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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTÍAN KNOWLEDGE.

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The above woodcut is copied, by Mr. Martin's , seems to be the same who is called Labynetus by Hero-
kind permission, from his well-known picture of Bel-dotus, and that Darius the Mede, mentioned in v.31,
shazzar's Feast. All the works of this artist are dis- is very probably Cyaxares, the son of Astyages, the
tinguished by a very peculiar quality and disposition of Median, and consequently the uncle of Cyrus. He
the lights, which, though very pleasing and impressive was, it may be conjectured, left in the government of
in oil painting and in steel engraving, cannot be repre- Babylon þy Cyrus, and his age, sixty-two, favours
sented with adequate softness on wood. In Mr. Mar- the supposition of his relationship as uncle to the un-
tin's magnificent mezzotint print, there is a beaming doubted destroyer of the Chaldean monarchy. The
lustre, which diminishes in its intensity till it is at best date of the capture of this mighty city is about
last shadowed off into the deepest obscurity, which, 538 years before Christ.
in wood engraving is unavoidably, though very The measure of the appointed time was
imperfectly, represented by white. We have said nearly full, when it pleased God to put an end
these few words in justice to Mr. Martin; the to the government of the Chaldean princes, to sub-
uncommon beauty of the rest of this cut needs stitute for it the Medes and Persians, and thereby
not to be pointed out in ail. Yet we cannot help to effect the restoration of a certain part of the cap-
calling the particular attention of our readers to tive Israelites, to the land of their fathers, and to
the figures of the wise men or soothsayers in the im- a free use of all their religious rites.
mediate foreground, and to the enormous towers of Belshazzar had been defeated in the field, and shut up
the temple of Belus in the distance, rising sublimely in the city, the strength and resources of which were so
into a troubled sky, and rendered visible only by great, that they treated the seemingly fruitless efforts of
lightning and a waning moon.

the besiegers under Cyrus with contempt. The siege or The subject of this picture is to be found in the blockade, probably a very imperfect one, continued in fifth chapter of the book of Daniel. There has been this way for a long time, and the insolence and remuch dispute, and there is unquestionably no small gardlessness of Belshazzar increased in proportion. difficulty, in endeavouring to reconcile the names and But his hour was come, and it came upon him at the dates of the account given in this book with the Greek moment of his last act of profaneness and defiance of histories. This is not a fit place for entering into any God. The presence of a hostile army before his walls, such discussion. It is enough to say that Belshazzar, made no good impression on his mind; he still the last prince of the Babylonish or Chaldean empire, went on in his usual course of wanton luxury, Vol. I.

14

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and th rught more of inflicting an insult on the people of silver, and gold, of brass, iron, wood, and stone, whom his grandfather Nebuchadnezzar had brought which see not, nor hear, nor know; and the God in into bondage in Babylonia, than of humbling himself whose hand thy breath is, and whose are all thy ways, before the Lord, or of performing the ordinary duties hast thou not glorified. Then was the part of the of a king and leader under such serious circum- hand sent from him; and this writing was written. stances.

And this is the writing that was written,-MENE, "Belshazzar, the king,” as it is written in the MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN. This is the interpretation book of Daniel, “made a great feast, to a thou- of the thing : MENE-God hath numbered thy kingsand of his lords, and drank wine before the thou- | dom, and finished it. TEKEL—thou art weighed in sand.” The reader must observe that this was a the balances, and art found wanting. PERES—thy sacrificial feast, and in fact a great solemnity, in kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Per. honour of the Babylonish god, Bel or Belus, whose sians. symbol was a huge serpent. Belshazzar, whilst he These ominous words are (as indeed is the whole tasted the wine, commanded to bring the golden and text from the fourth verse of the second chapter, to silver vessels which his father, (grandfather) Nebu- the end of the seventh chapter) Chaldee, and it does chadnezzar had taken out of the temple which was in not very clearly appear whether the circumstances of Jerusalem ; that the king, and his princes, his wives, their appearance were such, that the Chaldeans could and his concubines, might drink in them. Then they not even read them; or whether, which is sufficient, and brought the golden vessels that were taken out of the seems more probable, it is only meant that they could temple of the house of God which was in Jerusalem; give no connected interpretation of them. Mene sig. and the king, and his princes, his wives, and his concu- nifies to reckon, or take an account; and the word is bines, drank in them. They drank wine, and praised the repeated, according to an Eastern idiom, for the purgods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and pose of marking the certainty and solemnity of the of stone."

fact. Tekel; means to weigh; and Upharsin, literally, God is no more a respecter of things than of per- they divide it. It is observable that in the twentysons. Incense in an earthen vessel, offered with a eighth verse Daniel interprets Upharsin as Peres; the devout spirit, would have been as acceptable as from fact is, they are the same word, and Peres is perhaps the golden censers of Solomon's Temple. The quality used to embrace another subject of the prophetic of the gift is as the heart of the giver. It was not for threatening, -- Peres being the Chaldee name for the the sacred vessels' sake, but to note that the wanton Persians, who are more particularly noted on account profaning of any known instrument or ordinance of of Cyrus, the leader of the besieging forces, and the divine worship, is really impious, that God now thought founder of the great Medish-Persian empire. fit to mark the near approach of his vengeance by a It only remains to remark, that Herodotus, the stupendous miracle. For "in the same hour came Greek historian, who wrote about seventy or eighty forth fingers of a man's hand, and wrote over against years after the date of this capture of Babylon, says the candlestick upon the plaister of the wall of the that Cyrus entered the city by the bed of the river king's palace; and the king saw the part of the hand Euphrates, the course of which he had turned, and that wrote,”

surprised the inhabitants, who were intent on the ceBelshazzar, subdued with terror, and conscience-lebration of a great festival. The book of Daniel simstricken, summons his wise men and astrologers ; ply says : In that night was Belshazzar, the king of they are confounded at the apparition, and cannot the Chaldeans, slain. And Darius, the Median, [prointerpret its meaning; and at length, upon the bably Cyaxares, as before mentioned) took the kingqueen's suggestion, Daniel, called by the Chaldeans dom, being about three-score and two years old. Belteshazzar, is brought into the banquet-hall, and commanded, with promise of great honors and rewards, to declare the words of the mystic writing.

EVENING HYMN. The answer of the prophet of Israel is uncom

Watch of Israel, we shall rest monly grand and impressive :-"Let thy gifts be to

Calmly, if thy voice hath blest ; thyself, and give thy rewards to another; yet I will

If thou sayest “ All is well,” read the writing to the king, and make known to him

Ever wakeful sentinel. the interpretation.

If in sleep our spirits dream, O'thou king, the most high God gave Nebu

Still, oh! still be thou the theme; chadnezzar thy father a kingdom and majesty and

Heavenly let our spirits beglory and honour : and for the majesty that he gave

Even in dreaming, dream of thee. him, all people, nations, and languages, trembled and

But if sleep be far away, feared before him; whom he would he slew ; and

And we watch till dawning day, whom he would he kept alive, and whom he would

Let thy spirit still impart

Calmness to each aching heart. he set up; and whom he would he put down. But when his heart was lifted up, and his mind hardened in pride, he was deposed from his kingly throne, and

THE FOSSIL ELEPHANT OR MAMMOTH. they took his glory from him : And he was driven from the sons of men ; and his heart was made like An incorrect figure of the fossil elephant or mammoth the beasts, and his dwelling was with the wild asses; was by a singular inadvertence admitted into a forthey fed him with grass like oxen, and his body was mer paper on this subject. In order to explain the wet with the dew of heaven; till he knew that the cause of this error, and induced by the interesting most high God ruled in the kingdom of men, and that nature of the subject, we add some particulars not he appointeth over it whomsoever he will.

given in that article. And thou his son, O Belshazzar, hast not humbled The annexed figure, is that which should properly thine heart, though thou knewest all this ; But hast have been given at page 76; it is copied from lifted up thyself against the Lord of Heaven ; and they M. Cuvier's great work on fossil remains, and reprehave brought the vessels of his house before thee, and sents the mammoth found frozen in Siberia, as already thou, and thy lords, thy wives, and thy concubines, have related. Parts of the flesh and skin still remain on it, drunk wine in them; and thou hast praised the gods as on the skull; and the feet still retain part of the

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South

South Aisle

East.

Altar.

CHOIR.

NAVE.

West.

North Aisle

hoof, which conceals the numerous bones, of which, in
the elephant, as in all quadrupeds, the extremities are

FAMILIAR REMARKS ON ARCHITECTURE. composed.

NO. II. In a former number we have given some familiar remarks upon architecture, in order to assist travellers, and casual observers of Cathedrals and Churches, in determining their age and the style in which they are built. We will now lead them from the general description to the detail of these buildings, and describe the several parts and divisions of which each structure consists,

A church or a cathedral admits generally of four great divisions ; namely, a tower, or steeple ; a nave, which is the body of the church; a chancel, or choir ;

and one or more aisles. Many large churches, and Fossil Elephant or Mammoth.

all cathedrals, are built in the form of a cross, of which Ti fossil bones of the elephant have been found in the parts running north and south, are called the every part of the earth which has been searched for North and South Transepts; but small churches, the purposes of such discoveries. Not only

in the old erected in former times, and almost all in the present world, but in America, where no living elephants are day, have only a body and chancel

. In fact, in many now found ; and in proportion as more attention was of the latter, the chancel has almost disappeared, and paid to these remains, the difference between the fossil there is only a recess for the altar instead of it. or extinct, and the existing species, became more and

The nave or body of the church is the part westward more apparent; but still it was obvious that the two of the chancel or choir, and is situated within the belonged to what naturalists call the same genus, and piers supporting the roof or galleries. consequently that no essential part of their respective

The aisles of a church are those divisions, north or forms could so far vary as to indicate any great from them there is an entrance to the pews, which

south, which are between the piers and the outer walls. difference in their habits and food.

In 1801, Mr. W. Peale, an American, was successful have been introduced since the Reformation. The in obtaining parts of the skeleton of an animal which following figure represents the general form in which had been found in the neighbourhood of Newburg on

a cathedral is built. the Hudson; and by copying in wood the deficient bones from other specimens of the same animal, and

Transept by supplying on the one side those bones which were only found belonging to the other, he completed two skeletons, one of which was deposited in the Museum of Philadelphia, and the other was brought over to England by his son, Mr. R. Peale, for public exhibition.

Mr. Peale published an account of this skeleton, and in it stated his reasons for believing that the tusks, cathedral churches, called the choir, because in it were

The eastern space near the altar is, in collegiate and instead of turning upwards, as in the elephant, were formerly chanted or, sung the services of the church, reversed; for this point was doubtful, from the cir. by a choir of singers appointed for the purpose. This cumstance of the cranium or upper part of the skull custom is still preserved in many cathedrals, and in not having been found complete. Accordingly, he had the chapels of colleges. In most churches, however, given the tusks this inverted position in his skeleton this part is called the chancel ; a name given to it from which he exhibited ; and from a print published at the skreen or lattice-work (cancelli) by which it was that time the figure in our former article was, by a

separated from the outer part of the church. This misconception, copied by our artist.* Baron Cuvier, who examined the bones of this also the stalls or seats with desks before them, which

skreen is frequently very beautifully carved, as are newly discovered animal, has, however, shewn that, still remain in the choirs of many ancient churches. by all analogy, it was to be concluded that the tusks had a similar position to those of the mammoth, and than the roof, and in which the bells are hung. Some

The steeple of a church is that part which is higher that the animal had a trunk or proboscis, and princi- times it is headed by a spire, and sometimes consists pally differed from the elephant in the formation of of a simple tower or turret. In either case it forms the teeth ; its height being nearly that of a well-grown a very picturesque object in our scenery, while the elephant, but its body was longer and slenderer in association of ideas which it awakens, opens a pleasing proportion, while the limbs were thicker : it subsisted

source of reflection to every serious mind. on vegetables, which was almost proved by the discovery, in 1805, of a collection of bones in Virginia, tresses, to which the inhabitants of the parish fled in

The towers of churches were formerly used as forbelonging to the same extinct species, in the midst of times of danger and alarm. The church at Rugby, which was a mass of small branches, seeds and leaves, Warwickshire, was evidently erected with a regard to in a half chewed state, among which was recognised this circumstance. It is lofty, and of a square form: a species of reed still common in that country, and the lower windows are at a great distance from the the whole was enveloped in a sort of sack, which was ground, and very narrow. The only entrance to the considered to have been the stomach of the individual. tower is through the church ; and it is fitted up with It has been called the great Mastodon or animal of a fire-place for the accommodation of a party of bethe Ohio.

sieged persons, during the continuand of danger. * There is no reason for believing that Mr. Peale had any in. The spires of churches have frequently been useful terested or improper motive for this alteration of position of the as guides to travellers over barren moors, and as landtusks, as a correspondent suggests to us, in a letter signed Rusti- marks to ships at sea. From this fact, the spire of anatomy, but which might-have been committed at that period by Astley Church, Warwickshire, was called the lantern any man who was not a Cuvier.

of Arden ; and that of Boston, Lincolnshire, has fre

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quently been the beacon by which the pilot has directed vows of fidelity which are the greatest sweeten. the distressed ship into a secure harbour.

ers of earthly woe—the brightest promisers of worldly There are many other parts of a church besides bliss: there, in the crypt which lies below, or in the those above-mentioned, which may be briefly noticed. consecrated ground around us, when the angel of death One of the principal of these is the Crypt, which is a shall have received a command to strike, we deposit vaulted apartment, sometimes found beneath ancient the ashes of those we love ; and there, at last, will rest churches, and frequently as well finished as any other our own, in humble but trusting hope that they shall part of the building. The annexed engraving exhibits one day be recalled to life and light ! a Norman specimen of this part of a church.

All these considerations give a sacred interest to the hallowed pile; and thus associated with some of our best, our least earthly, feelings, the study of church architecture will tend to improve our hearts while it forms our tastes and adds to our knowledge.

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Taste and elegance, though they are reckoned only among the smaller and secondary morals, yet are of no mean importance in the regulation of life. A moral taste is not of force to turn vice into virtue; but it recommends virtue with something like the blandishments of pleasure.—BURKE.

OF JESTING HARMLESS mirth is the best cordial against the consumption of the spirits; wherefore jesting is not unlawful if it trespasseth not in quantity, quality, or

season.

Crypt of a Norman Church.

It is good to make a jest, but not to make a trade of

jesting: -The Earl of Leicester, knowing that Queen The crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral contains the ashes dance well, brought the master of a dancing school to

Elizabeth was much delighted to see a gentleman of our great naval hero, Nelson : and in many of our modern churches crypts are depositories for the dead, fession, I will not see him." She liked not where it

dance before her: “It is," said the Queen, “his prothough they are now more generally called vaults or catacombs.

was a master quality, but where it attended on other Many old churches, and most of those in villages, perfections. The same we say of jesting. have porches ; which are small arches, covering the Know the whole art is learnt at the first admission,

Jest not with the two-edged sword of God's word.approach to the doors. Formerly, parts of the services of baptism and marriage were performed in these and profane jests will come without calling. If withporches; but their chief, and in most cases their only out thy intention and against thy will, by chanceuse now, is to afford a resting-place and retreat from medly thou hittest scripture in ordinary discourse, the weather to the villagers who assemble-in the coun

yet fly to the city of refuge, and pray God to forgive

thee. try churchyard, awaiting the time of divine service. An interesting part of the inside fitting-up of a

Wanton jests make fools laugh, and wise men frown.church is the font, which is the vase or basin at which naked savages in our talk ; such rotten speeches are

Seeing we are civilized Englishmen, let us not be children are baptised. Formerly these fonts were large enough to admit of an infant being completely

worst in withered age. dipped, according to ancient usage, where it was cer

Let not thy jests like mummy be made of dead men's tified that the child might "well endure it."

flesh.—Abuse not any that are departed; for to wrong In improving our knowledge, however, of the exter

their memories is to rob their ghosts of their winding

sheets. nal structure and interior arrangement of cathedrals and churches, we should be careful to remember that

Scoff not at the natural defects of any which are not in such an acquirement is of no importance compared

their power to amend.—Oh 'tis cruel to beat a cripple with the benefit we derive from the spiritual purposes fession, if honest, though poor and painful: mock not

with his own crutches; neither flout any for his profor which these buildings were erected. We must ve

a cobler for his black thumbs. nerate them as places especially dedicated to God; and not deceive ourselves by supposing that the most curious

He that relates another man's wicked jest with delight, acquaintance with the style and detail of the building adopts it as his own.-Purge them therefore from their is any part of devotion. The great and important in- poison. If the profaneness may be severed from the terest connected with sacred edifices of every descrip

wit, it is like a lamprey, take out the sting in the tion, whether the magnificent cathedral or the simple vil. ceit consists in profaneness, then it is a viper, all

back, it may make good meatthe staple conlage church, arises from reflection on the uses to which they are applied. It is there we meet together in poison, and meddle not with it. Christian fellowship, and present the incense of prayer

He that will lose his friend for a jest, deserves to die

a beggar by the bargain.—Yet some think their conceits, fancy, at the font of baptism, we are dedicated to the that all those who were born in England, in the year fancy, at the font of baptism, we are dedicated to the like mustard, not good except they bite. We read service of God : there, at the sacred altar, we after after the beginning of the great mortality, 1349, wanted wards take upon ourselves the promises made for us by others in our baptism, and receive at the hands their four cheek teeth. Such let thy jests be, that they of the Bishop the Apostolic rite of confirmation, may not grind the credit of thy friend, and make not and there partake in those holy mysteries which are jests so long till thou becomest one. --Abridged from

FULLER. the pledges and memorials of our Saviour's dying love to man. There we are taught to seek a better inheritance than this world can afford : there we enter into the Advice, like snow, the softer it falls, the longer it dwells most sacred of social obligations, and pledge those upon, and the deeper it sinks into the mind.-COLERIDGE:

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Man loves to contemplate and to ponder on the wrecks Such is the Oak of Allonville, considered in its state of past ages which have escaped the destructive power of nature. The hand of man, however, has endeaof time. The smallest remains of human art, the least voured to impress upon it a character still more infragments of those fossil stones which are records of the teresting, by adding a religious feeling to the respect ancient revolutions of the earth, rivet our attention, which its age naturally inspires. and excite our lively curiosity. An interest still The lower part of its hollow trunk has been more natural and more affecting, seems to belong to transformed into a chapel, of six or seven feet in diathe living memorials of distant ages. But although it meter, carefully wainscoted and paved, and an open may not appear impossible, if we may trust to the iron gate guards the humble sanctuary. Above, and calculations of Adanson, that the enormous Baobabs close to the chapel, is a small chamber, containing a of Africa, may be as old as the pyramids of Egypt,* bed; and leading to it there is a staircase, which still life in general is so short, that living monuments twists round the body of the tree. At certain seasons will always seem as if only of yesterday, when con- of the year divine service is performed in this chapel. trasted with those that are lifeless.

The summit has been broken off many years, Among ancient trees, there are few, I believe, but there is a 'surface, at the top of the trunk, at least in France, so worthy of attention as an oak of the diameter of a very large tree, and from it which may be seen in the Pays de Caur,' about a rises a pointed roof, covered with slates, in the form league from Yvetot, close to the church, and in the of a steeple, which is surmounted with an iron cross, burial ground of Allonville. I had often heard it men- that raises itself, in a truly picturesque manner, from tioned, but in a slight manner ; and I am astonished, the middle of the leaves, like an antique hermitage, after having examined it, that so remarkable a tree above the surrounding wood. should so long have remained so little known.

The cracks which occur in various parts of the This oak has sessile leaves and acorns, on foot- tree, are, like the fracture whence the steeple springs, stalks, and is therefore of the true naval species. Above closely covered with slates, which, by replacing the the roots, it measures upwards of thirty-five English bark, doubtless contribute to its preservation. °Over feet round, and at the height of a man, twenty-six the entrance to the chapel an inscription appears, feet. A little higher up it extends to a greater size, which informs us that it was erected by the Abbé du and at eight feet from the ground, enormous branches Détroit, curate of Allonville, in the year 1696 ; and spring from the sides, and spread outwards, so that over the door of the upper room is another, dedicating they cover with their shade a vast extent. The height it “To our Lady of Peace.” of the tree does not answer to its girth; the trunk, The oak is a tree which grows but slowly : in its from the roots to the summit, forms a complete cone; youth, and to about forty years of age, it increases the and the inside of this cone is hollow throughout the most. After this period it becomes less rapid in its whole of its height. Several openings, the largest of growth, and abates progressively. According to M. Bosc, which is below, afford access to this cavity.

an oak of a hundred years old, is not commonly more All the central parts having been long destroyed, than a foot in diameter. It is well-known, however, it is only by the outer layers of the alburnum, and from the spreading forth of the boughs, how much by the bark, - that this venerable tree is supported; the growth depends upon the soil. If the calculation yet it is still full of vigour, adorned with abundance given by M. Bosc seems too small for the first cenof leaves, and laden with acorns.

tury of the life of an oak, it becomes, on the contrary, * We shall very shortly give papers on these interesting subjects. I tuo great, if applied to the centuries which follow, on

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