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We have an executive power, always exerted for the good of the state, and restrained from any impulsion of passion or tyranny that might subvert that state. In those laws the individual interest of every man is vitally concerned, because every individual has contributed to enact them for the security of those interests. With us, no man is the slave of power, but the subject of the law-no mercenary gathers laurels for his chief, but the armed citizen of his country defends its rights.' P. 37.
Art. 14.-Hints to the People of the United Kingdom, in general, und
of North Britain, in particular, on the present important Crisis, and some interesting collateral Subjects. By William Dickson, LL.D. 8ro. ls. Longman und Rees. 1803.
Our author, who confessedly drew his first breath on the north, ern side of the Tweed, calmly displays to north and south Britons the advantages they enjoy in their civil and political state. The temarks are clear and judicious, but neither adduced with spirit, nor in such a popular form as to draw general attention. The author has been disabled in the service of his king and country, and still employs his only remaining efforts in their defence. Both in his views and their execution, he deserves considerable commendation.
Art. 15.-A Friendly Address to the labouring Part of the Commu. nity, concerning the present Stute of Public Affairs in Church and State. 800. 1s. 6. Hatchard. 1803.
This very calm, candid, and dispassionate, statement of the ad. vantages which Englishmen enjoy, in climate, in government, and the general benevolence displayed in favour of the poor and the distressed, deserves to be generally dispersed in a smaller form, and perhaps within a shorter compass. Its merits are considerable ; nor is there, through the whole, an exceptionable sentence. The little mistakes are of the most pardonable kind.
Art. 16.-Serious Considerations, addressed to British Labourers and Mechanics, at the present Crisis. 800. 6d. Debrett. 1803.
These considerations are well adapted to the present crisis. The author calmly and dispassionately explains the necessity of inequality of conditions, from inequality of talent, industry, and strength. He shows, that every able and industrious man may be opulent, and that some of the first families owed their fame to their abilities. We remember having heard an anecdote to this purpose, many years since. A man had risen, from the humble occupation of a carrier, to opulence, and a seat in the house of commons. The wits of the day, when he rose to speak, would whisper, that the bells were jingling ; which the graver part of the house repressed, by the cheering encouragement of Hear him!Hear him!' He at last noticed it, and thanked the gentlemen for their kindness; professing, that, to him, it was the highest compliment he could receive. I was born and bred a carrier,' added he. "Were some of these gentlemen in the same situation, I fear they would have been carriers still.'- It was the remark of a man of abilities, who had attentively examined various countries, that in no place were talents more li. berally rewarded than in England; and in no place could a man, who had acquired a fortune, spend it more satisfactorily to him self. Art. 17.-Few plain Thoughts from a Well-wisher of his Country, sion of faith. The author is a truly good man; and we trust that there are many (very many) such; but, with respect to the reviewer who is obliged to wade through similar works, we would recommend a change of the title ; and that it should be styled « Honest Anguish.'
800. 6d. Debrett. 1803. An excellent incitement to spirit and unanimity in the present crisis, which deserves to be generally read. Should a Frenchman dare to land, we trust he will be opposed by such a spirit as the author inculcates—ONE HAND and ONE MIND.
RELIGION Art. 18.–Sermons, sclected and abridged, chiefly from minor Authors,
adapted generally to the Epistle, Gospel, or first Lessons, or to the several Seasons of the Year. For the Use of Families. By the Ret. Samuel Clapham, A. M. dc. Vol. I. 8vo. 9s. Boards. Vernor and Hood. 1803.
The sermons in this volume are copied from the following authors Skelton, Scattergood, Peters, Elsmere, Catcott, Lawson, Richmond, Riddoch, Pearce, Newlin, Goddard, Muscut, Tucker, Gilbert, Powell, Munton, Coneybeare, Brooke, St. John. The at. tempt to rescue several of these minor writers from the shades of oblivion, is charitable; but it is a proof of the kindness, rather than the discretion, of the collector. His object is to put into the hands of families a volume of discourses which may command the atten. tion of young people, prevent the servants from falling asleep, and keep the reader alive to his office. The only way for the collector to discover whether this object have been accomplished, is to follow the advice which he gives to his brethren of the clergy, whom he recommends to read them in succession after the evening service; and to whom he predicts, in consequence, an immediate and consi. derable increase in their congregations. In addressing them to his own congregation, let him next mark the passages over which the honest countryman begins to yawn, and himself to feel a degree of wearisomeness; and he will be better prepared for a new edition. As a second volume, moreover, is announced, the same process may be profitably adopted, before it constitute even a first edition. It was with concern we perused the confession of an alarming fact.“ • We, the clergy,' says the collector, are every day losing mem. bers from our communion. Would to God, therefore, the most unwearied exertions may individually be made by all the clergy, from the highest to the lowest, throughout the kingdom, to prevent, if it be possible, this indelible reproach to our church. To obviate this, it is recommended that there be given, in the afternoons, some instruction calculated to inform the understandings, and arrest the attention, of our congregations. The advice is good; but it is not from the pulpit only, but also in friendly conversation, that this instruction should be communicated. In short, the plan of the enemy, by which the ranks of the church are thinned, should
be observed ; and, in this instance at least, fas est et ab hoste doccri. The evangelical ministers, in many districts, have of late formed themselves into societies, and visited, in turns, the villages in their neighbourhood. A farmer generally accommodates them with a private room; and, at first, their meeting is small: by degrees, however, neighbour drops in after neighbour; they become accustomed to the new mode of preaching; and, from listening with pleasure to a preacher on the week-day, they are led to sit under him on the Sunday, at his market-town. In most parts of England, this plan has of late been adopted with success: the process is slow and silent; and nothing can obviate it, but great energy from the church pulpit, and a great degree of intercourse between the clergyman and his parishioners. ART. 19.— The Divine Logos, or Jehovah Elohin the only proper
Object of Christian Worship. By John Bentley. 8vo. 3s. 6d. Boards. Hurst. 1803.
The author deprecates the severity of criticism, under whose inspection his work, he thinks, will experience the fate of the partridge in the fraternal embraces of the hawk: we will, therefore, indulge his timidity; commending his uneasiness at attending public worship on Trinity Sunday, and hearing a sermon bordering on indifferentism with respect to the doctrine to which that day is peculiarly dedicated. He is to be praised, also, for reprobating the custom of sitting during prayers---too frequent in many of our churches--and for lamenting the wretched state into which our psalmody is reduced, both with respect to the matter and the manner of its performance. We are fearful, however, that there are too many Hebrew words introduced into this work for the mere English reader to derive much information from it. As the au. thor is an advocate for retaining the spurious verse in the fifth chapter of St. John's Epistle, and asserts that there are manuscripts, which exhibit this verse, older than those which reject it, we should be much obliged to him to name those manuscripts; and, as he professes himself to be a lover of truth, we will wait for his answer till he has read what Newton, Emlyn, Griesbach, Porson, Marsh, and the present bishop of Lincoln, have observed upon this subject. Perluips there never was an interpolation in any work so clearly and decisively proved as this has been; and we are astonished that any person should make the declaration in print which our author has done, without naming those manuscripts on which he builds his faith. One argument, produced in defence of the controverted passage, is futile beyond measure.
• We cannot suppose that the gracious head of his church, would, for near two thousand years, suffer his faithful people to be imposed upon by an interpolation of such a serious nature.' p. 124.
Does not the author know that the Testaments first printed by Luther and Erasmus were without this spurious passage? and, when it is asserted to be an interpolation, he cannot say that it has been permitted to stand in the Testament nearly two thousand years; for the Greek church was without it for upwards of fifteen hundred of those two thousand years.
ART. 20.-Christ's Warning to the Churches to beware of false Pro
phets, who come as Wolves in Sheep's Clothing; and the Marks by which they are known, Illustrated in two Discourses. By Joseph Lathrop, D.D. dc. 12mo. 6d. No London Bookseller's Name. 1802.
The presbyterian form of church discipline is here vindicated ; but some assumptions of the writer seem to militate much against his chief position. He lays it down, as his first maxim, that no one can enter into the ministerial office but in the way that the Gospel prescribes : he allows to each church the right to choose her own ministers: but she cannot make a minister; he must be separated to the work by the elders of the churches.' This latter point is proved from the separation of the deacons by the Apostles. Now, if a church cannot make a minister, we would ask how Dr. Lathrop came to be a minister? and he will answer, perhaps, by the separation to the work by certain elders. But how came the elders to possess their authority ?-by a similar operation. Was this operation uniformly performed ?-by no means. We arrive at a time when these elders received their authority solely from episcopal ordination, or the appointment of a society; and, in either case, the doctor will find it difficult to stand his ground. For, if they had it by episcopal ordination, their episcopal ordination is either of Gospel appointment or not; if not of Gospel authority, then Dr. Lathrop's ministerial character is evidently lost, because they had not the authority to convey a power to his predecessors; and, if episcopal ordination be of Gospel authority, then he has entered into office in a way which the Gospel does not prescribe. The same conclusion follows, if the first elders received their appointment from a church, because he says that a church cannot make a minister. The presbyterian form of discipline is losing ground very much in America ; and is likely to be supplanted, as in England, by that of the independents. The true and the false teachers must be distinguished, by those of every sect, by many points properly laid down in this discourse ; but the chief article the mode of acquiring the ministerial character will be allowed only by one, and that not a very numerous, denomination of Christians. Art. 21.-T::0 Sermons, delivered in the Church of Renfrew, on
Thursday, October 20. 1803. Being the Day appointed for a general Fast. To which is added, a particular Address to the People, adapted to the present eventful Period. By the Rev. Thomas Burns. Second Edition. 8vo. 6d. No London Bookseller's Name. 1803.
These sermons hold a middle place between the religious and the
fession of Faith of a plain, honest, Luyman. 8vo. Is. 64. White,
AGRICULTURE. Art. 23.—Communications to the Board of Agriculture; on Subjects
relative to the Husbandry, and internal Improvement of the Country. Vol. III. Part I. 4to. 21. 2s. Boards. Robinsons. 1802.
The principal part, indeed almost the whole, of this volume consists of hints, essays, and letters, on the conversion of grass-land into tillage. This subject was suggested in consequence of the late dearth; and the committee of the house of lords proposed to the board the consideration of granting permission to tenants to break up grass-land. The best method of effecting this, it was conceived, was to convince landlords that it may be done without injury, and, in many cases, with advantage. Premiums of two and one hundred, of sixty and forty, pounds were offered for the best and the three successive dissertations of different merits.
• It is required that each essay shall fully detail the course of crops, regard being had to the varieties of soil, and the time proposed for continuing the land under tillage.
• Also, to explain the cases in which it may be eligible to drain land, previous to tillage.
• In what cases paring and burning are advantageous, with directions thereon, regard being had to the subsequent cropping.
• The depth to which grass lands should, at first breaking up, be ploughed.
Whether the crops, intended for cattle and sheep, are to be fed on the land, and by which kind of stock, or carted oif. • To state• The crop with which the grass seeds, in each case, ought to
be sown, when the land shall be again laid down : « The sorts and quantities of grass seeds for each kind of soil,
and whether to be provided by landlord, or tenant: · Whether it be best to mow or feed the grass in the first year
after laying down-to detail the management in each case : • The manuring which may be thought necessary : • The principle on which an increase of rent ought to be estimated, where permission may be given to break up old pas.
ture now under lease.
The board requires that these objects should be particularly at. tended to, with relation to the leading qualities of land, viz.
• Clay, in all its distinctions; and soils too strong or wet for tur. nips :
. Loam, in all its distinctions, fit for turnips : • Sand, including warrens and heaths, as well as rich sands: • Chalk-land, and downs :
• Peat, including moory, sedgy, rough bottoms, and fens.' Vol, iii. P. 2.