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INTRODUCTION. Abraham: shepherd kings: Joseph: kings of Thebes: era of Menophres, exodus of the Jews, Rameses the Great, buildings, conquests, population, mines: Shishank, B.C. 970: Solomon: kings of Tanis: Bocchoris of Sais: kings of Ethiopia, B. C. 730: kings of Sais: Africa is sailed round, Greek mercenaries and settlers, Solon and Pythagoras: Persian conquest, B. C. 525: Inarus rebels: Herodotus and Hellanicus: Amyrtæus, Nectanebo: Eudoxus, Chrysippus, and Plato: Alexander the Great: oasis of Ammon, native judges, Cleomenes.

PTOLEMY SOTER, B. C. 322. Funeral of Alexander: Perdiccas overcome : Phenicia and Calo-Syria conquered: the bull Apis: buildings of Alexandria: Serapis: the Museum: papyrus: Cyrene conquered: Cyprus conquered: Egyptian soldiers: Demetrius beaten: city of Petra; it stops Antigonus: Hecatœus : the Jews: Demetrius conquers at sea: Antigonus beaten : Rhodes: coins: Apelles, Euclid, Diodorus Cronus, and Antiphilus: Thais and her children: Eurydice and her children: Berenice and her children: Ptolemy lays aside the crown.

PTOLEMY PHILADELPHUS, B. C. 284. His tutor Philetas: his coronation : Cyrene revolts: his two brothers killed: embassy to Rome: the Carthaginians ask a loan: the light-house: port of Berenice: canal: elephants caught: Demetrius Phalerius, Zenodotus, Euclid, Ctesibius, Theocritus, Callimachus, Hegesias, Philostephanus, Aristippus, Arete, Metrodidactus, Theodorus, Strato: Timocharis, Aristillus, and Aristarchus, the astronomers: Aratus and his translators : Sosibius, Zoilus, Timon, Manetho, Petosiris, Timosthenes the admiral: Menander sent for: Colotes: public readers: Pamphilus, Neacles, and Helena: the Jews: the Bible translated: Arsinoe and her children: Arsinoë, his sister: coins: Ergamenes: statue of Diana: Cleombrotus, Erasistratus, and Herophilus: provinces, forces, revenue, treasure.

PTOLEMY EUERGETES, B. C. 246. Conquests in Syria: hair of Berenice: Conon: buildings: conquests in Ethiopia: Monumentum Adulitanum and Cosmas Indicopleustes: Onias; revenues of Judæa: Cleomenes: Aristophanes: Eratosthenes: Apollonius Rhodius: Lycophron: Jesus the son of Sirach: Apollonius of Perga: coins: judges.

PTOLEMY PHILOPATOR, B.C. 221. His mother and brother put to death: battle of Raphia: the Jewish temple: huge ships: the queen put to death: Agathocles, Sosibius, Tlepolemus: Sphærus, Eratosthenes, Ptolemy the son of Agesarchus, Timæus: buildings: coins.

PTOLEMY EPIPHANES, B. C. 204. Death of Agathocles and his family: revolt of Scopas: guardianship of Rome: the phalanx beaten: coronation: Rosetta Stone: Cleopatra's dower: rebellion at Lycopolis: coins: loss of provinces: Polybius.

PTOLEMY PHILOMETOR, B.C. 180. War with Antiochus; coronation: Egypt invaded: PTOLEMY EUERGETES II. declared king: Cyprus rebels: second invasion: Euergetes made king of Cyrene: Jewish temple at Leontopolis: buildings: collections for the dead: Aristarchus the critic: Moschus of Syracuse: Nicander: Hipparchus: Hero, the power of steam: coins: Cleopatra and her children.

PTOLEMY EUERGETES II. B. C. 145. He kills his nephew: the journey of Scipio Africanus: the Maccabees: the king flies to Cyprus, kills his son, returns : trade to India: Eudoxus Cyzicenus: Aristobulus the Jew, Sositheus, the younger Homer: Pergamus, its library, parchment: Cleopatra Cocce and her children.

CLEOPATRA COCCE and PTOLEMY SOTER II. B.C. 116. Alexander reigns in Cyprus: marriages and quarrels of the Syrian kings: the Jews and Samaritans: Soter flies to Cyprus.

CLEOPATRA COCCE and PTOLEMY ALEXANDER, B.C. 106. Wars in Syria and Judæa: Cleopatra put to death: coins: Ptolemy Apion: Cyrene seized by the Romans.

PTOLEMY SOTER II. B.C. 87. The rebellion and ruin of Thebes: Lucullus: Dio: coins.


CLEOPATRA BERENICE, B.C. 80. She is ordered to marry Alexander, and to
reign jointly with him: his will.

PTOLEMY NEUS DIONYSUS, B.C. 80. Demetrius accused of sobriety: Cy-
prus seized by Rome: the king flies from Egypt: Cato: CLEOPATRA TRY-
PHÆNA and BERENICE made queens: Julius Cæsar: Pompey: Gabinius:
Seleucus Cybiosactes: Archelaus: Marc Antony: Rabirius: Diodorus Siculus:
the pyramids, the temples, Apis, the cat, the mummies, funerals: revenue, trade,
population, gold mines: Zopyrus, Apollonius of Cittium.




WHEN letters first rose in Greece and Rome, the writers found a rich harvest of fable and tradition, out of which they wove those beautiful tales that we now read as the beginning of Greek and Roman history. The Egyptians were not favoured with historians who could thus fix and hand down to us their traditions; but, on the other hand, they had from far earlier times carved the names and deeds of their kings on the granite temples, and thus, instead of a rich poetic fable, they have left us a bald reality.

In each case, the history of the country begins with scattered and dark hints, which some minds seize upon as treasures and others overlook as worthless, but which the historian can neither safely lean upon nor yet wholly fling from him; and this is the case with the history of Egypt before the time when Abraham drove his herds into that country in search of food, which the drought had made scarce in Canaan.

Egypt was then broken up into several little kingdoms. Upper Manetho. Egypt, the most powerful of these, had been ruled over by a race of kings who reigned in This, a city near the spot, or perhaps on the spot, where Abydos afterwards stood; and who had held Thebes, and

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