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armament problems of the Ordnance Department as major in the U. S. Army.
PROFESSOR BAILEY WILLIS, who succeeded Dr. Branner in the department of geology at Stanford University, will hereafter be in residence from January to June only, and will devote the balance of the year to geologic research and field work.
PROFESSOR DANIEL STARCH, of the University of Wisconsin, is on leave of absence for the first half of the present year. He is giving a three-hour course of lectures during the semester at Harvard University.
DR. JAMES W. GLOVER, professor of mathematics and insurance at the University of Michigan, spent the month of September in New York City, serving as acting president of the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association of America. Professor Glover is a member of the board of trustees and acted for Dr. Henry S. Pritchett, who is spending the summer in the west.
DR. R. H. SYLVESTER, clinical psychologist at the Iowa State University, Iowa City, has been selected as chief of the health center at Des Moines, with headquarters in the court house.
THE Pontécoulant Prize of the Paris Academy of Sciences has been awarded to Professor A. S. Eddington for his astronomical researches.
DR. BARTON WARREN EVERMANN, director of the museum of the California Academy of Sciences, with Dr. John Van Denburgh, the herpetologist, left San Francisco on September 11, for the Olympic Mountains in Washington. The party will be joined in Seattle by Mr. C. J. Albrecht, director of vertebrate exhibits of the Washington State Museum, and a photographer, and an effort will be made to obtain motion pictures of the Roosevelt Elk in their native haunts in these mountains. The films if successful will be used to supplement the story told by the habitat group of Roosevelt Elk, now being installed in the Academy's Museum in Golden Gate Park, through the munificence of Captain William C. Van Antwerp.
WE learn from Economic Geology that T. Wayland Vaughan, D. Dale Condit, C. Wythe Cooke and Clyde P. Ross, of the U. S. Geological Survey, have recently returned to Washington after spending several months in a reconnaissance of the Dominican Republic, for the Dominican government. Dr. Vaughan also visited Prince au Prince, Haiti, and made arrangements with the Haitian government for a preliminary geological survey of Haiti. He later made a reconnaissance in the Virgin Islands at the request of the Navy Department. Mr. Condit, who was in charge of the field work in Santo Domingo, has in preparation several reports one of which, soon to be published, will describe the results of geologic work in Barahona and Azua Provinces.
THE James Watt centenary celebrations in Birmingham were opened with lectures by Professor F. W. Burstall and Professor HeleShaw on September 10. In the afternoon there was a memorial service at Handsworth Parish Church, in which Watt, Boulton and Murdoch were buried, an address being delivered by Canon E. W. Barnes, Master of the Temple. This was followed by a garden-party at Heathfield Hall, and a reception by the Lord Mayor at the Council House. The following day lectures were given by Sir Oliver Lodge, Professor Alex. Barr and Professor J. D. Cormack, and in the afternoon visits were made to some of Watt's engines. In the evening the centenary dinner was held. The university held a special Degree Congregation to confer honorary degrees on the American Ambassador (the Honorable J. W. Davies), Sir Charles Parsons, Vice-Admiral Goodwin, M. Rateau (of Paris), Sir George Beilby, Colonel Blackett, Professor Barr and Mr. F. W. Lanchester.
THE death is announced on August 5 of Mr. W. D. Dallas, who was scientific assistant to the meteorological reporter to the government of India from 1882 to 1906.
THE Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift of May 29, as quoted by the Journal of the American Medical Association, gives the total losses of Germany as 6,873,415. This includes
the 615,922 soldiers held prisoners of war in other lands, and the 4,207,023 wounded. The dead numbered 1,676,696, and the missing most of whom are presumably dead, 373,770, a total of 2,000,000 killed in the war.
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
THE will of General Horace W. Carpentier has now been filed. The estate is valued at $3,606,000. The principal beneficiaries are Columbia University and Barnard College, each of which receives $1,420,000. Other beneficiaries include the Presbyterian Hospital, $200,000; Sloan Hospital, $200,000, and the University of California, $100,000.
By the will of the late Charles W. Lenney, of New York, $50,000 is left to Boston University.
MR. ARTHUR BALFOUR has been nominated for election as chancellor of Cambridge University, in succession to his brother-in-law, the late Lord Rayleigh.
COLORADO COLLEGE has again opened its forestry school, which was closed for two years because of the war. Mr. J. Gordon Parker has been appointed assistant professor of forestry in charge of the school.
A NEW department of physiological chemistry has recently been established at the University of Kansas. Dr. C. Ferdinand Nelson has been elected professor of biological chemistry and head of department.
AT Yale University Arthur Phillips, M.S., has been appointed assistant professor of metallurgy, in the Sheffield Scientific School; James Albert Honeij, M.D., at present assistant professor, professor of clinical medicine in charge of radiology, and Wilder Tileston, M.D., at present assistant professor of medicine, professor of clinical medicine.
DR. C. W. HEWLETT, professor of physics in the North Carolina College for Women, Greensboro, N. C., has been appointed assistant professor of physics at the University of Iowa.
RECENT appointments in the medical school of Loyola University, Chicago, are as follows:
S. A. Matthews, M.D., professor and head of the department of physiology, pharmacology and therapeutics; A. C. Ivy, A.M., Ph.D., formerly instructor in physiology at the University of Chicago, associate professor in physiology; E. S. Maxwell, formerly instructor in pathology at Vanderbilt University and more recently first lieutenant in the U. S. Medical Corps, associate professor in bacteriology and pathology.
DR. HARRISON R. HUNT has resigned as assistant professor of zoology at West Virginia University to become head of the department of biology at the University of Mississippi, Oxford, Mississippi.
DR. J. W. SHIPLEY, professor of chemistry in the Manitoba Agricultural College, has resigned his position in order to accept an appointment as assistant professor in chemistry in the University of Manitoba.
DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE
THE RIGIDITY OF THE EARTH TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: An account of an experiment to determine the rigidity of the earth was published in The Astrophysical Journal and in The Journal of Geology, March, 1914 and in SCIENCE, June 26, 1914. This gave the ratios of the amplitudes of tides observed in N.-S. and E.-W. pipes to the amplitudes computed for the same pipes on the assumption of a perfectly rigid earth, as .523 and .710 respectively.
The work of reducing a new set of automatically recorded observations made by an interference method, which was interrupted by the war, was recently resumed, and it was found that the N.-S. and E.-W. ratios were very nearly equal to each other.
.523 It was then noted that .7366 and that .710 the cosine of the latitude of Yerkes Observatory, where the experiment was performed, is .7363. It seemed highly probable therefore that coso had been introduced erroneously into the computed formula far the N.-S. tides.
We have just been informed by Professor
Moulton that he has gone over the old formulæ used and has found that the computer introduced the factor coso erroneously into the N.-S. computation.
The N.-S. ratio should therefore have been .523 .7363
.710, which oddly enough is exactly
equal to the E.-W. ratio.
The new observations point to a value of about .69 for both E.-W. and N.-S. ratios.
that two cars were approaching—a small one followed by a larger one. The large car was seen to gradually overtake the small one until finally the two sets of lights coalesced and a minute later we met and passed-a single car. "I thought there were two of them," said Dr. Morgan. So did I. We had seen a mirage at night.
A. A. KNOWLTON
A. A. MICHELSON, HENRY G. GALE
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, September 10, 1919
AN UNUSUAL MIRAGE
MOST people are probably familiar with the type of mirage often seen over paved streets on still hot days. In its simplest and most common form one appears to see merely a wetted portion of the pavement some distance ahead. In more striking cases this assumes the appearance of a pool of water in which buildings, trees and vehicles are seen reflected. well known this is due to the presence just above the pavement of a layer of air which being warmer than that above it is lighter and hence has a lower index of refraction than the air a little distance from the surface of the earth. These mirages are oftenest seen in mid-afternoon, and when motoring through the country such a pool often appears to continually recede and thus remains in sight for a long time. Recently while traveling from San Francisco to Portland with Professor W. C. Morgan we encountered such a mirage under rather unusual conditions.
The section of the Pacific Highway which traverses the Sacramento valley being paved with cement and under a hot sun is an ideal place for such mirages which had been visible much of the afternoon. Just after dusk (about nine o'clock) a car with powerful lights came over a slight rise a mile or so ahead. A moment later the lights of a second car appeared some distance in front of the first as though the driver had just turned them on. These lights were about half as brilliant as those of the first car and the impression was
THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION A REVIEW of the work of the Rochefeller Foundation in various countries during 1918 by the president, Mr. George E. Vincent, shows that its activities extended literally from China to Peru. The foundation has shown practical interest in advanced medical education in hygiene in two ways. In the first place it has by gifts for building, equipment, and maintenance, rendered possible the opening last October of the school of hygiene and public health at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. In the second place it has, since 1915, followed the policy of granting a number of international fellowships and scholarships to students from foreign countries and American missionaries at home on leave. In 1918 there were 68 fellowships and scholarships distributed as follows: Brazilian physicians 3, Chinese graduate physicians 11, Chinese undergraduate medical students (formerly students of the Harvard Medical School of China) 10, Chinese pharmacists 3, Chinese nurses 6, medical missionaries on furlough 26, candidates under consideration for the new schools at Peking and Shanghai 9. The International Health Board has adopted a system of "study leave," by which members of its staff of medical officers, now nearly 60 in number, may, under favorable conditions of salary, pursue at the expense of the board special courses in public health at leading American or foreign institutions. In this way the equivalent of additional graduate fellowships has been created. Provision was also made for the bringing to the United States French medical men for special train
ing in antituberculosis measures, but no appointments were actually made in 1918. A commission for the prevention of tuberculosis, at the head of which was Dr. Livingston Farrand, opened a campaign in France in July, 1917. Although there were in existence examples of every agency effective in combating tuberculosis, they were few in number and there was no centralized organization for a combined attack on the disease. The commission, in cooperation with the Tuberculosis Bureau of the American Red Cross, set about demonstrating the value of "team play" by organizing and coordinating the essential agencies. In 1918 four central dispensaries and six secondary centers were opened. Nurses attached to these centers visited patients at their homes; the Red Cross provided hospital accommodation, opened sanatoriums, and supplied food and clothing. Efforts were made to establish local committees in the leading towns. At the time of the first visit twenty-one dispensaries were in existence in twenty-seven departments. By the end of the year fifty-seven new dispensaries had been opened, twenty others were in process of installation, and plans had been agreed upon for forty-nine more. Besides these dispensaries, fifteen laboratories were in course of establishment and forty new committees organized. An active propaganda was carried on throughout the country by means of "tanks," posters, lectures, demonstrations, pamphlets, postcards, exhibits and games. The services of the press and of art were enlisted as agents in the education of the people. The Foundation has also made experiments in the control of malaria. In four towns in Arkansas measures for the extermination of anopheline mosquitos were carried out with marked success. By draining and filling pools, ditching sluggish streams, and oiling surface water, the breeding of the insect was almost entirely prevented. The results were striking. In Hamburg, Arkansas, the number of visits paid by doctors to patients suffering from malaria fell from 2,312 in 1916 to 259 in 1917 and to 59 in 1918, a reduction for the period of 97.4 per cent. In four other communities the per
centage of reductions varied from 95.4 to 80 per cent. In Sunflower county, Mississippi, it was believed that a malaria control of 80 per cent. was achieved. In regions where surface water can not be dealt with "carriers" are looked for and treated. In Guatemala an epidemic of yellow fever was checked. Work for the relief and control of hookworm disease was carried out in cooperation with twelve states of the union and with twenty-one foreign countries. In China the construction of the fifteen buildings of the Peking Union Medical College College was steadily proIceeded with in 1918. An account of this institution was given in the British Medical Journal of August 2, 1919. On account of the glazed green tiles used to cover the roofs the College is called by the Chinese "the Green City."-The British Medical Journal.
Life Histories of North American Diving Birds, Order Pygopodes. By ARTHUR CLEVELAND BENT. Bull. 107, U. S. Nat. Mus., August 1, 1919. Pp. i-xiii; 1-245; Pls. 1–55. Since the discontinuance of Major Charles E. Bendire's "Life Histories of North American Birds" there has appeared no comprehensive work on this subject. Students of the life and behavior of most North American birds have been much handicapped by the lack of published information, and the widely scattered character of such as is available. In preparing a biography of a North American bird it is frequently still necessary to turn back to the works of Audubon and Wilson for data. In few groups is this lack more evident than in those that form the subject of the present work, i. e., the three families, Colymbidæ (grebes), Gaviida (loons), and Alcidæ (auks), unwisely associated in the "Order" Pygopodes of the classification of the Check-List of the American Ornithologists' Union.
The present author has done science a service by bringing together and presenting in serviceable form the obtainable data on these groups of birds. From a large number of ornithologists to whom due acknowledgment is made, the author has received original con
tributions or other assistance. The geographic distribution of the various species has been largely compiled by Dr. Louis B. Bishop and Mr. F. Seymour Hersey, while the biographies of two species-Fratercula arctica arctica and Plautus impennis, have been written by Dr. Charles W. Townsend. An effort has been made to have the account of each species as complete as possible, and judicious quotations from literature have been used whenever original information was not available; yet, as is with naïve modesty said in the author's introduction, "No one is so well aware of the many shortcomings and omissions in this work as the author. Allowance must be made for the magnitude of the undertaking. If the reader fails to find mentioned in these pages some things which he knows about the birds, he can blame himself for not having sent them to the author."
The method of treatment is decidedly modern, and facilitates reference to any portion of the information presented. Each one of the 36 species and subspecies is treated separately, but undue repetition is avoided under subspecies. These individual biographies range in length from less than two to nearly thirteen pages, and, notwithstanding their scientific accuracy, are for the most part pleasantly written. The account of the loon (Gavia immer) is particularly interesting. We are sorry to see, however, that the author still retains the possessive case for common names of birds dedicated to individuals.
The data under each species is arranged in two general categories, "Habits" and "Distribution." Under the former the subheadings are arranged, it will be noticed, as far as possible according to the sequence of the seasons. "Spring," "Courtship," "Nesting," "Eggs," "Young," "Plumages," "Food," "Behavior," "Fall," and "Winter." Under "Distribution " appear "Breeding Range," "Winter Range," "Spring Migration," "Fall Migration," "Casual Records," and "Egg Dates." Of course, owing to the lack of information, all these headings are not to be found under every species. An introductory paragraph under "Habits" gives general in
formation that could not be satisfactorily distributed under the subheadings.
Under "Spring" general information is given regarding spring migration and habits during this period and until the breeding season, except that relating to courtship, which is reserved for a special paragraph. "Nesting" includes the dates of breeding, the location and description of the nest and its environment, and the habits of the species during this period. The paragraph on eggs concerns their number, character, color, dimensions, incubation, and similar facts. The section devoted to the young gives principally their habits until they are able to take care of themselves, together with the manner in which their parents provide for them. Under the heading "Plumages" there is a great deal of original and valuable information, including more or less complete descriptions of the various stages of plumage and succession of molts from that of the nestling to that of the adult, which in the birds covered by the present contribution has been little understood. Under "Food" there is given a résumé of the present knowledge of the kinds of food and their relative importance, together with notes on feeding habits. Under "Behavior" there is a general account of the various activities of the birds, particularly their flight, swimming and diving habits, vocal powers, general actions, and their enemies. The paragraph headed "Fall" concerns chiefly the autumn migration and the habits of birds during this period; and that relating to "Winter" contains similar data.
The information regarding geographic distribution has evidently been worked out with considerable care, and is one of the most valuable parts of this bulletin. For this purpose indebtedness is acknowledged to the files of data in the Biological Survey of the United States Department of Agriculture. The breeding range is given in considerable detail and, as we like to see it, with the limits in each direction outlined. The same is true of the winter range. In "Spring Migration" and "Fall Migration" no general statement of routes is given, but simply various data of arrival and departure at different points through