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The state of our relations with Por- classes of the various professions, tugal has become so anxious, so much the disbanded officers, and a few perplexed by contending factions, and nobles speculating on the prizes likely to involve this nation in such of revolution. Both parties were embarrassing consequences, that we powerful; but the party of the believe we shall gratify our readers ancient institutions was distinguishby a general and fair outline of the ed chiefly for its passive strength. question. In this matter we take no The party of change rested its hope side. The competitors for the Por- of success on its restless appeal to tuguese throne are equally indiffer- popular passion, its activity in taking ent to us, the errors or crimes of the advantage of public reverses, and, parties are not within our estimate. above all, in the living and inexhaustWe have no intention of involving ible Jacobinism of France. But, for our readers in the mazes of Portu- the purpose of accuracy, we must go guese law; and as little of entangling a little higher. ourselves in the web of Portuguese In 1807, the King and royal family partisanship. Dom Miguel and Dom of Portugal sailed for the Brazils. Pedro are to us the same. Yet we Portugal had been for the last half may deeply regret the circumstances, century an object of French and whether arising from chance, caprice, Spanish intrigue, and the project of or necessity, which have placed Eng. abandoning the uneasy sceptre of land in all but a direct position of war the House of Braganza in Europe, with so old, so faithful, and so im- for the noble, secure, and flourishing portant an ally as Portugal.

empire of Portuguese America, was The state of the Peninsula, since more than once conceived. There the close of the French war, has was a strong temptation in thus rebeen marked by perpetual disturbo establishing the Portuguese name in ancè. Hating the French as masters, one of the most extensive dominions a large portion of the Spanish and in the world, a territory equal to the Portuguese population eagerly adopt. entire of Europe, and still more ed them as teachers. The strength powerful by its extraordinary capaof public loyalty was in the proprie- bilities, its forests of rich woods, its tors of land, the nobles, gentry, and inexhaustible fertility, its singular peasantry. The strength of disaffec. salubrity, its fortunate position for tion was in the petty traders of the commerce in the centre of the New towns, the minor and unemployed World with the Trade Winds blow

VOL. XXXIII. NO. CCIII.

ing the commerce of the Old into its treated her as she has always treated harbour mouths; and its peculiar the submissive. But deep as the possession of the largest gold and veil of Napoleon's hypocrisy was, it diamond mines in the globe.

was not deep enough to conceal his In the Spanish invasion of 1761, perfect knowledge and perfect methe emigration was strongly propo- mory of the projected alliance. sed, and under the advice of Pam. Godoy, conscious that when the vibel, the ablest minister that Portugal sitation came, it must chiefly fall ever possessed, and one of the most upon his own head, now endeavoured intelligent public men of Europe, it personally to conciliate Napoleon, by was on the point of being carried a project of seizing on Portugal, alinto effect. But the invasion passed ways obnoxious as this little country away. The natural indolence of was to France, from its close conthe Portuguese, the reluctance of nexion with England. Napoleon had the nation to see their government already conceived bolder views; but, transferred to the mountains and for the purpose of blinding the Spaforests three thousand miles off, and nish minister to the ruin that he was the equally strong reluctance of the hourly gathering round Spain, he Allied Powers to see Portugal left adopted his profligate and treacheopen to seizure by Spain, broke up rous design in its full extent, and the project, and abandoned the Bra ordered an army to march for the zils to their original solitude. In the seizure of Portugal. In the partition commencement of Napoleon's power, of the conquest, Godoy was to be Portugal became again the object of putin possession of the Alentejo, one a French and Spanish intrigue of the of the most valuable of the Portumost extraordinary kind. About the guese provinces, with the title of period of the Egyptian expedition, Sovereign Prince; and he was thus when French affairs were declining to be secured from the possible reevery where, and Suwarrow threat- sults of his growing unpopularity in ened a march to Paris, there appears Spain. to have been some intention on the It was now that Napoleon began part of the Spanish government, cen- to make himself felt. His army for tred in the person of Godoy, to make the Portuguese invasion was stipucommon cause with the victorious lated at 20,000 men; it amounted to allies. The old monarchy hated the 40,000. Its line of march through young Republic; the Spanish Bour- the Spanish territory was marked bons equally hated the French Jaco- out by the secret treaty. It moved bins; and there was a lure for the where it pleased, in scorn of the nation's vanity, in the recovery of the Spanish remonstrances; and when at national honours, which had been a length the Spanish cabinet began to little tarnished by the French victo- tremble for the consequences of its ries among the Pyrenees in the com- own folly, Napoleon suddenly inmencement of the war.

volved it in the disputes of the royal But Bonaparte came back from family, plunged it into such an abyss Egypt, the tide turned, the triumph of perplexity, fear, treachery, and was all on the side of the obnoxious folly, that it instantly abandoned the Republic; and the Spanish cabinet, government, and surrendered Spain rejoicing that it had not yet plunged entire into his unballowed hands. into open hostility with its formi- The bistory of that most memodable and vindictive neighbour, in rable of modern wars, has been alstantly laid aside all its preparations ready written in the brightest page for war, and laboured, by the most of our national glory. Napoleon humiliating subserviency, to win the there received the retribution of his favouritism of France. This was long career of treachery and blood. suffered for a while. Napoleon, now The invasion of the Peninsula is the First Consul, was satisfied to appear true date of his downfall. But while a dupe, and Spain paid the price of his main battle was turned on Spain, this fancied triumph of subtlety, by Portugal was not forgotten. Its being robbed, beaten, and degraded seizure had now become only a part in every quarter of the globe. She of his grand scheme of ambition, had given herself, hand and foot, into but it was instantly and indefatigably the grasp of France, and France pursued. The troops which had orle

erce of the Old into its treated her as she has always treated ths; and its peculiar the submissive. But deep as the

the largest gold and s in the globe.

veil of Napoleon's hypocrisy was, it ish invasion of 1761, perfect knowledge and perfect me.

was not deep enough to conceal bis n was strongly propo-mory of the projected alliance. T the advice of Pam- Godoy, conscious that when the vi

. minister that Portugal sitation came, it must chiefly fall

, and one of the most upon his own head, now endeavoured ulic men of Europe, it personally to conciliate Napoleon, by oint of being carried a project of seizing on Portugal, alat the invasion passed ways obnoxious as this little country natural indolence of was to France, from its close conse, the reluctance of nexion with England. Napoleon had see their government already conceived bolder views; but,

the mountains and for the purpose of blinding the Spa. housand miles off, and nish minister to the ruin that he was cong reluctance of the hourly gathering round Spain, he - to see Portugal left adopted his profiigate and treachee by Spain, broke up rous design in full extent, and d abandoned the Bra- ordered an army to march for the iginal solitude. In the seizure of Portugal

. In the partition at of Napoleon's power, of the conquest, Godoy was to be me again the object of put in possession of the Alentejo, one panish intrigue of the of the most valuable of the Portuvary kind. About the guese provinces, with the title of Egyptian expedition, Sovereign Prince; and he was thus lairs were declining to be secured from the possible red Suwarrow threat- sults of his growing unpopularity in

Paris, there appears Spain. ne intention on the It was now that Napoleon began sh government, cen to make himself felt. His army for 2 of Godoy, to make the Portuguese invasion was stipuwith the victorious lated at 20,000 men; it amounted to monarchy hated the 40,000. Its line of march through

the Spanish Bour- the Spanish territory was marked d the French Jaco- out by the secret treaty. It moved was a lure for the where it pleased, in scorn of the the recovery of the Spanish remonstrances; and when at which had been a length the Spanish cabinet began to

the French victo- tremble for the consequences of its renees in the com own folly, Napoleon suddenly in.

volved it in the disputes of the royal War, came back from family, plunged it into such an abyss ned, the triumph of perplexity, fear, treachery, and of the obnoxious folly, that it instantly abandoned the

ginally been directed towards that The Envoy had, fo quarter, but called off for the moment some other reason, r by the pressing necessity of over land, leaving Lord whelming Spain at once, were now Secretary of the Eml poured back upon its frontier, and affairs in his absenceput under the command of Soult, have been more dis the most sagacious and successful one, or more lucky officer of the army.

In mentioning Lord But tyranny has its fears like but just to the he meaner guilt, and some expressions ture, and the memory of Soult awoke the jealousy of Na to say, that to his lit poleon, now Emperor. It was ru was indebted for the moured in Paris, that. Soult might of a career, which h avail himself of his power, to resist lowed with distinctio the Imperial plans of subjugation, or age he had written po even make "bimself independent. the rest, some sonnet The rumour was probably untrue, be translations of and only one of the thousand in which were in fact stances of that perpetual suspicion phrases of the Portug which haunts the usurper. But the they were poetry,

IL command of the force destined to subjects, gracefullye seize Lisbon was suddenly assigned pleasing and popula to Junot, a bold soldier, but too in course of their

P dolent for suspicion, and too amply reached Windsor Cas satisfied with dependence on his or the army, are the master, to think of crowns and scep- the nobility who pur tres five hundred miles from the ployment, and the Parisian theatres. Junot now march- those Portuguese po ed direct on the capital. This move

cancy for a Secretar ment had been long foreseen by the at Lisbon, induced th British cabinet, and the Portuguese King, George the Th monarch had been sedulously sup- the young poet for th plied with proofs of the determina Such at least was th tion of Napoleon to seize and sub- day. vert his dynasty. But nothing could The absence of the overcome the habitual apathy of the made his secretary th Portuguese court; the King was not all the communicatio to be persuaded by any thing short British government, of the sight of the French army, that labouring to awake t a hostile force would ever have the to its danger; and the audacity to march in at the unde- ternately frightened a fended avenues of his city, or seize ing every thing, and his ungarrisoned castles. Lord Ro- thing: The impossib bert Fitzgerald was the British envoying the country by is at Lisbon at the time. This minister was strongly urged has derived an unfortunate celebri- agent, and the project ty from his being the brother of the whole governme the late Lord Edward Fitzgerald, was proposed again, a the miserable rebel, who, in viola- of preserving the King tion of his duty

as a subject, and of prison, and the count his oath as a soldier, attempted to diless slavery. The t revolutionize Ireland à la Française Portuguese governm-the most impotent attempt of the casion, was one of the most impotent mind; a Jacobin baga. nary instances of the telle, which even its chance of massacre could not render an object of neglect of its exerci

understanding that re consideration in the eyes of any man of common thought; but which which so often overth

Napoleon, in a burst o brought to a speedy and disgraceful tlest contrivances of fate, this contemptible compound of claimed that " The fashionable absurdity and giddy house of Braganza

reign." The secreta

Spanish cabinet, government, and surrendered Spain E not yet plunged entire into bis unhallowed hands, with its formis

The bistory of that most memoneighbour, in- rable of modern wars, has been alits preparations ready written in the brightest page ed, by the most

of our national glory. Napoleon jency, to win the there received the retribution of his nce.

This was long career of treachery and blood. Napoleon, now The in rasion of the Peninsula is the cisfied to appear true date of his downfall. But while paid the price of his main battle was turned on Spain,

of subtlety, by Portugal was not forgotten. Its , and degraded seizure had now become only a part the globe. She of his grand scheme of ambition, nd and foot, into but it was instantly and indefatigably ce, and France pursued. The troops which had ori

treason.

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