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account of the gradual weakening vegetative powers, EARLY TRAINING OF CHILDREN. the natural effect of age.

Few persons are aware or consider, how very early in Following this clue, the Oak of Allonville, giving life the tempers of children begin to be formed, and in the middle portion of its trunk a diameter of more consequently how soon that important part of the than eight feet, must, according to this computation, business of education, which consists in the training be above eight hundred years of age ; even supposing, the mind to habits of discipline and submission, may (which is by no means allowable,) that it has always be commenced. continued increasing a foot in a century. Certainly,

“I wish," said a lady, some years since, to the this tree, the summit of which was majestically reared writer of a work on education, “I wish very much to toward the clouds of old, and which has been shortened consult you about the education of my little girl, who and contracted on every side, cannot for ages have is now just three years old.”—“Madam,” replied the grown in such proportion. One cannot but think, that author, “ you are at least two years too late in apply. its increase has been scarcely perceived for the hun

ing to me on that subject." dred and twenty-five years since it has been converted

The first principle of education to instil into the into a chapel, by the happy thought of M. l'Abbé du mind of a child, is that of unhesitating obedience. The Détroit. One must not then give to the tree of Allon time for doing this

, is the moment at which it can be ville less than 800 or 900 summers. Perhaps, in its perceived that the child distinctly apprehends the youth, it lent its shade to the companions of William nature of any command, no matter what, that is laid the Conqueror, when they assembled to invade the

upon it. To ascertain this requires a little careful British shore. Perhaps the Norman troubadour, on watching; but when it is ascertained, there should be the return from the first crusade, there often sang

no hesitation as to the course to be pursued. As soon to his admiring fellow countrymen the exploits of as the infant clearly understands that the word Godfrey and of Raymond. In England, there are many oaks larger and loftier it desires to do, obedience to that command ought at

“No!" signifies that it is not to do something which than this of Allonville, but none that are more inter- all hazards, and under whatever inconvenience, to be esting. In general there remain but very imperfect enforced. In doing this, one or two collisions will accounts as to the progress of growth and possible du- generally occur between parent and child before the ration of trees. It is certain, that they are greater than end of the first twelve or fourteen months, in which is commonly supposed. The axe prevents almost

the patience and perseverance of the parent will be always their natural death : and the situation alone of the Oak of Allonville, near the church, and in the fixed in the child's mind, for the rest of its life.

put to the test; these past, the habit of obedience is

Seeburial ground, has probably rescued it from the common fate. In the present day especially, the slightest down into submission as a matter of course.

ing that nothing is to be gained by resistance, it sinks whim of the owner fells an ancient tree, reverenced

While the foundation of parental authority is thus by his forefathers during many centuries ; an instant laid, how many other great lessons is the mind of the destroys that which pitiless time had spared for child imbibing! Every time that it refrains from ages; that which so long a lapse of time can alone doing some forbidden thing which it desires, it is praereplace. It is not so in the east. In those countries where tising self-control, and self-denial, and is advancing

a step towards the mastery of its passions. shade is at the same time more wanted and less fre.

Some people talk about the management of chilquent, a large tree becomes to the inhabitants, espe- dren as if it were a science, and read all the books cially if it grows near their dwellings, a precious they can find to instruct them in it. Nothing is, object; and is equally respected with the far less ad- however, in reality, more simple. Kindness, patience

, mirable works of art with which the ancients covered undeviating firmness of purpose, and a strict regard those classic lands. Even among the Turks, says a

to principle in all our dealings with them, (means traveller, “it is an enormous crime to cut down old which are within the reach of all) will, under God's trees, and all the neighbourhood would be ready to blessing, accomplish all that can be done by early make any sacrifice to preserve the hospitable shade. education towards regulating the heart and underI have often seen shops built beneath a great plane

standing. And thus they will be prepared to receive tree, which appeared to come out at the roof, and to the seeds of those higher moral and religious princicover them with leaves ; and the walls were traversed ples, by which, as heirs of immortality, they are to by the branches which the owner feared to lop. Old be educated for a better and an endless life. trees are generally surrounded by a fence or bank,

The entire submission which we are entitled to rewhich serves to cover and defend them, and this in quire at the hands of our children, is a type of that the common fields where they do not belong to any obedience which we, on our part, owe to the Great one in particular.”

Father of the universe. In terms sufficiently plain How far are we from such a conservative spirit !!!

He has made known to us his will. Does it become Happily the situation of the oak of Allonville, its con

us to ask Him why his will is such as we find it to secration, and the reverence of the villagers, appear to

be? why he has not done this thing or that thing ensure its peaceable existence, until it naturally yields differently from the manner in which it is done ?to the destiny which is common to all things that Just as reasonable is it in us to do this as it would be live.

in our infant children to refuse obedience to our comlonging to religion was condemned, the revolutionists, mands, until their understandings

should be suffi

ciently matured to enable them to comprehend the having come to Allonville to burn the oak, were vigo

reasons for which they were given. rously opposed by the country people, and the sanctuary was preserved.

I never loved those salamanders, that are never well but As a monument at once of nature, of art, and of when they are in the fire of contention. I will rather suffer piety, the chapel-oak merits on all hands from natu- a thousand wrongs than offer one: I will suffer an hundreu,

rather than return one: I will suffer many, ere I will comralists that kind of pilgrimage which I have lately made, and which has given rise to this short memoir.

plain of one, and endeavour to right it by contending. I have

ever found, that to strive with my superiour is furious; with [Translated and abridged from the original memoir by Professor my equal, doubtful; with my inferiour, sordid and base; MARQUIS, of the Botanic Garden, Rouen.)

with any, full of unquietness. — Bishop Hall,


their own, on which they might employ their labour. DIES IRÆ.

It is a general law which God has established throughO DAY of wrath! that dreadful day,

out the world, that riches and respect should attend When earth in dust shall pass away!

prudence and diligence; and as all men are not equal What dread shall strike the sinner dumb, in the faculties of either body or mind, by which When the Almighty Judge shall come,

riches or respect are acquired, a necessity of supeEvery hidden sin to sum!

riority and subordination springs from the very nature When the wondrous trumpets' tone,

which God has given us. Bishop WATSON.
Ringing through each cavern lone,
Calls the dead before the Throne
When cruel Death himself shall die,

Most sure it is, and a true conclusion of experience, that a
And, freed from dark mortality,

little natural philosophy inclineth the mind to atheism ; but The creature to his Judge reply:

a further proceeding bringeth the mind back religion.

What shall tien that creature say?
What power shall be the sinner's stay,
When the just are in dismay?

It should be remembered, that the formation of virtuous
Lord of all power and majestý,

habits, and the acquirement of a virtuous temper of mind, is Pure fountain of all piety,

the work of God's holy spirit, blessing our endeavours, anSave us when we cry to thee!

swering our prayers, and gradually changing us into the like.

ness of our Maker.
O thou whose vengeance waits on sin,
Cleanse our souls from guilt within,
Ere the day of wrath begin!

PRAYER is the peace of our spirit, the stillness of our thoughts,
With suppliant heart and bended knee,

the evenness of recollection, the seat of meditation, the rest

of our cares, and the calm of our tempest: prayer is the issue Low stooping in the dust to Thee, Lord! save us in extremity!

of a quiet mind, of untroubled thoughts; it is the daughter “ That day of wrath, that dreadful day,

of charity, and the sister of meekness.-JEREMY Taylor. When man to judgment wakes froth clay-

Religion deters not from the lawful delights which are taken
Be thou the trembling sinner's stay,
When heaven and earth shall pass away!"

in natural things, but teaches the moderate and regular use

of them, which is far the sweeter; for things lawsul in themR. P.

selves, are in their excess sinful, and so prove bitterness in

the end. And if in some cases it requires the forsaking of ON EQUALITY.

lawful enjoyment, as of pleasure, or profit, or honour, for God,

and for his glory, it is generous and more truly delightful to As to Equality, if by it be meant an Equality of pro- deny things for this reason, than to enjoy them. Men have perty or condition, there is no such thing; nor was done much this way for the love of their country, and by a there ever such a thing in any country since the world principle of moral virtue: but to lose any delight, or to suffer began. The Scripture speaks of Pharaoh and his any hardship, for that highest end, the glory of God, and by Princes in the time of Abraham, when he was forced the strength of love to him, is far more excellent and truly by a famine to go down to Egypt, about 430 years banishes ; but it is to change them for joy thát is unspeakably

pleasant. The delights and pleasures of sin, religion indeed after the flood. Abraham himself had, at that period, beyond them. It calls men from sordid and base delights, men servants, and maid servants, and was very rich to those that are pure delights indeed. It calls to men,-in cattle, in silver and in gold. He and Lot had “ Drink ye no longer of the cistern; here are the crystal herdsmen and servants of various kinds; and they streams of a living fountain. There is a delight in the very every where met with kings who had subjects and despising of sinful delights, as that, in comparison with them, soldiers. The inequality of property and condition, shall end in eternal joy; it is a wonder we hasten not to

the other deserves not the name, to have such spiritual joy as which some silly or bad people are so fond of de- choose this joy: but it is indeed because we believe not.”claiming against, existed in the very infancy of the LEIGHTON. world, and must, from the nature of things, exist to the end of it.

EDUCATION IN SCOTLAND, Suppose a ship to be wrecked on an uninhabited It is not scholarship alone, but scholarship impregisland, and that all the officers perished, but that the nated with religion, that tells on the great mass of common men and their wives were saved; there, if society. We have no faith in the efficacy of mechanic any where, we may meet with liberty, equality, and institutes, or even of primary and elementary schools, the rights of man—what think you would be the con- for building up a virtuous and well conditioned peasequence ?-A state of Equality, and with it, of anar- santry, so long as they stand dissevered from the chy might, perhaps, subsist for a day; but wisdom, lessons of christian piety. There is a charm ascribed courage, industry, economy, would presently intro- to the scholastic system of Scotland ; and the sanduce a superiority of some over others; and in order guine imagination is, that by importing its machinery that each man might preserve for himself the cabin into England and Ireland, it will work the same he had built, the ground he had tilled, or the fish he marvellous transformation there, on the character of had taken, all would agree in the propriety of appoint- their people, that was experienced amongst ourselves. ing some one amongst the number, or more than one, But it is forgotten, that a warm and earnest Christito direct, govern, and protect the whole, by the com- anity, was the animating spirit of all our peculiar inmon strength. Thus the restriction of liberty and the stitutions, for generations after they were framed ; destruction of Equality, and all the circumstances and that wanting this, they can no more perform the which shallow reasoners represent as grievances in function of moralizing the people, than skeletons can society, and subversive of the rights of man, would perform the functions, or put forth the faculties of of necessity be introduced. No one would be left at living men. The scholastic is incorporated with the liberty to invade his neighbour's property; some would ecclesiastical system of Scotland; and that, not for by skill and activity become rich, and they would be the purposes of intolerance and exclusion, but for the allowed to bequeath, at their death, their wealth to purpose of sanctifying education, and plying the boytheir children; others would by idleness and de- hood of our land with the lessons of the Bible. The bauchery remain poor, and having nothing to leave scholarship of mere letters, might, to a certain extent, to their children, these, when grown up, would be have diffused intelligence amongst the people; but it under the necessity of maintaining themselves by is mainly to the presence of the religious ingredients, working for their neighbours, till, by prudence and that the moral greatness of our peasantry is owing. thrift, they acquired enough to purchase property of | -CHALMERS.

A YOUTHFUL understanding, a vigorous body, and senses in their perfection, are worth offering to that gracious God who is the author of them all; and if they are dedicated to his service, they will be blessed and accepted. But let no man flatter himself that God will be served by him who hath lost his capacity, and can serve nothing else: that he will accept of faculties worn out in the drudgery of sin and vanity, or that he will think himself honoured when the dregs of life are poured out upon his altar. Happy are they, who under the decay of nature and the approaches of death, can look back upon the piety of their youth, and remember the employment of those years which were spent in the remembrance of their Creator! To such the infirmities of age will bring no bitterness, and death itself will have no terrors ! for they who have remembered God in their best days, shall be remenbered by him in their worst; and be approved and accepted by him in that great day, when“ he shall bring every work into judgment.”—Jones of Nayland.

Yes ! 'twas a fearful deed; the sun's dark flood,
That rose in tear-drops, poured his setting beam,
Red with solstitial splendour, blood for blood,
As weeping Heaven had blushed to view the stream
That stained earth’s bosom ;-yet e'en thou, proud theme,
Thou Waterloo, to younger names shall yield;

Soon shall thy fame a distant meteor seem,
Known but as Agincourt or Cressy's field,
While future heralds deck some newer, baser shield.

Vain, feverish man! that think'st thy insect toil
Can snatch e'en Waterloo from time's decay !
E'en while we gaze, death strips this mortal coil,
Our life an hour, our memory but a day;
And then, when every glory melts away
An icy palace, vain yon granite pile

To tell to distant age the wild affray
That stampt its name; ah, distant age shall smile
To think man's feeble art oblivion would beguile!

No; Waterloo shall be but as a dream,
To fill-some book-worn brain, where learned lofer
Deep treasured, sheds a momentary gleam
On deeds forgotten ; pointing where, of yore,
Europe, coleagued, uinumbered trophies bore
From Belgic plains; and where a tyrant's band

Drank the dark cup the world had drunk before ;
Their blood-stained lord expelled to distant land,
To pine life's lingering day, on Helen's desert strand.

Yet then, when faithless to man's dearest pride,
The chissel'd granite yields its age-worn trust;
And yon proud arch, that spurns the crouching tidé,
Shall sink, at length, a monument of dust;
( Tlien blest shall be the memory of the just;
· Whose lowly deed, in Heaven's fair page enrolled,

Shall bright survive the warrior's trophied bust,
And fresh withi wreaths that ne'er may waxen old,
Shall teach how vain the wise, how impotent the bold !

Oli then be mine the fame that cannot die !
The wisdom mine that tells of worlds unknown !
Be mine the Faith that lifts her tranquil eye
To heaven's bright orbs, and calls them all her own!
And when the breath that wafts my parting groan
Shall Jose its burden in the passing gale,
And nought shall live but one frail funeral stone,
Whence soon must lapse the plaintive moss-worn tale,
Then stretched be Faith's bold wing, and swelld Hope's

joyful sail !
And heaven be mine, and heaven's eternal year;
And glories bright, and extasies divine;
And mine the Almighty Father's voice to hear
“ Servant, well done! thy Saviour's joys be thine;
I would not ’scutchoned pall, or gorgeous shrine;
The plausive tablet, or the chantry's pride,

The sculptor's emblem, or the minstrel's line ;-
Be mine the merits of the Crucified;
Of Him who for me lived, of Him who for me died.

S. C. W.







read in Families. *** Several of these works form parts of Series, which will be

continued from time to time.


The Governor may be deceived : or he may do wrong without being deceived: he beareth the sword, and may strike with it improperly. But if, to remedy an occasional inconvenience of this sort, you dissolve government, what will be the consequence? More mischief will be done by the people, thus let loose, in a month, than would be done by the governor in half a century.—Bishop Horne. It is not the pleasure of curiosity, nor the


quiet of resolution,
nor the raising of the spirit, nor victory of wit, nor faculty of
speech, nor lucre of profession, nor ambition of honour or
fame, or inablement for business, that are the true ends of
knowledge.--Lord Bacon.
How many instances there are, in which persons manifestly
go through more pain and self-denial to gratify a vicious pas-
sion, than would have been necessary to the conquest of it.
To this it is to be added, that when virtue is become habitual,
when the temper of it is acquired, what was before contine-
ment, ceases to be so, by becoming choice and delight.-
Bishop Butler.

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The Hall of the Lons. THE ALHAMBRA is an ancient fortress, or castellated of the walls is mosaic, disposed in fantastic knots and palace of the Moorish kings of Granada, where they festoons. The porches resemble grotto-work; and once held dominion in the romantic land of Spain, one of them forms a whispering gallery. and made their last stand for empire in that part of Opposite to the door by which you enter is another, the country. The palace occupies but a portion of leading into the Hall of the Lions; an oblong court, the fortress, the walls of which, studded with towers, one hundred feet long, and fifty broad, encompassed stretch irregularly round the whole crest of a lofty by a colonnade, paved with white marble. The walls hill that overlooks the city, and forms a spur of the are covered, to the height of five feet, with blue and Sierra Nevada, or Snowy Mountain.

yellow tiles, and above and below is a border of small In the time of the Moors, the fortress was capable escutcheons, enamelled blue and gold, with Arabic of containing an army of 40,000 men within its pre-mottoes signifying, “ No conqueror but God." The cincts, and served occasionally as a stronghold of the columns that support the roof and gallery, are of sovereigns against their rebellious subjects. The court white marble, very slender, fantastically adorned, and by which you are first admitted into this splendid irregularly disposed. The capitals, also, are of various castle, called the Common Baths, is an oblong square, designs. Amidst the varieties of foliage, grotesques, with a deep basin of clear water in the middle, into and strange ornaments, there does not occur the which is a descent by marble steps, and on each side slightest representation of animal life. In Moorish a row of orange trees. A marble pavement runs times the buildings were covered with large painted down the court, and the arches surrounding the court and glazed tiles, some of which still remain, are supported by pillars, in a style different from all In the centre of the court are twelve lions, bearing the regular orders of architecture; and the ceiling and upon their backs an enormous basin, out of which walls are incrusted with fret-work. In every division rises another of smaller size. A volume of water is are written Arabic sentences, denoting “there is no thrown up, falls into the basin, and, passing through our sovereign." The ceilings are gilt or painted, and reservoir, communicating by channels with the founthe colours still retain their freshness; the lower part tains in the apartments. This fountain is of white VOL. I.


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marble, adorned with festoons, and Arabic sentences, | taste, and a disposition to indolent enjoyment. When signifying :—“Seest thou not the water flows copiously one looks upon the fair tracery of the peristyles, and like the Nile?" “ This resembles a sea washing over its the apparently fragile fretwork of the walls, it is diffishores, threatening shipwreck to the mariner.” “This cult to believe that so much has survived the wear water runs abundantly to give drink to the lions." and tear of centuries, the shocks of earthquakes, the Terrible as the lion is working in the day of battle." violence of war, and the quiet, though not less bane“The Nile gives glory to the king, and the lofty ful, pilferings of the tasteful traveller mountains proclaim it." “This garden is fertile in “ There is a Moorish tradition, that the king who delight; God takes care that no noxious animal shall built this mighty pile was skilled in the occult sciences, approach it.” “The fair princess that walks in this and furnished himself with gold and silver for the garden, covered with pearls, ornaments its beauty so purpose by means of alchymy. Certainly never was much, that thou mayest doubt whether it be a foun- there an edifice accomplished in a superior style of tain that flows, or the tears of her admirers !" barbaric magnificence; and the stranger who, even

Beyond the colonnade is a circular room, with a at the present day, wanders among its silent and defountain, used by the men as a place for drinking serted courts and ruined halls, gazes with astonishcoffee, &c. The form of this hall, the elegance of its ment at its gilded and fretted domes and luxurious cupola, the cheerful distribution of light from above, decorations, still retaining their brilliancy and beauty, and the manner in which its beautiful ornaments are in spite of the ravages of time.” designed, painted, and finished, exceed all powers of description. In this delightful scene, it is said, Aboubdoulah assembled the Abençerages, and caused their When the Sidonians were once going to choose a king, they heads to be struck off into the fountain.

determined that their election should fall upon the man who Opposite to this hall, called the Hall of the Aben- should first see the sun on the following morning. All the

candidates, towards the hour of sun-rise, eagerly looked toçerages, is the Tower of the Two Sisters, so called wards the East, but one, who, to the astonishment of his from two very beautiful pieces of marble, laid as flags countrymen, fixed his eyes pertinaciously on the opposite in the pavement; measuring fifteen feet by seven and side of the horizon, where he saw the reflection of the sun's a half, and without flaw or stain. The gate exceeds rays before the orb itself was seen by those looking towards all the rest in profusion of ornaments, and in beauty the east. The choice instantly fell upon him who had seen of prospect, which it affords through a range of apart-Huence of religion on the heart is frequently perceptible in

the reflection of the sun; and by the same reasoning, the inments, where a multitude of arches terminate in a

the conduct, even before a person has made direct profession large window, open into the country. In a gleam of of the principle by which he is actuated.“ By their fruits sunshine, the variety of tints and lights thrown upon ye shall know them.” this range is uncommonly rich. The outward walls of the towers are raised above the dome, and support The superiority of sex was never more rigidly enforced than another roof, so that no injury can be occasioned by among the barbarians of the Chain Islands; nor were the wet weather, or excessive heat and cold.

male part of the human species ever more despicable.From this hall you pass round a little myrtle gar- civilization.

BEECHEY's Voyage. Reverence for woman is the test of den into an additional building, constructed by the Emperor Charles V, which leads to a small tower, called the Sultana's Dressing Room ; in this is a large

CHINESE PRECEPTS. marble flag, penetrated with holes, through which the Respecting the Mind.-Let not corrupt thoughts arise. Be smoke of perfumes ascended from furnaces below, not over anxious and grieved. Envy not those who have, nor

There are many other magnificent apartments, as despise those who have not. Complain not of heaven, and the Ambassador's Hall, the Hall of Council, the Hall blame not men. Think not of old evils, speculate not on disof Audience, &c. the whole of which are most beauti

tant things. fully and elaborately decorated, and in various places greatly intoxicated. Stand not in dangerous places. Do not

The Body.Love not beauty without bounds. Be not are written Arabic sentences, from the Koran.

give way to anger. Do not associate with worthless charac1 On the lower floor were the bed-chambers and sum

Do not enrage men who love to strike. mer rooms; fountains ; the royal and other baths, Happiness. Do not abuse the good things of Providence. with vaults for perfumes, and stoves and boilers for Do not love extravagance. Be not over-anxious about being producing vapour ; a whispering gallery ; a labyrinth, completely provided for. Think not of things which are the king's study, and the burial vaults of the royal above your station. Do not deteriorate the grain. Do not

destroy life. family.

Things in general.-Do not neglect the relations and duties In the retrospective view of this sumptuous palace, of life. Do not practice corrupt things. Do not oppose the we need not wonder that the Moors thought of Gra- commands of your parents or teachers. Do not speak much. nada with regret; and that they should still offer up Provoke not a guest to anger. Between two parties do not prayers for the recovery of it, which they regard as a speak swords here and flatteries there. Do not stir up trou. terrestrial paradise.

bles. Do not cut and carve the poor. Do not deceive and Washington Irving, who visited this romantic place appress the orphan and widow. Do not wrongfully accuse

Do not learn unprofitable things. a few years ago, says

“there is no part of the edifice Wealth.Be not ashamed of bad food and coarse clothing. that gives us a more complete idea of its original | Do not buy useless things. Be not over fond of feasts. Do beauty and magnificence, than the Hall of the Lions, not learn to imitate the rich and great. for none has suffered so little from the ravages of

Words.-Do not talk of men's domestic affairs. Do not time. In the centre stands the fountain famous in

tell secrets. Do not conceal the errors of worthless men, Do song and story. The alabaster basins still shed their affair. Do not bring up other men's concerns, (in conversa

not injure a person's parents. Do not put a stop to any good diamond drops; and the twelve lions, which support tion). Do not laugh at men's appearance. Do not blame a them, cast forth their crystal streams as in the days man for the faults of his relatives. Be not fond of ridiculing of Boabdil. The court is laid out in flower-beds, and any one. Do not make up stories to injure men. Be not surrounded by light Arabian arcades of open fillagree proud of your wealth. Do not complain of your poverty. Do

not speak with a fierce aspect. Do not despise men's poverty. work, supported by slender pillars of white marble. The architecture, like that of all the other parts help and abet others to do iniquity. Do not recite corrupt

Do not interrupt men in conversation Do not lie. Do not of the palace, is characterised by elegance rather composition. Do not speak of garnbling or licentiousness. than grandeur ; bespeaking a delicate and graceful Do not say anything that has a beginning but no end.


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