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aunt, and departed with his company. The king and Amadis tonducted him through the city. As they were going out of the city-gate, they met a damsel who took Perion's bridle, and said to him, King Perion, remember what thou wert told,-how, when thou didst recover thy loss, the kingdom of Ireland should lose its Hower. See now if the damsel told thee true! for thou hast found thy son who was lost; and that brave king Abies is slain, who was the flower of Ireland. And now I tell thee, that never shall that country have his like, till the good brother of the lady shall come, who shall proudly and violently make the tribute of other lands be brought there, and he shall die by the hands of him who must perish for the thing in the world that he loves best. This was Marhaus of Ireland, brother to the queen, whom sir Trystram de Lyons slew on the quarrel of tribute demanded from king Mark of Corn. wall, and Trystram himself was slain afterward because of queen Isoude, who was the thing in the world that he loved best. And this, said the damsel, my mistress Urganda sends me to tell thee. Then, said Amadis, damsel and my friend, say to her who sent you, that the knight to whom she gave the lance commendeth him. self to her good grace, being now assured in the matter whereof then she spake, that with that lance I should deliver from death the house from whence I sprung, for I saved with it the king my father. So the damsel returned, and Agrayes went his way.
Then king Perion summoned a cortes, that all might see his son Amadis; and then were great rejoicings and pastimes made in honour of the lord whom God had given them, and many things were done in that cortes, and many and great gifts did the king bestow. And when Amadis heard how the giant had carried away his brother Galaor, he determined to seek him, and recover him by force of arms or otherwise. When the cortes was ended, he requested his father permission to go to Great Britain. Much did the king and queen labour to detain him, but it might not be by reason of the love he bare, which made him obedient to none but his lady. So he clad himself in harbour like that which Abies had destroyed in the combat, and taking none with him but Gandalin set forth. They proceeded till they came to the sea, then entered a vessel, and sailed to a goodly city in Great Britain, which is called Bristol. Here he learnt that king Lisuarte was at his town of Windsor, whither he shaped his course; but far had he not gone when he met a damsel, who demanded of him if that were her ready way to Bristol, and if she could find shipping there for her speedy passage into Gaul. Whom seek you there? said he.-The good knight Amadis, who is the king's son, and has not long known his father. Greatly did Amadis marvel thereat, and he asked her from whom she heard thereof. I know it, quoth she, from her to whom nothing is hidden, from Urganda the Unknown, who now stands in such need of him, that by no other can she ob. tain what she desires. Thanks to God! replied Amadis, she who can assist all, now requires me to assist her. Let us go, for I am the man whom ye seek. And he forsook his road, and followed her.' Vol. i. p. 90.
This chapter contains complete proof that Amadis, al. though perhaps the first Portuguese or Spanish romance of chivalry, is itself but an imitation of Sir Trystram and other similar compositions here quoted. We are tempted to wish, that, to these earlier romances also, the honour of republication may be extended. The mythologic records of our heroic ages will be found to conceal some historic facts, to preserve many ethic peculiarities of our forefathers, and to form the only mine out of which future epic poets may hope to draw a fable adapted for European celebrity and interést. The story-books of chivalry are the sole common stock of heroic exploit, to which every modern nation has in turn devoted its attention. Unknown heroes do not interest. Achievements must be associated in the memory with great names and famous places, in order to make an impression of reality on the imagination. Illusion, such as an epic poet or a dramatist needs, cannot be superinduced through the medium of fictitious personages, here unknown to narrative and song, such as a Sir Guyon, or Artegal, or the Orphan of China. All works of art bave been most successful, which connect their own celebrity with that of some previously distinguished event. The poet should not make his hero famous, but take him because he has become so. Let us prepare, then, for the artist his necessary road, by recalling to popular attention those gestes of our forefathers, which the patriotism of the antiquary, which the fancy of the poet, has insatiately fed on so long. These heroic romances are far worthier to amuse the reading world, than the mawkish novels in which it professes to delight. In some propitious hour, they will fall into the hands of young Genius meditating enterprise; and they will, here too, inspire the efforts of an Ariosto or a Wieland.
ART. VII.-Travels in Turkey, Asia-Minor, Syria, and across the Desert into Egypt during the Years 1799, 1800, and 1801, in Company with the Turkish Army, and the British Military Mission. To which are annexed, Obser: rations on the Plague, and on the Diseases prevalent in Turkey, and a Metcorological Journal. By William Witt. man, M. D. &c. 4to. 21. 125. 6d. Boards. Phillips. 1803.
THE tale of Egypt has no longer novelty or interest to recommend it: it has been often told ; and genius must enliven the narrative, or new discoveries awaken curiosity, to re-excite the public attention. Dr. Wittman has neither of these advantages; and the little that he could, for the first time, have told, policy has, with great propriety, suppressed. Sir
piethe Oficided steps formed our
Robert Wilson, early in the field, attracted our curiosity by his military details ; and, about the same time, Denon supplied what Pocock and Norden were not able to investigate with accuracy, what Savary never saw, and Volncy more openly copied from others : lieutenant Anderson compiled with attention the Official Journals ;' and captain Walsh, with slower. and more guarded steps, contributed, very satisfactorily, mi-, nuter circumstances, and fixed our meditation by more precise scientific descriptions of the spot and the events connected with it. Such was the state of public information when the present work appeared. It is evident, therefore, that scarcely a niche remained unfilled, a spot undescribed ; and, even in the author's immediate profession, the little which his limited experience could supply, has been repeatedly offered by preceding travellers.
Our readers will recollect, that, a short time previous to the Egyptian expedition, some artillery-officers and engineers were sent to Turkey, to instruct the Turkish cannoneers. Dr. Wittman was physician to the expedition, which he styles, perhaps improperly, the ' mission, as this term is, by common consent, appropriated to religious enterprises. His residence in Turkey, his voyage to Syria, and the encampment at Jaffa, previous to the march of the Turkish army to Egypt, form the most interesting parts of his work. The description of Egypt is much more full and satisfactory in the authors already mentioned. The excursion to Jerusalem adds little to what Maundrel and others have before told us; and, as we have already observed, we find no novelty in our author's professional details. The return from Egypt by sea, through the Grecian Archipelago, is not uninteresting, but scarcely offers any novelty. The description of the procession at the festival of the beyram and of the grand seignor are, however, among the few novelties of this volume.
• About eight o'clock the procession commenced; but the grand seignor did not make his appearance until half-past nine. The dresses of all those who composed the procession were splendid and costly. The fine horses on which they were mounted, and more especially those of the eunuchs and principal officers of state, were most gorgeously caparisoned, the housings of many of them being of gold embroidery, studded with precious stones, by which a very brilliant effect was produced. In the turban of the grand seignor was a beautiful aigrette of very great value, the diamonds of which it was composed being of uncommon magnitude. Several of his horses, on which his shield and various trophies were carried, were led in the procession; and being very richly caparisoned, and ornamented with a profusion of diamonds, rubies, and other precious stones, gave a brilliancy and magnificence to the scene, which far exceeded any idea I could previously have formed of it.
During the procession, a Turkish officer was constantly em. ployed in throwing on the heads of the populace handfuls of new paras. The contest which ensued, to pick them up, afforded to the Turkish spectators no little amusement.
• The grand seignor, who was very superbly mounted, was fol. lowed by his sword-bearer, carrying his sabre, the hilt of which was profusely studded with diamonds. Next came several officers of his seraglio richly dressed, bearing on cushions his turbans, ornamented with diamonds and other gems. The streets were lined on each side with Janissaries, whose dress-caps appeared to me both ridiculous and unbecoming. As the sultan passed along, he from time to time bowed with great affability to the people, all of whom prostrated themselves on his approach.
i The kislah aga, or chief of the eunuchs, officiated at the mosque, and wore on his return a valuable pelice and a rich caftan, with which the grand seignor had presented him. Several other caftans, of qualities suited to the rank of those for whom they were destined, wete distributed by the sultan on this occasion.
• The procession was conducted with great decorum, and throughout the whole of it the best order observed. It would be impossible for me to attempt to describe all the striking appear. ances it exhibited, or to enter into a detail of the great variety and extreme singularity of the magnificent costumes which were displayed. To be brief-it afforded to us strangers a spectacle truly novel and interesting, and fully repaid us for the trouble we had taken to be comprehended among the number of the spectators, By eleven o'clock the streets were cleared.
Selim III, the present sultan, is extremely popular with his subjects, and by no means destitute of the talents and abilities which a sovereign ought to possess. He is descended from the house of Osman, by whom the fifth dynasty of the caliphs was established in the thirteenth-century. Having received a more liberal education than has usually been bestowed in Turkey on those to whose lot the succession has fallen, sultan Selim possesses a well cultivated mind, and has made himself acquainted with the policy of the more refined states of Europe. It is, therefore, not surprising, that he has introduced so many salutary innovations into his empire; and, from a conviction of their manifest superiori. ty, has become so strenuous a partizan of the tactics and military discipline of England and France. In my subsequent details relative to the grand visier and the capitan pacha, I shall have occasion to notice, in a particular manner, the improvements he has introduced in his army and marine. He is of a courteous and affa. ble character; and his physiognomy is fine and full of expression. His figure is well proportioned, and his aspect commanding.' P. 46.
The following remarks, of a different kind, merit attention, • Among the prevailing diseases in Turkey, the rickets are very common in children, and blindness in adults.
• The lame and deformed objects who constantly intrude them. selves on the view, are in such numbers as to excite astonishment.
• Pulmonary complaints, as far as I had occasion to observe, are by no means prevalent in this country; the catarrhal and asthmatic affections prevail most among elderly people.
• The Turks are certainly not subject to the multitude of diseases which infest some other nations. Sores and wounds are managed and healed with more facility; much may be ascribed to their temperance. Fontanelles, or issues, are in common use; and somewhat lessen the evils resulting from the indolent and inactive life which the Turks in general lead. Cutaneous affections, herpetic and tettery eruptions are common, particularly upon the head : dyspepsia, and other stomach complaints, prevail very generally. Their greasy food, inactive life, their excesses in the use of smoking tobacco, and opium, may give rise to these disorders. Hernias are common. Besides plague, they are occasionally subject to malignant and bilious remittent and intermittent fevers in autumn.
• In Constantinople, Pera, and the suburbs, there are, it is said, nearly five thousand persons who profess the different branches of the medical art. They are natives of almost every nation, but consist more particularly of Turks, Greeks, Armenians, and Italians, and are for the greater part utterly ignorant of the principles either of medicine or of surgery. There are, however, some exceptions to this observation, and among them a Mr. Ruiné, an Italian, whom I accidentally met with a few days before the period of which I am now treating. He occasionally attends the grand seignor, when indisposed, as well as the harem, and many of the principal officers of state. For these services he has no salary, but is paid for his visits. His practice is extremely lucrative. The person who at present holds the appointment of physician to the sultan, is a Turk, who, notwithstanding he is entirely unacquainted ' with medicine, receives an annual stipend of nearly five thousand pounds sterling. Almost every individual in Turkey has a nos. trum for some disease or other.' P. 48,
The Turkish marine appears to improve ; and we read, with some interest, the description of the admiral's ship, the Sultan Selim. Many ships of the line, built by Swedish and other foreign artificers, are said to be excellent." Sailors, however, cannot be built, with equal ease. The country in the neighbourhood of the Euxine, and of the Dardanelles, seems to have been observed very cursorily.
The British engineers were encamped for a long time at Jaffa, a situation sandy and dreary, but safe from an attack by sea, in consequence of its shelving coast, and the surf on its shore. Dr. Wittman confirms, from his inquiry, the reality of the tales of assassination and poison repcatedly asserted against Bonaparte. It adds to the enormity of the former transaction, that four days had elapsed after their surrender, before the unfortunate prisoners were butchered : it was cool deliberate cruelty. England may perhaps revenge, on her own grounds, these violations of every law huinan and