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The Black Ostrich.

of this animal which show it to be peculiarly different other ; this its pursuers take advantage of, and, by from the rest of the feathered race, It seems to form rushing directly onward, save much ground. In a one of the links of union in the great chain of nature, few days, at most, the strength of the animal is much connecting the winged with the four-footed tribes. l'exhausted, and it then either turns on the hunters,

and fights with the fury of despair, or hides its head and tamely receives its fate.

Frequently the natives conceal themselves in the skin of one of these birds, and by that means are able to approach near enough to surprise them.

Some persons breed up ostriches in flocks, for they are tamed with very little trouble, and in their domestic state few animals may be rendered more useful. Besides the valuable feathers they cast, the eggs which they lay, their skins, which are used by the Arabians as a substitute for leather, and their flesh, which many esteem as excellent food, they are sometimes made to serve the purposes of horses.

In a tame state it is very pleasant to observe with what 'dexterity they play and frisk about. In the heat of the day, particularly, they will strut along the sunny side of a house with great majesty, perpetually fanning themselves with their expanded wings, and seeming at every turn to admire and be enamoured of their own shadows. During most parts of the day, in hot climates, their wings are in a kind of vibrating or quivering motion, as if designed principally to assuage the heat.

They will swallow, with the utmost eagerness, rags, leather, wood, or stone, indiscriminately. “I saw one at Oran,” says Dr. Shaw, “ that swallowed, without any seeming uneasiness or inconvenience, several leaden bullets, as they were thrown upon the floor scorching hot from the mould !"

During Mr. Adamson's residence at Podor, a French

factory on the southern bank of the river Niger, he Its strong jointed legs, and (if I may venture so to says that two ostriches, which had been about two call them) cloven hoofs, are well adapted both for years in the factory, afforded him a sight of a very speed and defence. The wings and all its feathers extraordinary nature. These gigantic birds, though are insufficient to raise it from the ground. Its camel-young, were of nearly the full size.

They were, shaped neck is covered with hair; its voice is a kind (he continues) “so tame, that two little blacks of hollow, mournful lowing, and it grazes on the mounted both together on the back of the largest. plain with the gua-cha and the zebra.

No sooner did he feel their weight than he began'to The ostriches frequently do great damage to the run as fast as possible, and carried them several times farmers in the interior of Southern Africa, by coming round the village, as it was impossible to stop him in flocks into their fields, and destroying the ears of otherwise than by obstructing the passage. This wheat so completely, that in a large tract of land it sight pleased me so much that I wished it to be often happens that nothing but the bare straw is left repeated ; and, to try their strength, directed a fullbehind. The body of the bird is not higher than the grown negro to mount the smallest, and two others corn; and

when it evours the ears, it bends down the largest. This burden did not seem at all disproits long neck, so that at a little distance it cannot be portioned to their strength. At first they went at a seen ; but on the least noise it rears its head, and tolerable sharp trot; but when they became heated generally contrives to escape before the farmer gets a little, they expanded their wings, as though to within gunshot of it.

catch the wind, and moved with such fleetness, that When the ostrich runs, it has a proud and haughty they scarcely seemed to touch the ground. Most look; and even when in extreme distress, never ap- people have, at one time or other, seen a partridge pears in great haste, especially if the wind is with it. run, and consequently must know that there is no Its wings are frequently of material use in aiding its man whatever able to keep up with it ; and it is easy escape, for when the wind blows in the direction to imagine, that if this bird had a longer step, its that it is pursuing, it always flaps them : in this case speed would be considerably increased. The ostrich the swiftest horse cannot overtake it; but if the wea- moves like the partridge, with this advantage : and I ther is hot, and there is no wind, or if it has by any am satisfied that those I am speaking of would have accident lost a wing, the difficulty of out-running it distanced the fleetest race-horses that were ever bred is not so great.

in England. It is true they would not hold out so The ostrich itself is chiefly valuable for its plumage, long as a horse, but they would undoubtedly be able and the Arabians have reduced the chase of it to a to go over the space in less time. I have frequently kind of science. They hunt it, we are told, on horse- beheld this sight, which is capable of giving one an back, and begin their pursuit by a gentle gallop; for, idea of the prodigious strength of an ostrich, and of should they, at the outset, use the least rashness, the showing what use it might be of, had we but the rematchless speed of the game would immediately carry thod of breaking and managing it as we do a horse. it out of their sight, and in a very short time beyond their reach ; but when they proceed gradually, it He who is catching opportunities because they seldom occur, makes no particular effort to escape.

It does not go would suffer those to pass by unregarded which he expects in a direct line, but runs first to one side, then to the hourly to return.--Johnson.

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castle, which still retain the name of Lancaster's buildings. On his death it descended to his son, afterwards Henry IV.

During the civil wars between the houses of York and Lancaster, it was alternately taken by the partizans of the white and the red roses : and very long after their termination, Queen Elizabeth bestowed it upon her heartless and ambitious favourite, Dudley, Earl of Leicester. That wealthy nobleman spared no expense in beautifying the castle, and in making many splendid additions, called after him Leicester's Buildings. But the most memorable incident in the history of Kenilworth Castle, is the royal entertainment given by the aspiring earl to his





The walls transferred to Leicester's favoured carl

Elizabeth visited him in state, attended by thirty-
He long, beneath thy roof, the maiden queen
And all her courtly guests, with rare device

one barons, besides her ladies of the court, who, with
Of mask and emblematic scenery,
Tritons, and sea-nymphs, and the floating isle,

four hundred servants, were all lodged in the castle. Detain'd. Nor feats of prowess, just, or tilt

The festival continued for seventeen days, at an ex-
Of harness'd knights, nor rustic revelry,
Were wanting: nor the dance, and sprightly mirth

pense estimated at one thousand pounds a day (a very
Beneath the festive walls, with regal state,
And choicest luxury, served. But regal state

large sum in those times). The waiters upon the And sprightly mirth, beneath the festive roof,

court, as well as the gentlemen of the barons, were all Are now no more.

clothed in velvet : ten oxen were slaughtered every The magnificent Castle of KENILWorth, of whose morning; and the consumption of wine is said to have ruins we here present an engraving, was founded by been sixteen hogsheads, and of beer, forty hogsheads, Geoffrey de Clinton, in the reign of Henry I. On the daily. death of Geoffrey, it descended to his son, from whom An account of this singular and romantic enterit was transferred to the crown, and was garrisoned tainment published at the time, by an eye-witness, by Henry II during the rebellion of his son. In the presents a curious picture of the luxuriance, plenty, reign of Henry III it was used as a prison, and in and gallantry, of Elizabeth's reign. 1254, the king, by letters patent, gave to Simon Mont After her journey from London, which the queen ford, who had married Eleanor the king's sister, the performed entirely on horseback, she stopped at castle in trust for life. Simon soon after joined the' Long Itchington, where she dined ; and hunting on rebellion against the king, and, together with his eldest the way, arrived at the castle, on Saturday, July 9, son, was killed at the battle of Evesham, in 1265. His 1575. “Here," says the writer of the curious little youngest son, Simon, escaped, and with other fugitives book to which we have referred, and whose descriptions took shelter in the Castle, where they became regular we borrow in his own words," she was received by a banditti.

person representing one of the ten sybills, cumly clad The king, determined to put an end to their ex- in a pall of white sylk, who pronounced a proper poezie cesses, marched an army against them. Simon fled, in English rime and meteer," on the happiness her preand escaped to France, but his companions held out sence produced, wherever it appeared; concluding with against a six months' siege. At length their provisions a prediction of her future eminence and success. failed, a pestilence, broke out, and the governor sur “On her entrance into the tilt-yard,” continues rendered the castle to the king, who bestowed it upon the writer, a porter, tall of person and stern his youngest son, Edmund, Earl of Leicester, after- of countenance, wrapt also in sylk, with a club and wards created Earl of Lancaster.

keiz of quantitee according, in a rough speech, full of In 1286, a grand chivalric meeting of one hundred passions, in meter aptly made to the purpose," deknights of high distinction, English and foreign, and manded the cause of all this “din and noise, and the same number of ladies, was held at Kenilworth ; riding about within the charge of his office," but upon and at this festival, it is said, that silks were worn for seeing the queen, as if he had been instantaneously the first time in England.

stricken, he falls down upon his knees, humbly begs In the reign of Edward II the castle again came pardon for his ignorance, yields up his club and keys, into the hands of the crown, and the king intended to and proclaims open gates and free passage to all. make it a place of retirement for himself ; but in the After this pretty device, six trumpeters, “clad in rebellion which soon followed, he was taken prisoner long garments of sylk, who stood upon the wall of in Wales, and brought to Kenilworth : here he was the gate, with their silvery trumpets of five foot long, compelled to sign his abdication ; and soon after was sounded a tune of welcome." These “harmonious privately removed to Berkeley Castle, where he was blasters, walking upon the walls, maintained their deinhumanly murdered in 1327.

lectable music, while her highness, all along the tiltEdward III restored the Castle to the Earl of Lan- yard, rode into the inner-gate," where she was surcaster, whose grand-daughter brought it in marriage prised “with the sight of a floating island, on the large to the celebrated John of Gaunt, afterwards duke pool, on which was a beautiful female figure, repreof Lancaster, who made many additions to the senting the Lady of the Lake, supported by two



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nymphs surrounded by blazing torches, and many pounds sterling, a sum equal to half a million of our ladies clad in rich silks as attendants ; whilst the present money, including seven acres, a part of which genii of the lake greeted her Majesty with “a well-was occupied by extensive stables, and by a pleasure penned meeter," on “the auncientee of the castle," garden, with its fine arbours and parterres, and the and the hereditary dignity of the Earls of Leicester. rest formed the large base-court, or outer yard, of This pageant was closed with a burst of cornets and the noble castle. The lordly structure itself, which other music, and a new scene was presented to view. rose near the centre of this spacious enclosement, was Within the base court, and over a dry valley leading composed of a huge pile of magnificent castellated to the castle gates, “waz thear framed a fayr bridge, buildings, evidently of different ages, surrounding the twenty feet wide, and seventy feet long, with seven inner court, and bearing in the names attached to posts that stood twelve feet asunder ; and thickened each portion of the magnificent mass, and in the between with well-proportioned turned pillars ; " over armorial bearings which were there emblazoned, the which, as her Majesty passed, she was presented, by emblems of mighty chiefs who had long passed away, persons representing several of the heathen gods and and whose history, could ambition have lent ear to it, goddesses, with various appropriate offerings, which might have read a lesson to the haughty favourite, who were piled up, or hung in excellent order, on both had now acquired and was augmenting the fair dosides the entrance, and upon different posts ; from main. A large and massive keep, which formed the Sylvanus, god of the woods, “live bitters, curlews, god-citadel of the castle, was of uncertain though great witz, and such-like dainty byrds;" from Pomona, antiquity. It bore the name of Cæsar, perhaps from "applez, pearz, lemmons, &c. ; from Ceres, “sheaves its resemblance to that in the Tower of London so of various kinds of corn (all in earz green and gold); called. Some antiquaries ascribed its foundation to from Bacchus, grapes, " in clusters, whyte and red ;' the time of Kenelph, from whom the castle had its various specimens of fish from Neptune ; arms from name, a Saxon king of Menia, and others to an early Mars; and musical instruments from Apollo.

æra after the Norman eonquest. On the exterior walls A Latin inscription over the castle, explained the frowned the scutcheon of the Clintons, by whom they whole; this was read to her by a poet, “in a long were founded in the reign of Henry I, and the yet ceruleous garment, with a bay garland on his head, more redoubted Simon de Montford, by whom, during and a skroll in his hand. So passing into the inner the Barons' Wars, Kenilworth was long held out court, her Majesty (that never rides but alone) thear against Henry III. Here Mortimer, Earl of March, set down from her palfrey, was conveyed up to a famous alike for his rise and fall, had once gaily chamber, when after did follo a great peal of gunz and revelled, while his dethroned sovereign, Edward II, lightning by fyr-works." Besides these, every diver- languished in its dungeons. Old John of Gaunt, sion the romantic and gallant imagination of that “time honoured Lancaster," had widely extended the period could devise, was presented for the amusement castle, erecting that noble and massive pile, which of her Majesty and the court-tilts, tournaments, yet bears the name of Lancaster buildings; and deer-hunting in the park, savage men, satyrs, bear Leicester himself had out-done the former possessors, and bull baitings, Italian tumblers and rope-dancers, princely and powerful as they were, by erecting another a country bridal ceremony, prize fighting, running at immense structure, which now lies crushed under its the quintin, morris dancing, and brilliant fireworks in own ruins, the monument of its owner's ambition. the grandest style and perfection ; during all this time The external wall of this royal castle was, on the the tables were loaded with the most sumptuous cheer. south and west sides, adorned and defended by a lake On the pool was a Triton riding on a mermaid, eigh- partly artificial, across which Leicester had constructed teen feet long, and an Arion on a dolphin, who enter- a stately bridge, that Elizabeth might enter the castle tained the royal visitor with an excellent piece of music. by a path hitherto untrodden, instead of the usual

The old Coventry play of Hock Tuesday, founded entrance. on the massacre of the Danes in 1002, was also per- “ Beyond the lake lay an extensive chase, full of formed here," by certain good-hearted men of Coven- red deer, fallow deer, roes, and every species of game, try." In this was represented, “the outrage and and abounding with lofty trees, from amongst which importable insolency of the Danes, the grievous com- the extended front and massive towers of the castle plaint of Hunna, King Ethelred's chieftain in wars, were seen to rise in majesty and beauty. Of this his counselling and contriving the plot to dispatch lordly palace, where princes feasted, and heroes fought, them; the violent encounters of the Danish and En- now in the bloody earnest of storm and siege, and glish knights on horseback, armed with spear and now in the games of chivalry, where beauty dealt the shield; and afterwards between hosts of footmen, prize which valour won, all is now desolate. The which at length ended in the Danes being beaten down, bed of the lake is but a rushy swamp; and the masovercome, and led captive by our English women ; sive ruins of the castle only show what their splendour whereat her Majesty laught, and rewarded the per- once was, and impress on the musing visitor the formers with two bucks, and five marks in money." | transitory value of human possessions, and the hapFor the greater honour of this splendid entertainment, piness of those who enjoy a humble lot in virtuous four other gentlemen of note, were knighted; and in on the departure of Elizabeth, the Earl of Leicompliment to the queen, and to evince the Earl's hos-cester made Kenilworth his occasional residence, pitable disposition, the historian observes, “ that the till his death in 1538, when he bequeathed it to his clok bell sang not a note all the while her highness brother, Ambrose, Earl of Warwick, and after his waz thear: the clok stood also withal, the hands death to his own son, Sir Robert Dudley; but, his legiof both the tablz stood firm and fast, always pointing timacy being questioned, Sir Robert quitted the kingat two o'clock, the hour of banquet.”

dom in disgust; his castles and estates were seized Such is a slight but accurate account of this far- by a decree of the court of Star-Chamber, and given famed entertainment. Of the castle at this period, Sir to Henry, son of James. I. W. Scott has given us the following animated account. The castle on Henry's death went into the possession

“ The outer wall of this splendid and gigantic struc- of his brother, Charles I, who granted it to Cary, Earl ture, upon improving which, and the domains around, of Monmouth; but the downfall of this gigantic the Earl of Leicester had, it is said, expended 60,000 structure was fast approaching. During the wars it

was seized by Cromwell, and by him given to some It is a curious circumstance, that in all countries, of his officers. These rapacious plunderers, who had no the feelings of mankind seem to have been alike in sort of feeling for the beauteous and majestic, soon re all that regarded the care and treatment of their insane duced it to what it now is, a pile of ruins. They brethren. We every where find that the lunatic and drained the lake which once flowed over so many the criminal have been classed together; and, too hundred acres, ravaged the woods, beat down the often, the murderer and the furious maniac have been walls, dismounted the towers, choked up its fair walks, chained to the walls of the same dungeon. and rooted out its pleasant gardens ; destroyed the Previously to the suppression of Catholic monaspark, and divided and appropriated the lands. teries and religious houses in this country, the poor,

On the restoration of Charles II, the estate and as well as others who were deranged in mind, were ruins of the castle were granted to Lawrence, Viscount taken care of, and supported in these establishments, Hyde, of Kenilworth, second son of the celebrated sometimes with great humanity, and at others with Lord High Chancellor, created Baron of Kenilworth, great neglect; but at the Reformation, a multitude of and Earl of Rochester ; and by the marriage of a these wretched beings were cast upon society, as helpfemale heiress descended from him, passed in 1752, less as they were often dangerous to the community. into the possession of Thomas Villiers, Baron Hyde, Their numbers in and about the Metropolis, very soon son of the Earl of Jersey, who was advanced in 1776, made it necessary to take some measures for their to the dignity of the Earl of Clarendon ; in the pos- protection and seclusion ; and the government of the session of whose son it still remains.

day, or as it is generally stated, the king, (Henry VIII)

gave the Priory of Bethlem,* one of the suppressed REPLY TO THE LINES * ON AN HOUR-GLASS."*

religious communities, to the magistrates of London, Say not, so long a toil were vain,

to be converted into an asylum for the lunatics then To gather up a single grain,

wandering about the city. This priory stood to the When time has scatter'd with his hand

east of London, nearly surrounded by what was called The life compared to precious sand :

the Moor-fields, a large tract of uncultivated swampy Save that you only mean to teach

land. Here, for nearly two centuries, the lunatics Such power lies not within the reach of man.-His highest thought and art

were shut up like wild beasts, and very little better

attended to, until last the ruinous state of the old Could not one spark of life impart. There is a hand that needs not years,

buildings obliged the city to think of providing a more Nor months, nor days,-nor toils, nor cares,

secure and comfortable abode for their increasing To turn the glass for lifeless man,

number of lunatics. In April 1675, the first stone, of From which the golden current ran,

the first building, ever raised in England, expressly for Still quicker than you turn the glass

the accommodation of lunatics,was laid by the president Through which the golden grains must pass, and governors of the Bridewell and Bethlem hospitals; To measure by their ceaseless fall,

and in about fifteen months from that date, a very Heaven's most precious gift, to all; Can He! who spake and it was done,

foolish and extravagantly gaudy building, was comWhen the wide earth its race begun,

pleted, which continued to be used for the confineBring back life's stream with vital power,

ment (we can scarcely say for the care) of lunatics, And bid it run an endless hour.

till 1815, when the present more suitable and conve.. Thus it will be! His hand will raise

nient hospital was erected, on the Surrey side of the To life, and strength, and boundless days,

Thames, near Westminster bridge.
The wreck from which sweet life has fled,

Very carly in the present century there seems to

their dead.

have been a kind of general movement all over Europe Speak not of toil! the trumpet's sound,

in favour of the poor forsaken lunatic. In France, In one short moment, will be found Sufficient to awake the dead,

Pinel; in Germany, Drs. Horn, Frank, and others, not And place them with their Living Head.

only succeeded in calling public attention to the subject, Yea, in the twinkling of an eye,

but in effecting the most beneficial changes in their The power that rules both earth and sky,

condition and treatment; and in this country the first Shall into ceaseless motion bring

warning voice proceeded from a poor, and then The long stopp'd wheels—of life the spring. J.P.

powerless medical studentt at the University of * See page 69.

Edinburgh, in the form of an anonymous pamphlet

addressed to Lord Henry Petty, (the present Marquis MIDDLESEX LUNATIC ASYLUM.

of Lansdown) then Chancellor of the Exchequer.

This pamphlet described in very simple language,
Be you to others kind and true,
As you'd have others be to you,

some of the scenes which the author had witnessed Whate'er you would not take again.

in what were called public and private mad-houses,

and made a very strong impression upon the minds This was one of the earliest maxims impressed upon of several very eminent individuals in England. The our mind in the nursery, and taught us by the subject was mooted in the House of Commons, and a monarch of our village school. First impressions are select committee appointed to inquire into the truth always the strongest and most lasting, and whether of the various statements which were now. of daily conveyed in prose or in rhyme, they will often occurrence, The inquiry led to an Act for providing recur to the mind, when more recent acquirements county asylums for the insane population in England, have become lost and forgotten. But what, our kind which first passed in 1808, and since the passing of reader may ask, have these moral maxims to do with that Act, various county hospitals have been provided the magnificent asylum of which we have bere given for the treatment of insanity, upon sound and rational a view? A good deal, my friend; for here we have a principles, and with a success that has scarcely been splendid instance of the kindness of man to his unfor- equalled in the treatment of any other disease. tunate and destitute fellow creatures. A place of rest Amidst the congregated multitudes of this great and comfort for the hitherto too much neglected and overflowing metropolis, it was found that insanity sufferers of our species. An asylum that does honour to human nature, and cannot fail to prove a blessing for a mad-house.

This was the cause of Bethlem er Bedlam being a general term to the country.

+ The present Sir Andrew Halliday, M.D. of Ilampton Court,

And neither do or say to men,


View of the Middlesex Lunatic Asylum, at Hanwelt prevailed to a very great extent; and that the parishes

THE LEAF, By Bishop Horne. had long been in the custom of providing for their

We all fade, like a leaf.-Isa. lxiv. 6. security by contracting with what was called a private mad-house keeper for their confinement.


See the leaves around us falling, ther inquiry detecting the most disgusting cruelties

Dry and wither'd to the ground; and abuses in these dens of human suffering, the

Thus to thoughtless mortals calling, magistrates of the county of Middlesex commenced

In a sad and solemn sound the erection of a county asylum, and in about three

Sons of Adam, once in Eden, years the present magnificent establishment was

Blighted when like us he fell, completed, and opened about two years ago, for the

Hear the lecture we are reading, reception of patients.

'Tis, alas ! the truth we tell. : To the indefatigable zeal and humane feelings of

Virgins, much, too much presuming the late Lord Robert Seymour, and the unwearied

On your boasted white and red,

View us, late in beauty blooming, attention and exertions of Colonel James Clithero,

Number'd now among the dead. among many other worthy and zealous members of

Griping misers, nightly waking, the magistraçy, this great metropolitan county is in

See the end of all your care; an especial manner indebted for this splendid estab

Fled on wings of our own making, lishment, which is perhaps the largest and best arranged

We have left our owners bare. of any in Europe, or in the world. It was built under

Sons of honour, fed on praises, the direction and superintendence of Robert Sibley,

Flutt'ring high in fancied worth,

Lo! the fickle air, that raises, Esq., then county surveyor, and does the greatest

Brings us down to parent earth. credit to his professional skill. The site chosen was

Learned sophs, in systems jaded, perhaps the best in point of economy, healthiness, and

Who for new ones daily call, convenience, that could have been found : and the

Cease, at length, by us persuaded, architect' has made the utmost of its advantages, in

Ev'ry leaf must have its fall. securing for the inmates of every room and cell the Youths, though yet no losses grieve you, benefits of warmth and light and air. The arrange

Gay in health and manly grace, ment of the whole building, with its offices, wards,

Let not cloudless skies deceive you, and places for exercises, is perfect in its kind.

Summer gives to Autumn place. The whole expense has been about £120,000, and it

Venerable sires, grown hoary, will contain 500 patients; who are placed under the

Hither turn th' unwilling eye.

Think, amidst your falling glory care of Dr. Ellis, so well known for his skill in the

Autumn tells a winter nigh. treatment of insanity. The females are under the

Yearly in our course returning, management of Mrs. Ellis.

Messengers of shortest stay, The Middlesex Lunatic Asylum at Hanwell, is

Thus we preach, this truth concerning, highly deserving of a visit from every friend of

“ Heaven and earth shall pass away.” humanity. Here are no secrets to be hid from

On the Tree of Life eternal, the eyes of man. No dungeons where only the

Man, let all thy hope be staid, rattle of chains and manacles, or the moans of the

Which alone, for ever vernal,

Bears a leaf that shall not fade. oppressed, are to be heard. But a regular and well ordered community, many of them cheerfully enjoying the labours of the field, or busy at their usual trade,

LONDON: and all occupied and industrious, and evidently happy. JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, 445, (WEST) STRAND. We cannot conclude these remarks without earn

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W.S. ORR, Paternoster-Row; G. BERGER, Holywell-st.; A. DOUGLAS, England, and there are still many, who have not

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And by the Publisher's Agents in the following places :follow the example of the magistrates of Middlesex, Aberdeen .......... Brown and Co.

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.. Deighton bok’ly: if it be wrong, leave it undone.-.Gilpin.

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