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pletely organized than that of the other sec-. tions, as it happened that there were present at Brussels six members of the pre-war International Magnetic Commission of the International Meteorological Committee, viz: Agnot (France), Bauer (U. S. A.), Chree (England), Palazzo (Italy), Schuster (England), and Tanakadate (Japan). After the election of the officers on July 24 and discussion of the status of work of the pre-war International Magnetic Commission, the following eight resolutions were passed:

1. That a committee be appointed to consider the best method of securing an adequate comparison of the magnetic instruments in use in different countries, and to consider as to the best method of measuring the magnetic elements in absolute units.

2. That the Section of Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity concurs in the resolution of the Meteorological Section that international work in atmospheric electricity should be as far as possible placed under the direction of a committee nominated partly by the Section of Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity, and partly by the Section of Meteorology.

3. That the Section of Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity would welcome cooperation with the International Union of Scientific Radio-telegraphy in the investigation of the electric phenomena of the higher atmosphere.

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4. That a committee be appointed on the systematic exchange of magnetic curves.

5. That special committees be appointed from time to time for the investigation and report on specific problems in terrestrial magnetism and electricity.

6. That the Section of Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity would welcome cooperation with the International Astronomical Union in investigating the relationships between solar and terrestrial magnetic and electric phenomena.

7. That the ex-officio members of the executive committee be empowered to elect additional members to serve until the next ordinary meeting of the Union.

8. That the executive committee consult with the executive committees of other sections of the Union and report to the general secretary of the Union the amount of funds annually required by the Section during the period of the present convention.

The executive committee of the Section of Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity on July 25, in order to carry into effect these resolutions, appointed ten committees, the complete composition of which was deferred until the entrance into the Union of other countries. Thus the committee-plan of distribution of international researches in terrestrial magnetism and electricity (atmospheric electricity, earth currents, polar lights, radiotelegraphystrays, etc.), as adopted by the International Astronomical Union, was also followed in section (d) as, in fact, generally in the other sections, as far as they could be organized.

Annual Funds.-The basis of votes and financial contributions is that adopted by the International Research Council, viz:

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Each country may include the native inhabitants of its colonies in its population. Self-governing dominions have a separate voting power according to above scale. It is expected that there will be at least fifty contributing units, hence, the total annual funds which may be available for the international researches of a Union will be about 50 times the unit of contribution, whatever that be finally. The funds are to be obtained, by the International Research Council, through a national research organization, academy, or governmental agency.

It is not possible under the present statutes, for a country to join only one or more of the sections of the Geodetic and Geophysical Union. In this respect, then, the organization of the new international associations (unions) differs from the pre-war ones—a country could join, for example, only the International Geodetic Association, not, necessarily, also the International Seismological Association. As a matter of fact, however,

practically all civilized countries were adherents of the various existing international bodies. Hence the aggregate money contribution per county joining the new international bodies will probably not be any more, more likely less, than under the old system.

The organization of the new international bodies may appear to be not as simple, or perhaps not even as independent, as the former ones. Thus, for example, instead of having such a brief and convenient name as "International Geodetic Association" we would have now "Section of Geodesy of the International Geodetic and Geophysical Union." (The International Research Council does not insist upon having its name also added.) Many of the geophysical delegates from the various represented countries, it appeared, would have preferred the name. "International Geophysical Union," in accordance with the original proposal. However the executive committee of the International Research Council, at its preliminary meeting in Paris last May, adopted the expanded name on the motion of the representative of Italy.

Most likely there will naturally come into use simplified designations, as, for example: International Geodetic Section (or committee), International Seismological Section (or committee), etc. This would conform to the corresponding names for the "national sections," as they have been tentatively called in the United States, or "national committees," as they are called in England and France.

The basic idea of retention of the name of section (or of committee) is, of course, that the particular branch of geophysics represented by the section is to be considered as but a part of the broad, general subject of geophysics. The fruitful, fundamental idea is that there will be at least once in three years a general symposium on the main branches of geophysics, rather than independent, uncoordinated meetings on special branches. In that respect there is certainly a great gain in the new organization of geophysical bodies over the old ones. And as

far as independence is concerned, it is to be said that the manner of organization admits of much elasticity and large freedom of action of any section apart from the Union to which it may belong, or of the Union apart from the council.

The present convention is to continue for twelve years, beginning January 1, 1920, subject to renewal and modification at the end of this period. The general meetings are to take place every three years when there will be opportunity for changes in organization or statutes, as future experience may suggest. It will not be necessary for a union to meet at the same place as the council, or for all the various unions to meet together. A section may furthermore call a special meeting when found necessary.

The objects of the International Geodetic and Geophysical Union are stated in the official version as follows:

1. To promote the study of problems concerned with the figure and physics of the earth.

2. To initiate and coordinate researches which depend upon international cooperation and to provide for their scientific discussion and publication. 3. To facilitate special researches, such as the comparison of instruments used in different countries.

In conclusion, it may not be amiss to say that the six sections of the International Geodetic and Geophysical Union as finally established were in general accord with those the American Geophysical Delegates were instructed to recommend. The French had originally proposed but two sections, Geodesy and Meteorology, to which was added a third, Seismology, in the Royal Society proposals. However, as the result of preliminary, informal meetings at Brussels of the various national delegations, discussion soon developed practical unanimity in the proposals to have each main branch of geophysics represented by an independent section. The resolutions passed by section (c) (Meteorology) and (d) (Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity) are good illustrations of the provisions taken also as to cross-relationships

between sections of a union or between different unions.

As far as the future advancement of the particular subjects of Terrestrial Magnetism and Terrestrial Electricity are concerned, it is believed that a step of fundamental importance was taken at Brussels by the assignment of these subjects to a section by itself rather than relegating or subordinating them to some other branch of geophysics with which they might have but a very remote, or even but a purely administrative connection.

Besides receptions tendered by the burgomaster (Adolf Max), the Minister of Education, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, opportunity was afforded for a visit and reception on July 26 at the Uccle Royal Observatories, to whose director, Monsieur G. Lecointe, the signal success of the local arrangements is to be largely ascribed.

Let us hope that the powerful stimulus given geophysical research by the International Research Council will bear the desired fruit and bring about in each country adequate recognition of the needs for the advancement of our knowledge of the physics of the earth!

LOUIS A. BAUER

A MEDICAL SCHOOL, IN THE WAR AND AFTER

LADIES and gentlemen of the classes entering the Cornell Medical College, on behalf of the President, the Acting Dean and the Faculty, I bid you welcome! A year ago the college opened under the shadow of the world war and saddened also by the death of our great dean, William Mecklenburg Polk. Today the college reopens with its ranks filled, with new men added to its staff, and with important departments remodeled on modern lines. Dr. Polk's policy of reorganizing one department after another upon sound scientific principles has been continued since his death.

The war brought to every one the oppor

1 An address of welcome to the students of the Cornell University Medical College, September 29, 1919.

tunity for public service and the lesson will not be lost. The participation of our college in the war is a cause for quiet satisfaction, and perhaps we may pause for a moment to glance at some of the activities of the institution which has been or is to be your intellectual home. A member of our faculty gave up his practise and went to Washington to assume control of important matters there. On speaking to him of his unselfishness, he replied that his lot was not worthy of sympathy when contrasted with the sacrifice of the many young second lieutenants in the medical service, who had their wives and babies at home to be supported by the meager salary paid by the government. This generous sentiment was illustrative of the spirit that spent itself freely for the welfare of the country.

In 1914 Dr. Stimson, a veteran of our Civil War, went from this college into the front trenches with the Belgians and showed them by candlelight antiseptic methods for the treatment of wounds. He returned there again in 1916 and was planning a third trip before he died in 1917.

One of our professors took the New York Hospital unit to France. Another was chief officer in charge of all the pathological laboratories in France. We visualize such men as healing the wounds of those hurt in battle or seeking out new methods of cure in the laboratories behind the lines.

One of the women graduates of this college went abroad as secretary to the head of the Bellevue Hospital unit. When later the chief of that hospital went to the front he left her in charge of the base hospital, the younger men remaining there willingly recognizing her superiority.

Another of our professors was at first chosen to standardize surgical dressings for the American Red Cross. He also trained 135 army surgeons in the surgery of war wounds. This course aroused their enthusiasm both when it was given and later in retrospect abroad, and it brought the comment from the Surgeon-General's Office that it was the best constructed and most comprehensive course given in the country. This

master surgeon finally won his way to the front in France and, although suffering from the results of a grievous fall which brought great pain at every foot-step, he trudged for miles with our advancing armies. This portrays the spirit of courage and sacrifice which should be a fundamental principle in the practise of your profession.

To those who remained at home the mental hardship of so doing was often very great. One of our professors, when asked to enter the service, was bluntly told by Dean Polk, "If you wish to close this school you can accept this offer." So the man stayed at home and nearly lost his life later in gas experiments for the government.

The war brought its special scientific problems.

In this school 429 men were trained in roentgenology, and the first portable x-ray apparatus for use in the field was here constructed.

Through a special knowledge acquired in Bellevue Hospital, another professor so perfected the ventilation system in the submarine that one of our United States boats remained submerged for four days, a world record.

From this school went one who had the scientific supervision over the nutrition of the United States Army. Another distributed a million dollars' worth of food among the Serbians and recently left that country with its fields 90 per cent. planted and its people blessing the American officers for their kindly generosity.

Some of our students entered the regular fighting forces, one leaving the college during his second year in medicine and returning as a major. We welcome those men back to their work with us.

Many other services, heroic and intellectual, were rendered by and through this institution during the great crisis. I have mentioned only a few instances which have come to me. It has been said that no man should be vain of personal accomplishment. Davenport says that if an individual has been given great powers of heart and mind which have been properly developed by education, his intelligent reaction to circumstances is a question

of innate mental endowment and, therefore, not a matter for personal conceit. It is permissible, however, to say that you, who are now placed in an environment suggestive of moral and mental capacity, may profitably develop your own capacities each according to his individual endowment.

I have briefly sketched the war activities of some of your teachers. They are in this work of teaching, not for financial reward, but in spite of the lack of it. Professors' salaries have not risen during the war but the professors have not gone on strike.

In Ludwig's physiological laboratory in Leipzig there was an old servant named Salvenmoser who had helped the professor for thirty-five years. When Salvenmoser wished his pay raised be became ill and retired to his quarters in the upper part of the physiological laboratory. During this time the celebrated Professor Ludwig could perform none of his celebrated experiments, and as much as a week might pass before the pay was raised; then Salvenmoser recovered from his illness and the experiments were resumed. In thinking over this little story it seems to me to have been prophetic of the workers of the present day, for many of them have been converted into Salvenmosers-willing to thwart the great experiments of world endeavor by feigning illness. But university professors, however underpaid and hard pressed, have not gone on strike, but stand prepared to serve you for the common good. I do not know how many of you have read an opening paragraph which has for several years been in the catalogue of the Cornell University Medical School:

The objects of this school are:

1. To develop physicians of the best type and 2. To conduct researches into the cause and cure of disease.

As a matter of fact, these two objects are not separable, for in order to produce a modern physician of the best type he must be educated in the atmosphere of developing knowledge which we call research. A cynic of another generation has remarked that the ancients tried to make medicine a science

and failed, while the moderns tried to make it a trade and succeeded. But now the modern trend is in the direction of a true science of medicine.

As you doubtless know, the department of medicine has been reorganized under the wise direction of Dr. Conner. It is our great pleasure to hail the return to Cornell and to the New York Hospital of a man of the exceptional ability of Dr. Foster who for several years has been professor of medicine at the University of Michigan. At Bellevue Hospital the reorganization of the medical clinic by Dr. Conner has placed it in a position to become one of the most powerful influences for medical progress in the country. A fulltime staff, Drs. Du Bois, Peters, Barr, Alexander (and McCann will join them), all of whom have been recently discharged from the military or naval services of this country, are giving their entire time for the purpose of instructing students and for carrying on researches into the cause and cure of disease. Three of these men are graduates of the P. and S., two of our own college. Some of the men are supported from the funds of the Russell Sage Institute of Pathology, given by Mrs. Sage for the benefit of the sick poor, and others are supported by friends of the college.

This undertaking followed several years after the introduction of full-time men on the surgical division under Dr. Hartwell. We may all rejoice at the rich opportunities for learning which are offered both in medicine and surgery in Bellevue Hospital.

Another very notable increase in the potential power of the school as a teaching institution has been attained during the summer through the appointment of Dr. Schloss as professor of pediatrics. The true guiding principle of every successful institution has been followed, the appointment of the best man available in the country to fill the place. The highest opportunities for work in pediatrics now lie open to the students of this school and under the best of direction.

An old Swiss physician, Sondereggers, once wrote a letter of advice to a father whose son desired to study medicine, and this letter has

so much idealism in it that it seems permissible to read it to you.

There is nothing greater or more beautiful in the world than man. He is the mightiest and most elevated example of thought and education. His existence, his struggle, his suffering, are all in the highest degree wonderful and stimulating. Thou must bring clear eyes and fine ears, a great talent for observation, patience and again patience for endless study, a clear critical mind which grows stronger in time of necessity, and yet a warm, susceptible heart which understands and sympathizes with every sorrow; religion and moral earnestness which have dominion over lust, money and honor; also a becoming exterior, a polished demeanor, health of body and spirit. All these thou must possess or thou wilt be a bad or an unhappy physician. Thou must carry great knowledge even like to a camel's burden, and also preserve the freshness of the poets. Thou must overcome all arts of charlatanry and in so doing remain an honorable man. Medicine must come first and be thy religion and politics, thy joy and thy sorrow. fore I would never advise anyone to be a physician. If he still wishes to be one, warn him again and severely; if he wishes it notwithstanding; then give him thy blessing in so far as he is worthy of it; he will need it.

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We will be glad to have all students entering this college feel that they are welcome guests to its halls, guests who come as men and women earnestly desirous of enjoying such intellectual opportunities as are here generously offered. I would ask you to show your appreciation of the gifts which private endowment makes possible, in that you should treat the building and its contents with that scrupulous care and reverence which you would naturally bestow upon the personal property of a generous benefactor who was also a great friend. If you accept what there is here in good spirit, and if the external life of the country permits an orderly community life within these walls, you will find opportunities for golden days in the time to come. GRAHAM LUSK

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS

COOPERATIVE CONSERVATION OF THE INDIANA-LAKE MICHIGAN SAND DUNES

FOR Some time a quiet agitation for the setting aside of this unique region abounding

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