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in some respects, rather a terrible country to " It is not yet full threescore years since this live in :"
trade began; but how it hath prospered since "S
Such as are idle beggars, through their own that time it is easy to judge, for they are now default, are of two sorts, and continue their supposed, of one sex and another, to amount estates either by casual or mere voluntary unto above 10,000 persons, as I have heard remeans : those that are such by casual means, ported. Moreover, in counterfeiting the Egypare in the beginning justly to be referred either tian rogues, they have devised a language to the first or second sort of poor afore men- among themselves, which they name canting, tioned (the poor by impotency, and the poor by but others pedlaros French, a speech compact casualty); but, degenerating into the thriftless thirty years since of English and a great numsort, they do what they can to continue their ber of odd words of their own devising, without misery, and, with such impediments as they all order or reason; and yet, such is it as none have, to stray and wander about, as creatures but themselves are able to understand. The abhorring all labour and every honest exercise. first deviser thereof was hanged by the neckCertes, I call these casual means, not in respect a just reward no doubt for his deserts, and a of the original of their poverty, but of the con- common end to all of that profession. A gentletinuance of the same, from whence they will man also of late hath taken great pains to not be delivered, such is their own ungracious search out the secret practices of this ungralewdness and froward disposition. The volun- cions rabble; and among other things, he settary means proceed from outward causes, as by teth down and describeth three-and-twenty making of corrosives, and applying the same to sorts of them, whose names it shall not be the most fleshy parts of their bodies; and also amiss to remember, whereby each one may take laying of ratsbane, spearwort, crowfoot, and occasion to read and know, as also by his indussuch like, into their whole members, thereby to try, what wicked people they are, and what vilraise pitiful and odious sores, and move the lainy remaineth in them. hearts of the goers by such places where they “ The several disorders and degrees amongst lie to yearn at their misery, and thereupon be- our idle vagabonds : stow large alms upon them. How artificially
9. Abrams. they beg, what forcible speech, and how they 2. Uprightmen.
10. Freshwater Mariners, or select and choose ont words of vehemency, 3. Hookers, or Anglers.
Whipjacks. whereby they do in a manner conjure or adjure
11. Dummerers. 5. Wild Rogues.
12. Drunken Tinkers. the goer by to pity their cases, I pass over to
6. Priggers, or Prancers. 13. Swaddlers, or Pedlers. remember, as judging the name of God and 7. Palliards.
14. Jacksmen, or Patricoes Christ to be more conversant in the mouths of 8. Fraters. none; and yet the presence of the Heavenly
of womenkind :Majesty further off from no men than from this
1. Demanders for glimmer, 5. Walking Mortes. ungracious company. “Unto this nest is another sort to be referred, 2. Baudy-baskets.
3. Mortes. more sturdy than the rest, which, having sound
8. Kinching Mortes,
4. Autem Mortes. 9. Kinching Coves." and perfect limbs, do yet, notwithstanding, sometimes counterfeit the possession of all sorts The “Bedlam beggars” of Shakspere were of diseases. Divers times, in their apparel also, sometimes real lunatics, and sometimes vaga they will be like serving men or labourers: bonds affecting their pitiable condition. Mr. oftentimes they can play the mariners, and D’Israeli, in his 'Curiosities of Literature,' has seek for ships which they never lost. But, in collected some interesting particulars regarding fine, they are all thieves and caterpillars in the this singular race of mendicants. The real commonwealth, and by the word of God not Bedlam beggars were probably out-pensioners permitted to eat, sith they do but lick the of the hospital, never dangerous, and seldom sweat from the true labourers' brows, and be mischievous. Their costume is deseribed by reave the godly poor of that which is due unto Randle Holme in his ‘Academy of Armoury;' them, to maintain their excess, consuming the and Decker, in his ‘English Villainies,' has charity of well-disposed people bestowed upon noticed the impostors personating the proper them, after a most wicked and detestable Bedlams, who were known by the name of manner.
Abraham-men. In one of Aubrey's manuscript
papers a we have the following minute descrip
& SCENE IV. tion :-“Til the breaking out of the civil wars, "Cry to it, nuncle, as the cockney did to the eels." Tom o' Bedlams did travel about the country;
In the ancient ballad of The Turnament of they had been poor distracted men, that had Tottenham,' printed by Percy in his ‘Reliques, been put into Bedlam, where, recovering some we have these lines :soberness, they were licentiated to go a beg.
“At that fest they wer servyd with a ryche aray, ging; i. e., they had on their left arm an armilla,
Every fyve and fyve had a cokenay." an iron ring for the arm, about four inches long, Percy, in his Glossary, says, “Cokenay seems as printed in some works. They could not get to be a diminutive for cook ; from the Latin it off; they wore about their necks a great horn of an ox in a string or bawdry, which, when coquinator, or coquinarius. The meaning seems they came to a house , they did wind, and they scullion to attend them.” Tyrwhitt (Note on
to be, that every five and five had a cook or put the drink given to them into this horn, Canterbury Tales,' verse 4206) cites, in confirwhereto they put a stopple. Since the wars Il mation of this opinion, a line from ‘Pierce do not remember to have seen any one of
Plowman's Visions':them.” The great horn of an ox, into which the Tom o' Bedlams put their drink, explains a
" And yet I say by my soule, I have no salt bacon,
Ne no cokeney by Christe coloppes to make." passage in one of Edgar's speeches, -"Poor Tom, thy horn is dry.” (Act 111., Sc. 6.)
If Percy and Tyrwhitt were unquestionably After the description of the Bedlam beggars
, right, we should have no difficulty in explaining Edgar exclaims, “ Poor Turlygod!” We give that the cockney in Shakspere who put the eels an interesting note on this subject from Douce. “i' the paste alive” was a cook; and this in"Warburton would read Turlupin, and Hanmer deed seems the natural interpretation of the Turluru; but there is a better reason for reject- term from the context. But Douce maintains ing both these terms than for preferring either; that the cokenay of ‘Pierce Plowman' and the viz., that Turlygood is the corrupted word in Turnament of Tottenham' was a little cock. our language. The Turlupins were a fanatical The cockney, then, of Lear's fool may be the sect that over-ran France, Italy, and Germany, Londoner, who bore that name of contempt in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, before the time of Shakspere. In "Twelfth They were at first known by the names of Beg- Night' the clown says, “I am afraid this great hards or Beghins, and brethren and sisters of lubber the world will prove a cockney;" and the free spirit. Their manners and appearance Chaucer, in his ' Reve's Tale,' appears to employ exhibited the strongest indications of lunacy it with a similar meaning :and distraction. The common people alone “ And when this jape is tald another day, called them Turlupins; a name which, though
I shall be halden a daffe or a cokenay." it has excited much doubt and controversy, Fuller, in his Worthies,' gives us two explanaseems obviously to be connected with the tions of the term : wolvish howlings which these people in all “1. One coaks'd or cocker'd, made a wanton probability would make when influenced by or nestle-cock of, delicately bred and brought their religious ravings. Their subsequent ap- up, so that, when grown men or women, they pellation of the fraternity of poor men might can endure no hardship, nor comport with have been the cause why the wandering rogues pains-taking. called Bedlam beggars, and one of whom Edgar “2. One utterly ignorant of husbandry and personates, assumed or obtained the title of huswifery, such as is practised in the country, Turlupins or Turlygoods, especially if their so that they may be persuaded anything about mode of asking alms was accompanied by the rural commodities; and the original thereof, gesticulations of madmen. Turlupino and Tur- and the tale of the citizen's son, who knew not luru are old Italian terms for a fool or madman; the language of the cock, but called it neighing, and the Flemings had a proverb, as unfortu- is commonly known.” nate as Turlupin and his children.””
The tale of the cock neighing is gravely given
by Minshieu in his ‘Guide into the Tongues ;' * MS. Lansdowne, 226.
and is repeated in succeeding dictionaries. Whatever be the origin, there can be no doubt that London was anciently known by the name
of Cockney. Fuller says, “It is more than four | London Cockeney, might possibly allude to that hundred years old; for, when Hugh Bigot added imaginary country of idleness and luxury which artificial fortifications to the natural strength of was anciently known by the name of Cokaigne, his castle at Bungay, in Suffolk, he gave out or Cocagne; a name which Hicks has shown to ! this rhyme, therein vaunting it for impreg. be derived from Coquina. He has there pubnable :
lished an excellent description of the country *Were I in my castle of Bungey,
of Cokaigne, in old English verse, but probably Upon the river of Waveney,
translated from the French. At least, the I would ne care for the King of Cockeney'
French have had the same fable among them, meaning thereby King Henry the Second, then for Boileau plainly alludes to it :peaceably possessed of London, whilst some other places did resist him; though afterwards
* Paris est pour un riche un pais de Cocagne." he so humbled this Hugh, that he was fain with The festival of Cocagna at Naples, described by large sums of money and pledges for his loy. Keysler, appears to have the same foundation. alty, to redeem this his castle from being razed It probably commenced under the Norman goto the ground.” Tyrwhitt ingeniously suggests vernment." that the author of these rhymes, “in calling
ACT III. SCENE II.-—“When priests are more in word “ Then comes the time, who lives to see 't, than matter," &c.
That going shall be used with feet,"
— This prophecy is not found in the quartos, and leaves no doubt of this. Nor was the introit was therefore somewhat hastily concluded duction of such a mock prophecy mere idle that it was an interpolation of the players. It buffoonery. There can be no question, from is founded upon a prophecy in Chaucer, which the statutes that were directed against these is thus quoted in Puttenham’s ‘Art of Poetry,' stimulants to popular credulity, that they were 1589:
considered of importance in Shakspere's day. “When faith fails in priestes saws,
Bacon's essay 'Of Prophecies' shows that the And lords' hests are holden for laws,
philosopher gravely denounced what our poet. And robbery is tane for purchase,
pleasantly ridiculed. Bacon did not scruple to! And lechery for solace, Then shall the realm of Albion
explain a prophecy of this nature in a way that Be brought to great confusion."
might disarm public apprehension. “The tri- | Warburton had a theory that the lines spoken vial prophecy which I heard when I was a child, by the Fool contain two separate prophecies ;– and Queen Elizabeth was in the flower of her that the first four lines are a satirical descrip- years, was, tion of the present manners as future, and the
“When hempe is sponne,
England's done;" subsequent six lines a description of future manners, which the corruption of the present whereby it was generally conceived that, after would prevent from ever happening. He then the princes had reigned which had the principal recommends a separation of the concluding two letters of that word hempe (which were Henry, couplets to mark this distinction. Capell thinks | Edward, Mary, Philip, and Elizabeth), England also that they were separate prophecies, not should come to utter confusion; which, thanks spoken at the same time, but on different nights be to God, is verified only in the change of the of the play's performance. All this appears to name; for that the king's style is now no more us to pass by the real object of the passage, of England but of Britain." Bacon adds, "My which, by the jumble of ideas—the confusion judgment is that they ought all to be despised, between manners that existed, and manners, and ought to serve but for winter talk by the that might exist in an improved state of so- fireside : though, when I say despised, I mean ciety-were calculated to bring such predic-, it as for belief, for otherwise, the spreading or tions into ridicule. The conclusion, publishing of them is in no sort to be despised,
for they have done much mischief; and I see new halter and two blades of knives, did leave many severe laws made to suppress them." the same upon the gallery floor in her master's & SCENE IV.
house. A great search was made in the house
to know how the said halter and knife-blades “ That hath laid knives under his pillow," &c.
came thither, till Ma. Mainy, in his next fit, The feigned madness of Edgar assumes, said it was reported that the devil laid them in throughout, that he represented a demoniac. the gallery, that some of those that were posHis first expression is, “Away! the foul fiend sessed might either hang themselves with the follows me;" and in this and the subsequent halter, or kill themselves with the blades." In scenes the same idea is constantly repeated. Harsnet we find that "Fratiretto, Fliberdigibbet, “Who gives anything to poor Tom, whom the Hoberdidance, Tocobatto, were four devils of foul fiend hath led through fire and through the round or morrice. . . .. These four flame?”—“ This is the foul fiend Flibbertigib- had forty assistants under them, as themselves bet;”—“ Peace, Smolkin, peace, thou foul fiend;” do confess.” The names of three of these fiends “The foul fiend haunts poor Tom in the voice are used by Mad Tom, and so is that of a of a nightingale." Shakspere has, with wonder- fourth, Smallkin, also mentioned by Harsnet. ful judgment, put language in the mouth of When he saysEdgar that was in some degree familiar to his “ The prince of darkness is a gentleman; audience. In the year 1603, Dr. Samuel Hars
Modo he's call'd, and Mahu"net, afterwards Archbishop of York, published he uses names which are also found in Harsnet, a very extraordinary book, entitled 'A Declara- where Modo was called the prince of all other tion of Egregious Popish Impostures, to with devils. (See Illustration 5.) draw the hearts of Her Majesty's subjects from their allegiance, under the pretence of casting SCENE IV.-" Aroint thee, witch, aroint thee." out devils, practised by Edmunds, alias Weston,
We have been favoured with the following a Jesuit, and divers Romish priests, his wicked associates.” Warburton, thus describes the cir- note, which illustrates this passage, and that in cumstance to which this work refers :-“ While
Macbeth 'the Spaniards were preparing their armada
" Aroint thee, witch, the rump-fed ronyon cries," – against England, the Jesuits were here busy at by the late Mr. T. Rodd,-one of the booksellers work to promote it by making converts. One who has been an honour to his calling, and a method they employed was to dispossess pre- benefactor of literature. Our readers will be tended demoniacs, by which artifice they made gratified by the very happy explanation of a several hundred converts amongst the common matter which has hitherto been perplexed and people. The principal scene of this farce was uncertain :laid in the family of one Mr. Edmund Peckham, The word aroint occurs twice in Shakspeare, a Roman Catholic, where Marwood, a servant of and is not found in the work of any other old Antony Babington's (who was afterwards exe- English author, nor is it contained in any cuted for treason), Trayford, an attendant upon ancient dictionary. It has been supposed that Mr. Peckham, and Sarah and Friswood Wil- it is printed by mistake for avaunt, and some liams, and Anne Smith, three chambermaids in commentators propose to read a rowan-tree, that that family, came into the priests' hands for tree being held as a charm against the power of cure. But the discipline of the patients was so witches, against whom the word is used. Wholong and severe, and the priests so elate and ever is conversant with the details of seeing a careless with their success, that the plot was work through the printing-press will be satisfied discovered on the confession of the parties con- that the word is aroint, and that it was well cerned, and the contrivers of it deservedly understood at the time. Whenever a word punished.” When Edgar says that the foul occurs in writing which is not understood by fiend " hath laid knives under his pillow, and the compositor, he is in the habit of printing halters in his pew,” Shakspere repeats one of in its place some word nearest in appearance, the circumstances of the imposture described by no matter whether it makes sense of the pasHarsnet :-" This examinant further saith, that sage or not. Now, as this word is printed the one Alexander, an apothecary, having brought same in all the four folios, it is fair to presume with him from London to Denham on a time a that it was not altogether fallen into disuse,
even in 1685, the date of the latest of these parent word; and on searching the dictionary editions. Richardson, in his ‘Dictionary,' derives of that language no such word has been found. it from Ronger, and says that it means, be thou The word was in common use before the time gnaved; but the word as used in Shakspeare of Shakspeare; it occurs in Heywood's 'Proverbs, will not bear this interpretation.
and also in the old interlude of Ralf Roister Under this uncertainty, the following new Doister,' by Udall, under the form of a pro-1 etymology of the word is proposed.
verbial expression, “ Baccare, quoth Mortimer It is conjectured that it is a compound of ar, to his sou." It is long ere imported words get or aer, and hynt: the first a very ancient word, into such common use as to become adopted by common to the Greek and Gothic languages in the common people into their proverbial and the sense of to go; the second derived from the familiar phrases; and it is much to be doubted Gothic, and still in common use under the same whether, at the time when Heywood wrote, any! form and with the same meaning, hind, behind, Italian words had been introduced, except such &c., in English, and hint, or hynt, in German. as related to commerce. There can be no
In support of this derivation of the word, it doubt, therefore, that the word is pure Saxon, must be borne in mind that it is used as a -back-are, go back,-in which sense it is used charm against witches, and appears to have had by Heywood, Udall, and Shakspeare. a powerful effect, since one of the witches in The word baccare has been previously noticed, * Macbeth,' against whom it is used, acknow with this explanation, in 'The Taming of the ledges, by her threats of vengeance, its efficacy; Shrew, Act II., Sc. 1. and this use of it is probably derived from the remarkable words used by Christ on two occa
10 SCENE IV.—“ Whipped from tything to tythsions, Mark viii. 33, Luke iv. 8, Get thee behind
ing, and stocked, punished, and imprisoned." me, Satan; apparently a common phrase among Shakspere, with that unvarying kindness the Jews. In the German version of the Testa- which he exhibits towards wretched and opment by Luther, Luke iv. 8, is rendered hynt ar pressed humanity, in however low a share, me thu Sathanas. It is not unlikely that this makes us here feel the cruelty of the laws which text may have been adopted into the forms for in his days were enforced, however vainly, for exorcising persons supposed to be possessed, the suppression of mendicancy. By the statutes and thus it came into common use.
of the 39th Elizabeth (1597), and the 1st of Dr. Johnson imagined he had found the word James I. (1604), the severe penalties of former' used in an old print copied by Hearne from an Acts were somewhat modified ; but the rogue, ancient illumination representing the harrowing vagabond, or sturdy beggar, was still by these of hell. The devil is represented as blowing a statutes to be “stripped naked, from the middle horn, from which proceeds the word arongt. upwards, and to be whipped until his body was : This may be intended merely to express by bloody, and to be sent from parish to parish. letters the sounds from the horn: if it really the next straight way to the place of his birth." be a word, it is probably arougt, go out,—the Harrison has described the previous state of the print representing the delivery of the damned law with his characteristic force and simplicity, from hell by Christ,--and will thus strengthen but with small leaning to the merciful side: our conjecture. The word aroint appears to be “The punishment that is ordained for this kind still used in Cheshire, in the same sense as by of people is very sharp, and yet it cannot re Shakspeare. In Wilbraham's 'Glossary of Che frain them from their gadding: wherefore the shire Words,' we find rynt used by the milk end must needs be martial law to be exereised maid when the cow will not stand still—"rynt upon them, as upon thieves, robbers, despisers thee”--the cow evidently being supposed to be of all laws, and enemies to the common-wealth bewitched. In this instance the a is either and welfare of the land. What notable robdropped, or is expressed by giving the r its full beries, pilferies, murders, rapes, and stealings rough sound, by compressing the tongue against of young children, burning, breaking, and dis. the palate when sounding it.
figuring their limbs to make them pitiful in the Another Shakspearian word, baccare, appears sight of the people, I need not to rehearse: but to be a compound apparently derived in part for their idle rogueing about the country, the from the same root. The commentators derive law ordaineth this manner of correction. The it from the Italian, but without giving the rogue being apprehended, committed to prison,