« PreviousContinue »
kins University, for the continuation of his optical investigations, additional to former appropriations, $350.
DR. THEOBALD SMITH, director of the department of animal pathology of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, formerly professor of comparative pathology at Harvard University, has been appointed Cutter lecturer on preventive medicine and hygiene at Harvard University for the next academic year.
THE Botanical Society of Washington has elected the following officers for the ensuing year: President, Haven Metcalf; Vice-president, A. J. Pieters; Recording Secretary, Chas. E. Chambliss; Corresponding Secretary, R. Kent Beattie; Treasurer, L. L. Harter.
PROFESSOR H. VON MANGOLDT has been elected president of the German Mathematical Society, and Professor Felix Klein, honorary president.
DR. JOHN E. TEEPLE, of New York City, has been elected treasurer of the American Chemical Society to fill the unexpired term of the late Dr. E. G. Love.
AFTER many years of service in the examination of applications for chemical patents, Mr. Bert Russell has resigned his position as first assistant examiner, to devote his attention largely to chemico-legal problems arising in the patent practise of Messrs. Prindle, Wright and Small, of New York City. Mr. Russell has been secretary of the Patent Office Society, which has been active in improving the resources, the standards and the efficiency of the Patent Office.
DR. CARL HARTLEY, pathologist in the office of forest pathology, Bureau of Plant Industry, has recently resigned to accept a position as pathologist with the Instituut voor plantenziekten en Cultures, Buitenzorg, Java.
DR. L. C. GLENN, who has recently been on leave of absence from Vanderbilt University while in charge of the collection of oil and gas valuation data in Kentucky, Tennessee and Alabama for the Internal Revenue Department, has made an examination for the
United States Department of Justice of certain oil lands along the Red River near BurkBurnett, Texas, over which there has arisen a question as to jurisdiction between Texas and Oklahoma.
PROFESSOR MERLE RANDALL, of the department of chemistry of the University of California, has returned to Berkeley after having spent the summer as research chemist in the laboratories of the Experimental Kelp-Potash Plant of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, at Summerland, California.
PROFESSOR HENRY B. WARD, of the University of Illinois, special assistant of the Bureau of Fisheries, has returned to Urbana, after completing an investigation of the salmon spawning grounds of the Copper River and certain important tributaries. Accompanied by Professor W. A. Oldfather, also of the University of Illinois, and J. R. Russell, superintendent of the Bureau's fishcultural stations in Washington.
PROFESSORS R. A. DALY, of Harvard University, and A. G. Mayor, of Princeton University, have returned from an expedition to American Samoa under the auspices of the Department of Marine Biology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Professor Daly made a study of the lithology of Samoa, and also confirms the opinion that the fringing reef now surrounding Tutuila is of recent origin, and was antedated by a time wherein there were no living reefs around the island. Ancient reefs are sunken to depths of about 30 fathoms, but these have nothing to do with the modern reefs. Corals were planted out at depths between 8 fathoms and the surface in order to determine the growth-rate of the reefs. AT the eight hundred and twenty-first meeting of the Philosophical Society of Washington which was held on Saturday, October 11, Dr. C. G. Abbott read a paper on 66 Solar studies in South America"; Dr. L. A Bauer, on "The total solar eclipse at Cape Palmas, Liberia, May 29, 1919," and D. M. Wise, on "The total solar eclipse at Sobral, Brazil, May 29, 1919."
THE Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society states that the firm of Julius Springer,
Berlin, announces the publication of a new journal devoted exclusively to original mathematical memoirs, the Mathematische Zeitschrift. It is edited by Professor L. Lichtenstein, with the collaboration of Professors K. Knopp, E. Schmidt and I. Schur and an editorial committee consisting of Professors W. Blaschke, L. Féjer, C. Herglotz, A. Kneser, E. Landau, O. Perron, F. Schur, E. Study and H. Weyl. Two volumes appear annually.
DR. EDWARD L. THORNDIKE, professor of educational psychology in Teachers College, Columbia University, delivered an address at Wesleyan University on October 14 on "Psychological tests for college entrance examinations."
DR. ALEXANDER D. BLACKADER, professor of pharmacology and therapeutics in McGill University, Montreal, delivered the annual address to the medical students on Founder's Day, his subject being, "Our medical faculty and the value of continued medical research."
THE late Professor Rudolf A. Witthaus, of the Cornell Medical College, bequeathed his medical apparatus and scientific books to the college.
WILHELM VON SIEMENS, head of the SiemensHalske Companies, is dead at Arona, Switzerland.
Nature reports that the council of the Royal Society has nominated representative committees to deal with national questions connected with the international unions which it is intended to form under the International Research Council. The committee for astronomy will consist of the Astronomers Royal for England, Scotland and Ireland, the Superintendent of the Nautical Almanac, six members nominated by the Royal Society, six members nominated by the Royal Astronomical Society, two members nominated by the Royal Society of Edinburgh, two members appointed by the Royal Irish Academy and two members appointed by the British Astronomical Association. The committee for geodesy and geophysics will consist of the Astronomers Royal, the director of the Meteorological Office, the director-general of the Ordnance
Survey, the hydrographer of the Navy, two representatives of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, two representatives of the Royal Irish Academy, two members nominated by the British Association, and two members nominated by the Royal Society. Since their formation these committees have advised the council of the Royal Society on the formation of the international unions in their respective subjects, and nominated the delegates to the recent meeting at Brussels. The Federated Council for Pure and Applied Chemistry was also recognized as the national committee on that subject.
THE following lectures were delivered during the graduate summer quarter in medical sciences at the University of Illinois, College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.
"Transmission of eye-defects induced in rabbits by means of lens-sensitized fowl-serum: " Michael F. Guyer, Ph.D., professor of zoology, at the University of Wisconsin.
"Metabolic gradients:" C. M. Child, Ph.D., professor of zoology at the University of Chicago. "Modes and age periods of infection in tuberculosis:" M. P. Ravenel, M.D., professor of preventive medicine at the University of Missouri.
"Catalase:" W. E. Burge, Ph.D., assistant professor of physiology at the University of Illinois. "Nerve transplantation:" C. Carl Huber, M.D., professor of anatomy at the University of Michigan.
"Malaria with especial reference to its control: C. C. Bass, M.D., professor of experimental medicine, Tulane University.
"Giant cells and their rôle in bone resorption:" Leslie B. Arey, Ph.D., professor of microscopic anatomy, Northwestern University., Medical School.
"The influence of some chemical substances on immunity reactions: " Aaron Arkin, Ph.D., M.D., professor of pathology and bacteriology, University of West Virginia.
THE Advisory Committee of the American Chemical Society, on the authority given it by the council, has recommended Professor W. A. Noyes as chairman of the board of editors in charge of the scientific series of monographs, and Dr. John Johnston as chairman of the board of editors of the technological series of monographs recommended by the committee
THE Royal Society announces that two John Foulerton studentships will shortly be awarded for original research in medicine, the improvement of the treatment of disease, and the relief of human suffering. Researches must be carried out under the supervision and control of the Royal Society. The studentships are of the value of £400 each, and are tenable for three years, but may be extended to a total period of six years. Candidates must be of proved British nationality; both sexes are eligible.
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
Ar a recent meeting of the New York Endowment Fund Committee of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mr. Coleman du Pont presiding, President R. C. MacLaurin announced that $1,500,000 had been subscribed toward the $8,000,000 endowment fund. "Mr. Smith," the anonymous donor of $7,000,000 to the institute, has agreed to give $4,000,000 to the fund if $3,000,000 is pledged by January 1, 1920.
DR. GEORGE W. CRILE, of the School of Medicine of Western Reserve University, has given $100,000 to endow a chair of surgery. Dr. Crile is chief of the surgical staff of the school. He headed the Lakeside Hospital Unit of Cleveland, one of the first American units in France.
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY has received a gift of $6,000 for research work in food chemistry.
PROFESSOR SAMUEL N. SPRING has returned to the United States for the first term of the present college year to teach silviculture, forest law and policy in the Department of Forestry at the University of Missouri. He will resume his work as professor of silviculture at Cornell University on January 1, being at present on leave of absence.
RICHARD M. FIELD has been appointed assistant professor of paleontology and historical geology at Brown University. He also continues his association with the research staff of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge.
EDWARD H. MACK, Ph.D. (Princeton, 1916), has returned from overseas duty and has gone to the Ohio State University as assistant professor of physical chemistry.
PROFESSOR EDWIN MORRISON, for thirteen years head of the department of physics at Earlham College, has been granted a year's leave of absence and is teaching engineering physics in the Michigan Agricultural College.
C. M. YOUNG, formerly of the University of Kansas, has returned as professor and head of the department of mining engineering.
DR. HORST OERTEL has been appointed head of the department of pathology at McGill University.
DR. EDWARD HINDLE, Kingsley lecturer and fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge, assistant to the Quick Professor of biology, has been elected to the chair of biology in the School of Medicine, at Cairo, Egypt, in succession to professor A. Looss. Dr. Hindle was instructor in zoology at the University of California from 1909 to 1910.
DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE DOUBLE USE OF THE TERM ACCELERATION TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: The use of clear and distinct meanings of terms has not kept pace with the progress in science. One repeatedly hears appeals for the stardardization of the meanings of terms. Great confusion arises when different writers use the same term with entirely different meanings. In the writer's opinion, it is quite as important to fix the definitions of the fundamental terms as it is to fix the units; scientific organizations ought to get together, arrive at some conclusion, and then appeal to the Bureau of Standards to officially standardize such definitions as they do the units.
A notable case which gives rise to much confusion, is the term acceleration. The engineer always used this term to mean the rate of increase of speed, that is, velocity divided by time, hence its dimensions are LT-2; it is measured in feet (or meters) per
second per second. The physicists, however, who use this term in the same sense, also use it indiscriminately in an entirely different sense, namely, to express a change of direction of a moving body, without any regard as to whether there is any change in speed or not. Thus the physicist will refer to the existence of acceleration when to the engineer there is A case in point is the revolution of a fly wheel at a constant speed, the rim of which to the physicist is being constantly accelerated while to the engineer there is no acceleration, as the speed is constant.
The physicist argues, and quite correctly, that a moving body represents a vector quantity, as it has both speed and direction. The same external force applied to such a moving body will change either the speed or the direction, depending upon the relative directions of that force and of the moving body. But as force is defined as mass X acceleration, the physicist, apparently forgetting the difference between pure and applied mathematics, methodically divides this force by the mass and calls the quotient acceleration. It simplifies his mathematics.
Such blind applications of pure mathematics, however, sometimes lead to absurd results. In the present case, if this external force is applied in the direction of the movement of the body, it adds energy to the moving system, as in the case of a falling body. This is the sense in which engineers use the term acceleration. But if this external force is applied perpendicularly to the direction of motion, no energy whatever is added to the moving system, as in the case of bodies rotating around a center.
The importance of this distinction is shown in the common term foot-pounds, the product of feet and pounds (of force). If both are in the same direction this product represents energy, while if perpendicular to each other it represents torque, which is decidedly not energy. The writer long ago suggested to use the term pound-feet, when it refers to torque, in order to call attention to the difference.
In the MLT system of dimension of physical quantities, force multiplied by length
gives energy; hence torque has the dimension of energy, when as a fact they are two entirely different physical quantities. The reason for this inconsistency is that in this system an angle has no dimension, yet we know that torque (which is not energy) when multiplied by an angle gives energy, hence an angle must have some dimensions. This is one of the serious shortcomings of that system. It is also the cause of the double use of the term acceleration.
When force is defined as mass X acceleration, it should be understood that the angle is eliminated by being zero; acceleraton is then always a change of speed, the sense in which the engineer uses that term. A new term should be used when the force is at right angles to the direction of motion, in which case it adds no energy to the system and produces no change in speed, but merely a change of direction. For any angle between 0 and 90° no further distinction is required as the resultant then is always the vector sum of the two components at 0 and 90°.
Such a distinction between these two different meanings of acceleration is very desirable in order that the engineer and the physicist may always understand each other without confusion.
PHILADELPHIA, October 7, 1919
AN ORNITHOMIMID DINOSAUR IN THE
A RECENT study of some of the dinosaur specimens in the United States National Museum from the Arundel formation of Maryland has led to a discovery of more than ordinary interest. It is the recognition of an undoubted Ornithomimid dinosaur, the first representative of this group to be found east of the Rocky Mountain States, or geologically below the Judith River formation of the Upper Cretaceous.
The materials on which this determination rests consist of various bones of the hind foot, pertaining to more than one individual. Originally some of these elements were in
cluded among the cotypes on which Marsh1 founded the species Allosaurus medius, but in 1911 they were removed from the Theropoda by Lull to the Ornithopoda, and with other bones made the cotypes of the new species Dryosaurus grandis. I had never been satisfied in my own mind that these bones pertained to a herbivorous dinosaur but it was only recently that I have had the opportunity of comparing them with Ornithomimid materials. Through the courtesy of Mr. Walter Granger, of the American Museum of Natural History, I was enabled to compare these foot bones with those of the genotype of Struthomimus altus (Lambe) and other Ornithomimid foot materials from the Belly River and Edmonton formations, and in every instance have found such close resemblances as to leave no doubt of their Ornithomimid affinities, a view concurred in by Mr. Barnum Brown, of the above institution.
In an extended paper on the carnivorous Dinosauria contained in the collections of the U. S. National Museum, now in press, these bones are discussed in detail and are there tentatively assigned to the thomimus.
The recognition of this Ornithomimid dinosaur led to an investigation of the other members of the Arundel fauna and the preliminary study appears to show that there are at least three other dinosaurian forms having Upper Cretaceous affinities.
The presence of dinosaurs with Upper Cretaceous affinities, associated with Sauropod dinosaurs (Pleurocœlus) is a combination previously unknown, but whether it means that the Sauropoda lived on to a much later time than we had previously suspected or whether we have in these dinosaurs of Upper Cretaceous affinities the progenitors of the Judith River (Belly River) forms, I shall reserve judgment until a critical study of the whole fauna, now in preparation, is completed.
1 Amer. Jour. of Sci. (III.), Vol. XXXV., 1888,
2 Geol. Survey of Maryland, Lower Cretaceous, 1911, pp. 204-206, Fig. 7; Pl. 20, Figs. 1-4.
The Arundel formation is regarded by the most competent authorities to be Lower Cretaceous in age, and equally eminent paleontologists have correlated the Arundel fauna with the Morrison fauna of the Rocky Mountain region so that the conflicting evidence of these later discoveries promises to be of both paleontological and geological interest. CHARLES W. GILMORE
U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM,
AN ELEPHANT WITH FOUR TUSKS
TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: I have thought that the accompanying note with regard to the "elephant with four tusks," and its illustration would be interesting for SCIENCE to reproduce as an extraordinary record tucked away in a rather remote publication.
Picture and text are taken from "Sudan Notes and Records," Volume 2, number 3, July, 1919, page 231, and the account is there printed in Arabic with the accompanying translation. I am sure this will engage the attention of our many mammalogists and paleontologists.
JOHN M. CLARKE