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Art. 48.-Denwürdigkeiten zur Geschichte von Schwaber. Memoirs subservient to the History of Suabia, during the two Came
paigns of 1799 and 1800, published by J. G. Pahl. Svo. Nordlingen.
These memoirs are the more valuable, as they are drawn from unpublished papers, many MS. notes, and more positive docu. ments, collected by the editor on the spot, or from his correspondence. The whole is divided into nine sections: The 1st and 2d contain the history of Suabia, from the peace of Ekenwald to the renewal of hostilities; the 3d, The campaigns of general Jourdan in Suabia ; 4. The conduct of the army of the Danube, and the state of Suabia during its passage; 5. Remarkable events during this period, till the renewal of hostilities ; 6. Events of the winter 1799 and 1800 ; 7. Events from the opening of the campaign to the treaty of Parsdorf; 8. The situation of Suabia during this æra ;' and 9. The events which occurred previous to the general peace.
Art. 49.-D. Martin Luthers Reisen und Merkrwurdige Schikssale. Travels and remarkable Events in the Life of Dr. Martin Luther, with
an Abstract of the History of the Reformation, to the Peace of Westphalia. By J. F. Kutscher. 8vo. Schleswick.
The travels of Luther are of so little importance, if we except his journey to Rome, that the author seems to have adopted the title, to distinguish his work from the innumerable lives of this celebrated reformer already published. If this volume add to the list, it does not add to our knowledge. It is properly a history of the life and the reformation of Luther, made up from common materials, mixed with insignificant events and bold assertions.
In the first book, the author treats of the life of Luther, from 1183 to 1517. To the narrative of his journey to Rome, he adds an explanation of the Ambrosian and Gregorian liturgy, which is wonderfully misplaced in this volume. The second book contains the events of the years from 1518 to 1522. We were surprised at his stopping at this point, since, three years afterwards, the reformation was introduced into Saxony, by the consent of the elector. The third and fourth books proceed to the year 1537; and we here find numerous errors respecting the conduct of Zwingle, and our own Henry. In short, we need not dwell any longer on this article ; our object is to give an account of German literature in different departments, and of works of different merits.
Art. 50.—Leben des Desiderius Erasmus.
The Life of Erasmus. Leipsic. This is a separate publication of a life, which has already ap- . peared in the seventh volume of a collection, entitled, “The Biography of celebrated Reformers.' We might expect to find in it whatever Erasmus lias done, to clear theology of its abuses, by the application of ancient literature, criticism, the study of history and philosophy, &c.; with what zeal he combated prejudice and super
stition, to prepare the mind for a necessary and useful reformation, Of all this, however, we discover not the slightest trace. Our author's chief object is to show, that Erasmus does not deserve the character of a great man; that he neither equals Luther, nor even Ulric of Hütten. The work is intended to be a popular one; and yet the author stops to relate the discussions between Erasmus, Stunica, Bedda, Carpi, Lee, and others. In return, he passes in silence the pleasing and satirical pictures of the manners, opinions, abuses, follies, and superstitions of his age, which render his dialogues equally amusing and instructive.
Art. 51.—Meine Pilgerschafft durchs Weltgehimmel. My Pilgrimage through the Tumult of the World. A romantic Tale.
Vol. I. 8vo. This tale is said to contain the true history of an itinerant come. dian, in the western districts of Germany. Those who have laughed at the Comic Romance of Scarron, and the numerous similar works in our own language, will perhaps be pleased with comparing the French and English with a German portrait. The German comedian has not, indeed, the spirit and humour of his predecessors; but his imagination is lively, and his sensibility relle ders the work interesting. Many inferior German publications have been translated.
ITALY. Art. 52.—Dissertatione dell'Abate Domenico Testa, sopra due
Zodiaci, &c. Dissertation of the Abate Domenico Testa on the two Zodiacs lately dis.
corered in Egypt. Read at an extruordinary Meeting of the Academy of the Catholic Religion, July 5th, 1802. 8vo. Rome.
In our review of the literature of Germany, will be found an account of two works on this subject; and our attention will be, probably, again called to it by some English publications. We shall, therefore, only now recapitulate the very judicious and satisfactory arguments of this author, without being able, in this place, to appreciate the force of each.
The use of the zodiac in Egypt cannot be traced higher than the period when the vernal equinox entered Aries, an epoch of 3600 years. One of these zodiacs cannot, therefore, reach above 720, and the other 2880 years beyond this period. The ancient Egyptians, in other respects, were not so far advanced in the knowledge of astronomy as the Chaldæans and other nations.
2. These zodiacs must have been constructed about the time of Hipparchus, or rather later, nearly about 150 years before the Christian æra.
3. Paul Lucas, who speaks of the temple of Tentyra, found in it Greek inscriptions ; in one of which the name of Marcus Clodius, and in another that of Tiberius Cæsar, were observable. Pococke also assures us, that the ornaments of the temple are the works of the most able Grecian sculptors. The temple must, then, have been built at an æra when the Egyptian architecture was already united with the Grecian.
4. The zodiac of Tentyra contains the constellation of the Balance, which was only discovered by the astronomers of the school of Alexandria.
5. The indication of the solstice by the Hands, in the sign Leo, proves nothing, because the ancient Egyptians did not begin their civil year by the summer solstice, but by the heliacal rising of Sirius, which coincided with the entrance of the sun into the sign Leo, and with the inundations of the Nile.
6. The zodiac of Esne, which is but imperfectly known, seems, according to appearances, to be of the æra of Augustus, because then the new ara of the Egyptians commenced (the æra Actiaca); because in the month of September the sun entered Libra; and in the same month the battle of Actium, which gave Augustus the possession of the whole of Egypt, was fought. The Athyr of the Egyptians was confounded with Venus Genetrix.
The work concludes with two memoirs : the first on the antiqui. ty of the Egyptian temples; the second on the antiquity of the constellation of Libra, on a comparison with Indian monuments, from which an attempt has been made to prove its greater antiquity. ART. 53.—Dizionario Storico degli utori Ebrei e delle loro Opere. Historical Dictionary of Hebrew Authors, and their forks. By Dr.
G. B. de Rossi. 2 Vols. 8vo. Parma. M. de Rossi is, perhaps, the only person among modern literati who could engage in such a work, as his knowledge of Hebrew literature is uncommon and extensive, and as he possesses a valuable collection of Hebrew books and MSS. This has enabled him to complete and amend Wolt's Bibliotheca Hebraica, and other works of the same kind. We shall mention some of the articles which respect men not generally known.
In Italy we may point out Jacob Saravel of Venice, and Israel Benjamin Brassani, a rabbin of Reggio. The first was also a rabbin, and died at Mantua in 1782. He was well versed in Christian philology, and was said to disapprove many points in the Jewish ritual. The latter died in 1790; was one of the best poets of his nation, and highly esteemed for the rectitude of his character.
Among the German Jews we find some accounts of Bloch the ichthyologist, Moses Mendelshon, and Hartwig Wesseleys. Marcus Herz, a very respectable physician of Berlin, is only shortly mentioned: others are passed in silence, as Abraham Euchel, David Friedlander, Aaron Wolfshon, &c.
A Hebrew journal, under the title of the Collector, which contains interesting literary intelligence, seems not to have reached M. de Rossi; but this omission is compensated by his quotation of other Hebrew works little known in Europe ; and of authors who have treated of Hebrew literature, as Philo Alexandrinus, Flavius Josephus, Aquila, Theodotion, &c. Among the most interesting articles we notice those of Elias Levita, born in 1472; Moses Maimonides, born in 1139: Saadia Gaon and Tancum, quoted by Pococke and Schnurrer.
The Hebrew text is printed in Roman characters, according to the Italian pronunciation ; a plan we cannot commend, as it will be the source of numerous mistakes. The author often quotes • Catalogo ragionalo de miei MSS.'-A descriptive Catalogue of my Manuscripts. The first volume of this catalogue is in the press, and will appear with the following title : MSS. Codices Hebraici Facultatum omnium, Bibliothecæ Auctoris accurate descripti perpetuisque Scholiis historico-criticis ac Commentario ile lustrati.' Art. 54.-Opere del Dottore Ludovico Scapinelli, soprannominato
il Cieco. The Works of Dr. Lewis Scapinelli, called the Blind. Vol. I. Sto.
Parma. Dr. Scapinelli was born blind, but acquired extensive knowledge notwithstanding his misfortune, and distinguished himself in philo. sophy, eloquence, and poetry, so as not only to excel his contemporaries, but even to anticipate the improvements of future centuries. The proofs of these assertions may be found in the Life of the author, by Pompilio Pozzetti, prefixed to the present volume, from which we copy the following passage :
• Filologo, oratore, poeta, coltivator delle muse Italiane e delle Latine, sostenne fino al 1634, con non commune onore, le primarie categre delle varie università d'Italia, lasciando quantità d'opere d'ogni genere.'
This first volume contains the Latin and Italian poetry, and some pieces in prose in both languages. The Italian poems, though few, are light, and have an originality both in the ideas and expressions. The sonnets have a little of the false brilliancy and affectation of the age. On the contrary, in the Latin poems there is equal justness of thought and elegance of expression. He seems deeply impressed with the beauties of the ancient classics ; and Ovid, Virgil in his eclogues, and Tibullus, appear to have been his most approved models.
Art. 55.-(teneeskundig Magazjin, dic. Magazine of Medicine. By Van Stripian Luiscius, C. G. Ontyd,
M. J. Macquelin, and J. l'an Ileckeren. Vol. I. No. 1-3. 8vo. Delf.
This magazine is designed as a dépôt for the observations of the Dutch physicians, and at the same time to supercede the Verhandelingen, published by the Society of Natural Philosophy and Me. dicine at the Hague.
Besides the names mentioned in the title, we perceive those of Vanden Bosch, Van Geuns, and Runk, whom we have already had occasion to notice with commendation..
We perceive few subjects that can detain us. The vaccine disease is noticed, in many parts, with respect and confidence. A singular memoir occurs on the natural history of human excrements; and we find two instances of the good effects of the radix Lopeziana, first recommended by Gaubius, in his Adversaria, in cases of dysentery; '
Art. 56.-Verhandelingen van het Genootschap ter bevordering der
Heelkunde te Amsterdam. Vol. VII. 870. Amsterdam. We have formerly noticed same of the earlier volumes of this collection, which seems to lessen both in bulk and interest. We first find an account of the prize memoirs; and next follow the different communications. The first is entitled Observations on the Wounds of the Lower Belly, by J. C. Albrecht and J. Hankman, each of whom obtained a silver medal. Some other memoirs of importance follow, of which we noticed, with particu. lar approbation, four cases of bloody lymph accumulated in cancerous breasts, by A. C. Monro ; with four analogous observations, by E. P. Swagerman. Observations on a recent Luxation of the Right Thigh, reduced by J. Martens, and explained on anato. mical Principles. A Memoir on Deformed Pelves, with a new Method of Delivery, to preserve both the Mother and Child. Art. 57.-Reizen nae de Kaap de Goede Hoop, Jerland, end
Norregen, &c. A l'oyage to the Cape of Good Hope, Ireland, and Norway, in the
Years 1791–1797. By Cornelius de Jong, Captain of the Frigate Scipio. Vol. II. 87o. Harlem. We some time since noticed the first volume of this work. The voyage commenced in 1794, and captain de Jong arrived at St. Jago in the best season, but found the island sickly ; which seems to show that it is unhealthy in consequence of the rains, which fall at the end of summer. In other respects it is very fertile ; but provisions are dear, from the number of ships which refit and victual here. M. de Jong arrived at the Cape in November. The letters from the 4th to the 11th contain an interesting account of the colony, and a distressing picture of its situation in consequence of the war. He next describes some excursions into the internal parts, Simon's Bay, &c.
He sailed, on his return, the 19th of May 1795, and on the 20th of June anchored at the Isle of Ascension, of which he gives a par. ticular description. He then directed his course to the coast of Norway, to avoid the English, and continued nearly two years at Drontheim and at Bergen, as the English vessels filled the North Sea. He is, consequently, enabled to describe the whole coast of Norway, and engages in some details on the constitution and present state of that country, on the manners of its inhabitants, mineral productions, statistics, and commerce.
Four plates illustrate this volume: the first representing Table Bay and Cape Town: the second, a view of Simon's Bay : the third, a sea insect, which the author found near Flores, one of the Azores, greatly resembling the glaucus Aagellum of Forster : the fourth, the military exercises of the Norwegians.
DENMARK. Art. 58.- Anleitung zu einer verbesserten Schaafzucht. A new Method of breeding Sheep, and of the Manngement of Spanish
Sheep in cold Climates. By M. Abildgaard and E. Vibourg. Translated from the Danish by E. Jensen. 8vo. Copenhagen. We avail ourselves of the German translation, to announce this