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the Egyptians, the invention of which we know to have been after the 135th year A.C. The author then combats the antiquity of the Egyptians from the narrative of Moses; from which it appears, that 3,500 years before our æra, Egypt was still in a state of ignorance, so that we cannot assign it 4000 years of scientific cultiva. tion. In another view, the æra of Menes, the oldest recorded king of Egypt, is not more than 2,500 years before the Christian æra.
From other causes, the author has no hesitation in distrusting the very extended chronology of the Indians, and shows from philosophic and chronologic arguments, that such remote antiquity is impossible. This work, we perceive, has been translated into Italian, and published at Venice.
Art. 36.— Betrachlungen über die Natur für Verstand und Herz. Considerations of Nature for the Mind and the Heart. By B. S. Wal
ther. 4 Vols. 870. Plates. Weimar. This work is a physico-theological one, whose object is to conduct man towards the Author of nature, by a contemplation of his works. The first volume relates to the stars, and their influence on the earth, divided into two sections; of which the first contains the theory of the universe, and its application to religion. In the last part we find some unavoidable repetitions, though in general the style is easy and correct.
The second volume treats of the physical organization of the earth, and its physical changes. The third is confined to man and animals. Plants and minerals are the subject of the fourth, terminated by a general table of contents. To explain the plan of the whole, we shall give a short abstract of the fourth volume. The first section is confined to plants; in which, after some general considerations on the vegetable kingdom, the author treats of trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, and plants, with imperceptible flowers. He points out the power and wisdom of the Creator in the arrangement of the vegetable kingdom, and the influence these considerations should have on our opinions and our conduct. The author follows the same train, in his view of the mineral kingdom, and treats of earths, stones, salts, earthy resins, or inflammable minerals, and metals, with the application of this knowledge to religion. . The plates represent, 1. the eruption of Vesuvius in 1791; 2. the cavern of stalactites near Slains, in Scotland; 3. the cavern of Fingal in Staffa; 4. the position of the earth with respect to the sun, in the four seasons; 5. water-spouts; 6. the five principal races of man; 7. the various bread-fruits; 8. various animals and plants.
Art. 37.—Betrachlungen über die Natur. Contemplations on Nature, not imitated from Bonnet and Sanders. 8ro.
Leipsic. This work is a kind of anti-theodicea, founded in part on the principles of Hume, and in part on the author's own observations. The preponderance of evil over good in this world is explained and demonstrated by the destructive force of the elements; by the changes in the state of the earth, by the number of animals of
prey, and by the moral corruption of the nature of man. The author does not accuse Providence of the physical evils of the world, which he considers only as the result of general laws; but he freely owns, that he cannot reconcile the existence of evil in the world with the idea of a being infinitely good and just. In fact, the author means well, but possesses neither acuteness nor comprehensive views. The work is written with clearness and energy, seemingly from the heart.
Art. 38.— Triumph der Philosophie im achtzehnten Jahrhundert. The Triumph of Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century. 2 Vols. &to.
Germantown. The two volumes before us contain the history of the modern philosophy, or, as some authors chuse to style it by way of distinction-- philosophism. We find the usual steps from Voltaire and Rousseau, to the Illuminés and Free-masons, which we have formerly spoken of, and respecting which our opinions are not changed. The author, like some of his hasty predecessors, has caught at resemblances, and supposed them coincidences or consequences; and in some respects has misrepresented facts.
It is certain, that early in the 18th century the philosophy of the ancient schools was abolished : and this was in a great measure owing to the suppression of the Jesuits. The authors of this dangerous revolution were Leibnitz and Thomasius. The system of the former has been said to lead to Deism and Spinozism; yet Wolf has refuted the system of Spinoza from the works of Leibnitz. "Frederic and his band of deists are said to have hastened the progress of this revolution; yet Maupertuis was a zealous catholic. The greatest error of this king, it is said, was the establishment of a general toleration in his dominions. In fact, however, the toleration was established one hundred years before his time, and he only continued it.
The universal German Bibliotheca, which was supposed to have preached philosophism under the auspices of Frederic, commenced only in 1765, twenty-five years after his coming to the throne; and Lessing, we believe, who is here accused of co-operating in the great work of reformation, had no share in the Bibliotheca.
Philosophy perhaps, as the author alleges, has contributed to overturn thrones and altars; undermined equally morality and religion; yet we cannot agree with him in the propriety of the remedy, the re-establishment of the order of the Jesuits. This is the burden of the song, and he concludes with these words:
Et nunc, reges, intelligite.
Art. 39.— Immanuel Kant über Padagogik. On Education. By Emanuel Kant. Published by Dr. F. T. Rink.
8vo. Königsberg. Dr. Rink, in this work, publishes a recapitulation of the lectures of Kant on education. This is not a system, but a series of observations and experiments, marked with the genius and the peculiarities of the author. Education is divided into physical cultiva.
tion, discipline, and instruction. The first prevents the abuses which man may make of his power. Discipline renders him a social being, and obedient to the laws; and instruction furnishes him with the positive means of unfolding his natural faculties. The object of education, according to our author, is to direct the freedom of manner, which man himself feels and acknowledges to be the necessary rule of his well-being. Education therefore should be treated as every other science, and only employed in the successive developement of the natural faculties, to direct them insensibly to the love of order, a knowledge of the world, and morality. According to Kant, “an instructor has done every thing for his pupil, if he have proved to his conviction the equality of munkind, if he have rendered him contented with himself, and habituated him to a severe examination of himself at the conclusion of every day.' Art. 40.—Geographisch-Statistische Beschreibung der Fürstenthumer
Wolfenbuttel und Blackenburg. A Geographic and Statistic Description of the Principalities of Wola
fenbuttel and Blackenburg. By G. Hassel and K. Bege. Sro. Brunswick.
Though these principalities be of little importance to the En. glish reader, yet, as the accounts seem to be drawn up with care from authentic documents, we thought that a few of the facts would not be uninteresting. The number of inhabitants of Wol. fenbuttel, including Hartz, amounted in 1793 to near 200,000. The corrupted German jargon, once generally spoken, was banished from the tribunals in the sixteenth century, from the churches in the seventeenth, and from the cities in the eighteenth: it is still however preserved in the country.
The principality is rich in grain, particularly in flax, which occasions a considerable and valuable manufacture of linen. The mountains furnish a large quantity of wood, and contain some valuable mines, which are worked with profit and success. On these subjects the author's accounts are full and valuable. This is however only a first volume of a work, subservient to the statistics and general topography of Germany.
Art. 41.-Geographie und Statistik der Saemtlichen Staaten, &c. Geography and Statistics of all the States of the King of Sardinia,
according to their Ertent, previous to the War of the Revolution, viz. Savoy, Piedmont, Montserrat, a Part of the Milanese, and the Island of Sardinia, to eluciditte the Chart of these States published by the Abbé Denina. 8vo. Berlin.
We survey with a melancholy interest the remains of past grandeur, the effects of that desolation which a revolution, unex. ampled in its extent, conduct, and effects, has occasioned. The present work is designed, as the title tells us, to illustrate a chart. It is, in reality, a separate publication of Denina's Introduction to the History of the Sardinian States; in which the imperfections of former historians are supplied, and their errors corrected, from unpublished or imperfectly known documents, as well as his own observations.
The work is divided into twelve sections, of which ten are geo. graphic. The descriptions of the provinces contain many inter. esting accounts, and corrections of some ancient and established geographic systems. In the eleventh section the author gives a description of the island of Sardinia; in the twelfth a complete statistic account of the former states of Sardinia. From the Calendario Economico of 1800, the Sardinian states of the continent contained 3,190,184 individuals. It is even said, that, from 1774 to 1790, the increase in numbers amounted to 230,000.
The chart added to the work was laid down by Denina, and engraved by Sproegel. It contains the dominions of the king of Sardinia, according to their ancient limits, previous to the revolution. Art. 42.-Reise eines ungenannten durch Deutchland und die
Schweitz, &c. Travels of a Person unknown through Germany and Switzerland, in the
Years 1799, 1800, and 1801. 800. Breslaw. The author of these travels has collected, in every part of his tour, interesting information, and his observations generally bear the stamp of genius. He proceeds from Nuremberg to Augsburg, Ulm, Bregenz, and the Grisons, where he remains for a short time, to proceed to Bormio, whence he intended to pass on to Italy. He was however hindered by circumstances, and he regained St. Gothard by paths untrodden and dangerous. He af. terwards passes through the canton of Uri, to go to Zurich, where he describes several scenes on the lake. From Zurich he returns by Schaffhausen, where his travels in Switzerland terminate.
The travels in Germany contain some good observations on the cities of Stutgard, Carlsruhe, Manheim, Frankfort, Wurtzburg, Bamberg, Erlang, and Nuremberg. In considering that these travels extend 400 French leagues, it will he obvious, that the author cannot have spoken much of himself, or filled his pages with anecdotes. His work is confined to descriptions, or to inte. resting observations, accompanied with six but indifferent plates, representing views of Nuremberg, of Altdorf in the canton of Uri, Zurich, Constance, Heidelberg, and Manheim.
Art. 43.-Wanderungen durch einen grosen Theil des Harzes, &c. A Journey through a great Part of the Forest of Hartz, and through the
Counties of Hohenstein und Mansfeldt. 8vo. Magdeburg The style of this work is pleasing; and so far as it contains a minute description of the views and situation of the Hartz, which fill the larger part, it is entertaining and interesting. The statistic information is treated slightly in the notes; and what relates to the mines is short and unsatisfactory, to those who wish for instruction; and too concise for those acquainted with them.
Art. 44.- Mansos Vermischte Schrifften. The Miscellaneous Works of Manso. Tom. 1 & 2. 8vo. Leipsic. Manso is chiefly known as a poet, and an imitator of Pe
trarch, In the volumes before us, however, we find also some philological treatises, elegant, if not profound. Among these, Care • Letters on ancient Alexandria,' continued in the second volume; and eleven sheets on the • Tradition of the Old World.'--The third volume is in the press. Art. 45.—Juliani Imperatoris in Constantii Laudem Oratio, Græce et
Latine, cum Animadrersionibus Dun. Ilyttenbuchii: accedit ejusdem Epistola critica ad Dar. Ruhnkenium. Græca recensuit, Notationem
criticum Indicesque adjecit, G. 11. Schæfer. 800. Leipsic. · The Julianæa of Wyttenbach demand a distinguished place among the classical works. As these works are become scarce, we announce, with pleasure, the present edition. The epistle to Ruhnkenius, the first publication of Wyttenbach, adds to its value. Art. 46.–J. H. M. Ernesti Claris Horatiana, sive Indices Rerum et
Verborum philologico-critici in Opera Horutii, præmissis ad Lectionem Usumque Poetæ necessariis. Vol. 1. 8vo. Berlin.
It is sufficient to announce a work designed to explain each word and phrase of Horace. The author's character requires not our support; and those acquainted with the labours of Ernesti will be sensible of the merits of this volume. The glossary at least seems complete; and it will be difficult, if not impossible, to fix on a word not to be found in the · Key.'
After the preface, we find the Life of Horace by C. Suetonius Tranquillus, with the notes of Mitscherlich, emendations and additions,
2. The history of Rome, during the age of Horace, by Wetzelius.
3. Ancient testimonies in favour of Horace. Anindex of names, a syntactic index, and an index of words, conclude the work.
Art. 47.-Sudis des Weisen Persers Koenigsspiegel. The Mirror of Kings, by Saadi, a Persian Sage. By J. G. Grohman,
8vo. Leipsic. We are acquainted with only three works of Saadi, viz. the Gulistan or the Garden of Roses, the Bostan or the Garden of Fruits, and the Melemoat or the Rays of Light. The first is written in prose intermixed with verse: the two others are in verse. We have, in our language, many parts of the Gulistan in the Asiatic Miscellanies, and Gentius has published a translation in Latin with the Persian text on the opposite page. It first appeared at Amsterdam, in folio, under the title of Rosarium politicum, in 1651, and in 1689 a, small edition in 12mo was published, adorned with plates.
We strongly suspect that Gentius and the Asiatic Miscellanies are the sources of the present translation: for the expression of • Mirror of Kings' occurs in Gentius's preface, and a part of the forty-eight pieces here published occur also in Gentius; the remainder in the English work.