height of 6000 or 7000 feet below the level of the city of Quito, at the equafeet; while basalt, which, in our continent, has never tor, and no less than 4808 feet, (upwards of three been observed higher than 4000 feet, is, on the pin quarters of a mile) lower than the inhabited farm of nacle of Pichincha, seen rearing aloft its crested steeps, Antisana, in the same quarter. The city of Mexico, like towers amidst the sky, Other secondary forma- at an elevation of 7472 feet, is in a hot climate, which tions, as limestone, with its accompaniment of petrified ripens all the tropical fruits, as pine-apples, oranges, shells and coal, are also und at greater heights in &c.; yet in Sweden, the line of perpetual snow dethe New than in the Old World, though the dispro- scends to 5184 feet, and in Norway, to 4480 feet: the portion is not so remarkable."
medium of the two being half a mile below the temOf all the phenomena to which mountainous regions perature of the more elevated Mexican territory. are subject, those of volcanoes are the most awful The limits of perpetual snow in different latitudes, and sublime. They are not common to all mountains, laid down by M. Humboldt, are as follow : but restricted to certain regions, where the convul Under the equator, and thence to 3° N. &$ 15,500 sions they occasion occur at irregular intervals ; as At 200 of latitude
12,194 longer or shorter periods are required for preparing
11,500 those immense masses of ignited materials and rivers
8,136 of liquid fire, which commonly attend their fearful
8,033 eruptions. When the phenomena occur beneath the On the Pyrenees
7,853 sea, the substances thrown up sometimes rise above Above 750 of N. latitude at the level of the sea. the surface of the waters, and form rocks and islands ; as in the case of the Azores, Stromboli, and the San
General View of the Mountains. torin islands. The situation of these terrific yet sub- The annexed plate exhibits a comparative view of lime features of nature is strikingly contrasted in the some of the principal mountains, of which the heights two hemispheres. In the Old World, they are chiefly have been ascertained. The summits are numbered found in islands and peninsular extremities; in the for convenience of reference; and the heights are New, they are spread through the very heart of the shown by a scale on the left hand, in thousands of continent. Some exceptions must however be made to feet. In this scale, the line below 1 denotes the level this general rule. The principal chains of Europe, of the sea ; the line above the figure represents a perAsia, and Africa, also are destitute of volcanoes; but pendicular elevation of 1000 feet. The next line, in America, many of the most stupendous ranges pre- above 2, indicates 2000 feet; and so of the rest, to sent an almost uninterrupted blaze. Nor are the the head of the print, when 27,000 feet, or rather substances thrown out by both series of volcanoes al- more than five miles and a quarter, terminates the ways alike: besides the common lava and stones of scale. By applying a ruler, or a slip of paper, with the European and Asiatic volcanoes, those of America an even edge, across the print, parallel to the top or throw up scorified clay, carbon, sulphur, and water, bottom, the height of any given mountain may be accompanied, in some instances, by numbers of boiled ascertained, by noting where the ruler or slip cuts the fishes.
scale. Or to find a point mentioned in the description, The number of volcanoes at present known, accord- lay the ruler on the scale at the number indicative ing to Professor Jameson, is 195, distributed as follows: of the given thousand of feet, and it will pass over European continent
or near the figure of reference on the mountain. Some islands 12 American continent 97 places, also, having remarkable elevations, are marked Asiatic continent
islands 191 a, b, &c., and may be discovered in the same way.
MOUNTAINS OF ASIA.
The Asiatic mountains, most of which run in im- , and branching on the south-east, under different mense chains, may be considered in the following names, till it joins the Altaic range. order :
2. The Altai chain, divided into Great and Little. 1. The Poyas or Ural chain, which partly separates The Great Altai ranges across Mongolia, and includes Great Tartary from Europe, extending from the source mounts Arak, Mousart, and Bogdo; the Little Altai, of the river Kara to the northern shore of the Aral lake to the north of the Great chain includes Uluk, Tag,
Bereka, and Savamen mountains, and separates In-, points, estimated at 9520 feet in height, are between dependant Tartary and Siberia.from Minjolia. thirty and forty miles from the shore, and frequently
3. The Stanovoi mountains, which stretch along covered with snow. Anti-Libanus is a detached chain, the north-east extremity of Asia, from lake Baikal. of inferior altitude, east of the former.
4. The range of Caucasus, of remote fame, ex.. 6. The Himmaleh, or Himalaya Mountains, (the tends between the Caspian and Black seas : height of abode of snow) considered as the most stupendous on the principal summit, mount Elboors, near the source the globe, separate Hindoostan from Tibet. Among of the Kuban, 16,800 feet. From these mountains, the peaks, that of Kantel, in the province of Lahore, branches diverge to the south, and connect them with is reckoned the highest in the world; but its altitude the chain of Mount Taurus, which runs from east to has not been measured : others have been estimated west nearly through the whole of Asia Minor. At at from 25,000 to 27,000 feet above the level of the the eastern extremity of the Tauridian chain, another sea. The western part of this chain, which runs range extends under various denominations, into through the north of Caubul, is called Hindoo Koosh. Persia, and thence nearly parallel to the northern 7. The Ghauts, which run through the Deccan, and shores of the Persian gulf.
terminate at Cape Cormorin. 4. Mount Ararat, celebrated as the resting place of 8. Horeb and Sinai, two summits of the Djebel-Moosa, Noah's Ark after the Deluge, rises on the Persian a mountainous ridge in Arabia Petrea. It was on Mount frontier, and presents two insulated summits, the Sinai that the Almighty made a display of His glory highest of which is about 9600 feet in height, and and majesty, in giving laws to His chosen people, Israel. covered with perpetual snow; the lower parts are 9. The ridge El Aredh, which runs through Arabia. composed of a deep moving sand. One side presents 10. Adam's Peak, in the island of Ceylon, estimated a vast chasm, tinged with smoke, from which flames at 7000 feet in height. have been known to issue.
11. Mount Ophir, in the island of Sumatra, situated -5. The Mountains of Libanus, or Lebanon, the most nearly under the equator, is stated to be 13,842 feet noted chain in Syria, run nearly parallel with the in height; and a volcano to the south of it, is comeastern coast of the Mediterranean. The highest puted to rise 12,465 feet above the level of the sea.
References to the Plate.
Country, &c. Height in Eng. feet.
Jewahir, nor. of Delhi. 25,749 3 Jamatura, or Jumoutri, on the Sutledga Ditto.
25,500 Black Peak
Gurwal & Badunath.
Isle of Banca, Chinese Sea.
6,481 16 Ida, celebrated for the judgment of Paris Ditto.
Isle of Sumatra. Indian Ocean.
Altaian Chain. Tartary.
14,735 22 Sea View Hii
Hastings River. New South Wales.
1,900 24 Cunningham Mountains
500 25 Awatscha, Volcano
Kamptschatka. Asiatic Russia.
MOUNTAINS OF AMERICA, Next to those of Asia, the mountains of America, descent. Perpetual snow invests the upper parts claim attention from their stupendous elevation and of the chain, forming a barrier to the animal and imposing features. Those which form the chain of vegetable kingdoms. This range is rich in mineral treathe Andes, were long supposed to be the highest in sures, excepting only lead. This enormous chain runs the world; but recent observations have transferred from north to south through the greater part of the this claim to the Himalayan chain, in the eastern American continent, at a distance from the shores of hemisphere. The Cordillera de los Andes has, however, the Pacific Ocean, varying from 100 to 200 miles. characteristics of a peculiar kind, calculated to strike Most of the other mountains are but branches of the beholder with admiration and terror. Vast cata- this range. Its height is not uniform: in some places racts by which the water is precipitated down a per- it rises to upwards of 20,000 feet; in others it sinks to pendicular depth of 600 feet, into dark and frightful less than 1000. Its breadth is about sixty mlles under gulfs; tremendous volcanoes, in constant activity; the equator ; about 150 in Mexico, and the same in some ejecting lava, others discharging vast quantities Peru. In Chili, the breadth is about 120 miles, and of boiling water, clay, and sulphur; and immense the summits rise to a tremendous height. To the chasms, between 4000 and 5000 feet in perpendicular north of the isthmus of Panama, it gradually sinks till