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.,." See their sun-burnt faces,
Theirscatter'dcheeks.andchopt hands; there's virtue in them.
They'll sell those mangled limbs at dearer rates
Than yon trim bands can buy." Drydih.
The Cossacks never fight in a line. They are scattered by platoons, at the head, on the flanks, and in the rear of the Russian army, sometimes at considerable distances. They do the duties of advanced guards, videttes, and patroles. Their activity and vigilance are incredible. They creep and ferret every where with a boldness and address of which none but those who have seen them can obtain an idea. Their numerous swarms form, as it were, an atmosphere round the camps and armies on a march, which they secure from all surprise, and from every unforeseen attack. Nothing escapes their piercing and experienced eye: they divine, as if by instinct, the places fit for ambuscades; they read on the trodden grass the number of men and horses that have passed: from the traces, more or less recent; they know how to calculate the time of their passing. A blood hound follows no better the scent of his game. In the immense plains from Azof to the Danube, iu those monstrous solitudes covered with tufted and waving grass, where the eye meets with no tree, no object that can direct it j and whose melancholy uniformity is only now and then interrupted by infectious bogs, and quagmires, torrents overgrown with briars, and insulated hillocks, the ancient graves of unknown generations; in those deserts, in short/ the roaming Cossack never misses his way. By night the stars direel his solitary course: if the sky is clear, he alights from his horse at the first kursran* that chance throws in his way; through a long habit of exercising his sight in the dark, or even by the help of feeling alone, he distinguishes the herbs and plants which thrive best on the declivity of the hillock exposed to the north or to the south. He repeats this examination as frequently as the opportunity offers, and in this manner he follows, and finds agtfin the direction which he ought to take for regaining his camp, his troop, or his dwelling, and any other place to which he is bound. By day, the sun is his surest guide: the breath of the winds, of which he knows the periodical course, it being pretty regular in these countries, likewise serves him as a com
* The Russians call knrgan those conic hillocks which are met with at certain distances in the deserts of Bessarabia, of the Dniester, of the Bogue, of the Azof, of Astrakhan, andalong the southern border of Siberia. The spots that have been dug up, at different periods, attest that they are graves. In them are commonly found urns of coarse potter's ware, rusty arms, horses' bits, bones of dogs and horses, sometimes buckles, hooks, small chains, and other ornaments in gold and silver. Some medals also have been found there with Creek inscriptions not to be decyphered, and others in languages unknown to modern scholars. It was on one of these hillocks that SuvarofFplaced himself during the terrible assault of Ismael within a short gun-shot of the place. Thence it was, that, in a fero. clous ecstacy, with his eye fixed on a town covered with flames, and bathed in blood, listening to the furious shouts of conquerors, to the groans of the conquered, to the tumult of carnage, he exclaimed, at intervals in a hoarse and broken voice. "Koli.'ko/i/" "stab away! stab away!" This decrepid old man •ppeared to be enjoying a most delicious scene.
pass to steer by. As a new species of augury, the Cossack not unwillingly interrogates the birds; their number, their species, their flight, their cry indicate to him the proximity of a pring, a rivulet, or a pool, c habitation, a herd, or an army. Those clouds of Cossack.' which encompass the Russian armies for the safety of their encampments, or of their marches, are no less formidable to the enemy. Their resistless vigilance, their rash curiosity, their sudden attacks alarm him, harass him incessantly, and incessantly control and watch his motions. In a general action the Cossacks commonly keep at a distance, and are spectators of the battle; they wait for its issue, in order to take to flight, or to set out in pursuit of the vanquished, among whom tbeii long pike then makes a great slaughter.
THE BENEVOLENT MANUFACTURER.
41 Homines ad Deos nulli re propius accedunt, quam salutffl hominibus dando." Tntun.
"Men resemble th: gods in nothing so much, as in doi
good to their fellow.creatures.'
.... We hasten, with pleasure and with delight, to show how Mr. Dale, owner of the cotton-mills near Glasgow, dispenses happiness and comfort to many of hii fellow creatures, by his attention not only to their heahh but to their morals. His little kingdom consists of neat, well-built houses, forming broad, regular, and clearly streets. Near the middle of the town stand the mills, and opposite to them the residence of the superintendent of the works, and occasionally of Mr. Dale him
self. The town (Lanerk) contains nearly two thousand inhabitants, mostly Highlanders; all of whom, that are capable of labour, are employed by Mr. Dale in his service, either in working at the cotton-manufactory, or in repairing and keeping the mills in order. Five hundred children are entirely fed, clothed, and instructed at the expence of this venerable philanthropist. The rest of the children live with their parents in comfortable and neat habitations in the town, and receive weekly wages for their labour.
The health and the happiness depicted in the countenances of these children, show that the proprietor of the Lanerk mills has remembered mercy in the midst of his gain; the regulations, adapted here for the preservation of the health, both of body and of mind, are such as do honour to the goodness and the discernment of Mr. Dale, and present a striking contrast to the generality of large manufactories in this kingdom, which are the schools of vice and profligacy, the very hot-beds of disease and contagion*. It is a truth which should be engraven in
• The numerous evils, resulting from the generality of ma. nufactures, have been energetically displayed by an interesting traveller, Mr. Heron; our readers will read with pleasure his sagacious reflections, and perceive, with satisfaction, that Mr. Dale hjs contrived remedies for all these evils.
"One shocking circumstance," says Mr. Heron, "which in spite of every means that can be used^to prevent it, results unavoidably from the present management of the manufactures, is the almost total ruin of the rising generation. They arc cramped in their growth; their health is wasted by confinement ; their morals are corrupted in consequence of their being crowded so much together; they become independent of pa.
letters of gold to the eternal honour of the founder of new Lanerk, that, out of nearly three thousand children, working in these mills, during a period of twelve years, from 1735 to 1/97, onty fourteen have died, and not one has suffered criminal punishment.
rents, at an age when they ate unfit to •judge for themselves; if such children live to the age of thirty or forty, they aw commonly the most dissipated, idle, unthinking, improvident, helpless creatures in the world. But if their labour cannot be vranted, yet, why should their strength and life be prematurely consumed for all the little labour of which they are capable? Alas! we do with them as did the boy with hii goose that laid him golden eggs; he was in haste to receive all that she had to lay, he killed his goose, the eggs were yet in embryo j thus do we, incur haste to render the rising generation useful to the community, anticipate in infancy all the services of youth, manhood, of age, nipping in the bud the flowers of humanity. When obliged to labour before the age of twelve or fourteen, children should never be confined for more thin four, or at most six, hours in the day; this, if at employment within doors, for not more than four days in the week; the other two being set apart for their education. The parents are base, who, spending in eating, in drinking, in clothing, those earnings which they might employ to give their children ths enjoyment of that sportive freedom in which the innocence of youth delights, to procure them instruction in religion, and in the other ordinary branches of education, sending the poor creatures prematurely into all the toils and miseries of life. Yet, 1 say not that, in great towns, it is better for the children of the poor to be idle than to be employed; if there be a choice between two such evils, I would rather employ them, to work them to death, than send them wandering about the street as blackguard boys and infant strumpets."
Journey through Scotland.