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7.9 +3.1 7.0 8.4 21.0 33.2 6.06.2 13.8 4.1 26.9 32.6 -1.1 9.4 4.6 11.7 0.4 21.6 35.2 8.65.0 13.6 0.3 29.6 34.7 -1.1 27.9 41.6 8.2 +5.5 6.8 T. 23.7 38.1 9.25.2 22.6 0.5 36.8 37.2 +2.3 36.2 48.2 8.4 3.6 4.9 T. 34.8 43.8 7.4 1.6 2.9 0.3 50.8 44.4 +5.6 22.3 41.8-12.1 +7.4 16.3 1.0 16.3 35.2 -14.0+ 4.9 20.2 0.2 34.5 34.4 +2.1 22.4 37.7 8.6 13.3 31.0-10.4+ 7.3 42.5 2.0 27.2 30.5 +1.8 10.1 28.7 7.1 6.7 3.7 21.8 7.9+10.2 8.1 6.2 17.4 17.0 +2.4 26.8 43.0 8.7 +7.5 7.5 0.5 18.8 37.8-12.2 + 6.8 11.7 0.7 35.6 36.7 23.4 39.4 8.1 7.9 5.3 16.4 17.4 34.4 8.88.2 10.3 1.0 34.0 34.2 24.2 28.5 0.6 +3.7 31.2 0.6 21.0 32.4 +1.0 +12.4 13.4 1.4 23.7 20.4 43.2 29.6 +11.0 -2.6 T. 2.2 34.4 32.8 5.1+ 3.5 4.9 0.4 36.0 35.8 38.2 27.07.9 -3.3 0.7 14.4 26.2 24.4 2.3 4.1 22.7 1.7 35.8 27.2
The region west of the Rockies, which was so warm in the winter of 1917-1918, was generally unusually cold in December, 1918, and in much of Utah, northern Arizona and New Mexico, where the depth of snow was great, in January, and much of February, 1919, as well. Throughout the rest of the region, the past winter was not very unusual. CHARLES F. BROOKS
WASHINGTON, D. C.
A POSSIBLE CASE OF INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOR IN THE WHITE RAT
YERKES and Bloomfield1 demonstrated that kittens instinctively kill mice but barely implied the instinctive behavior of the mice used. Berry2 states that mice do not show any fear of cats. The following single observation seems to suggest that white rats do instinctively fear cats. An entirely accidental circumstance furnished a situation in which a young cat came into the presence of several cages of white rats. Although the cages were some feet above the cat, its behavior was quite comparable to that described by Yerkes and Bloomfield. In spite of the intensity of the olfactory stimulus in the room, the reaction of the cat did not take place until the visual stimulus was presented. A periodic and almost spasmodic humping of the back and bristling hair, but entire lack of vocal sounds,
were the prominent features. Several minutes produced no change in the situation save that the cat, although making no effort at all to reach the cages, became a little restless. When, however, the cat was placed upon a cage containing five white rats (female) about six months old, their behavior was very definite and specific. The cat responded to the new situation-being high in the air with unsafe footing-by paying no attention to the rats but rather evidencing some fear. The rats retreated to the rear of the cage uttering peculiar whines, and showing other evidences of fear. The cat was then removed and an effort made to feed the rats. A specific vocal sound made by the experimenter has always been sufficient to call the rats to the front of the cage where they are given small bits of cheese. This stimulus has been so grafted on to the feeding reactions that it invariably awakens the rats immediately from sleep, or calls the female from a litter, and, subsequent to the incident described, has repeatedly become prepotent over states of fear produced in other ways. Although over thirty-six hours
1"'Do Kittens Instinctively Kill Mice?'' Psychol. Bull., 1910, 7, pp. 253–263.
2 Berry, C. S., "An Experimental Study of Imitation in Cats," J. of Comp. Neurol. and Psychol., 1908, 18, pp. 1-25. (Quoted by Yerkes and Bloomfield.)
3 See Yerkes, et al., op. cit., p. 262.
had elapsed since the last feeding time, it was only by continuous and patient effort that the rats were induced to come forward and take bits of cheese offered. Instead of jumping to some corner to enjoy the morsel undisturbed, however, they huddled together in one place, intermittently whining. An hour later they had eaten their cheese but had not moved from the corner and one was still whining.
A simple test was made in the following manner. The cat was handled and petted a few moments and then an attempt was made to secure a male rat from a near-by cage. The rats are handled so frequently that they ordinarily climb over the hand and lightly bite here and there in search of food. On this occasion, however, the behavior was exactly comparable to that found with the females. In the first case the response might have been to the situation-unfamiliar olfactory and auditory stimuli; and in the second to the situation-unfamiliar odor.
The rats here observed represent ten generations of inbreeding. The writer is positive that during the time he has worked with them no cat has been in the room or near the room. Some such odors may have been carried in the clothing of experimenters, however, but this on close examination seems unlikely. At no time or under any other circumstances has he observed such a specific and definite reaction to a situation as here illustrated. A few hours later the behavior of all the rats was experimentally normal in every way. This observation has suggested the desirability of pursuing a definite experimental method in the problem. An effort will be made to control all the variable factors attending a chance observation and to make some definite statement as to the specific original behavior in this particular situation. It may be that a similar reaction can be evoked by a distinctively strange stimulus. That is, the behavior here illustrated may not be specifically related to the situation -certain unfamiliar qualities of olfactory and auditory stimuli. Any other new stimulus may arouse such reactions, the necessary component of the total perception being just the unfamiliarity or strangeness and not the spe
cific feline odor. It will be quite possible to take a litter of young and provide appropriate stimuli, the responses to which can be scrupulously noted. Variations in age and sex, variations in the situations provided, variations in feeding periods, etc., and a comparative study of the behavior of the wild Norway rat under similar conditions, should throw some light on this particular form of original behavior.
COLEMAN R. GRIFFITH
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
THE AGRICULTURAL LIBRARIES SECTION OF THE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION
A MEETING of the Agricultural Libraries Section of the American Library Association was held at Asbury Park, N. J., June 26, 1919. About forty persons were present, including representatives from the Agricultural College libraries of Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Missouri, Montana, New Jersey, North Dakota, Vermont and West Virginia and thirteen from the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Miss Dixon sketched the accomplishments of the Agricultural Libraries Section since its first meeting at Mackinac in 1910, among the most notable which was the bringing about of the publication of the Agricultural Index by the H. W. Wilson Company.
Mr. Milton J. Ferguson, librarian of the California State Library, in a paper entitled "Getting Books to the Farmer in California,'' described the county library system, the latest development in the state system, which includes all library activities, municipal, state and others, and which shows the energy, foresight and cooperative spirit, which the state of California exhibits in so many fields.
The paper by Miss Marjorie F. Warner, bibliographical assistant, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, on "Bibliographical Opportunities in Horticulture," discussed the need of research in connection with the history of cultivated plants and of horticulture; giving illustrations from work which has been done, specifying certain undertakings which should appeal to agricultural librarians, and concluding with a plea for more scholarly research in bibliography both as an individual asset and as adding to the reputation of our libraries.
On conclusion of the paper a gentleman proving to be Dr. J. W. Harshberger, of the University of Pennsylvania, introduced himself as a stranger attracted to the meeting by its program. He congratulated Miss Warner on her paper, and supplemented it by a brief acount of interesting discoveries he had recently made by roundabout methods in seeking information requested by Dr. Sargent, of the Arnold Arboretum, in regard to the Pierce brothers and their nurseries near Kennett Square, Pa., and also alluded to similar methods pursued in regard to William Young, Jr., whose rare "Catalogue des arbres, etc., d'Amérique'' (Paris, 1783), has recently been reproduced in facsimile by Rhoads. Mr. Ferguson's and Miss Warner's papers will be published in the Proceedings of the Conference of the American Library Association and in the Library Journal.
Mr. Charles R. Green, librarian, Massachusetts Agricultural College, presented for discussion the subject of "A Union Checklist of Agricultural Periodicals."' He dwelt on the desirability of a list which should make more readily available the present periodical resources of the agricultural libraries of the country, encouraging interlibrary loans and lessening the unnecessary purchase of little used material, and suggested the possible scope of the list, warning against yielding to the temptation to plan an over large project which it would not be possible to carry out. Should such a list include only periodicals on agriculture and its practically related subjects, such as horticulture and animal husbandry, or should it include also those on its related sciences, such as bacteriology, chemistry, botany, entomology, etc.? Or would it be best to issue no nationwide check list, but for agricultural librarians to make an effort to have material of interest to them, included in the various regional periodical union check lists which are in preparation or contemplation?
Miss L. K. Wilkins, chief of the Periodical Division, U. S. Department of Agriculture Library, led the discussion by describing the list of agricultural periodicals of the United States and Canada, compiled as a personal undertaking by Mr. S. C. Stuntz, formerly of the Library of Congress, later of the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction of the Bureau of Plant Industry. The list which is very comprehensive and in manuscript form, was purchased by the library of the U. S. Department of Agriculture after Mr. Stuntz's death in 1918. Miss Wilkins suggested that this list be used as a basis for the proposed union check list of agricultural periodicals, omit
ting the historical notes, and biographical sketches of editors.
Mr. H. O. Severance, librarian of the University of Missouri, said he would like to have the list cover periodicals on all sciences allied to agricul ture, but the general opinion seemed to be that it should cover only those on agriculture and the branches of agriculture such as animal husbandry, dairying and horticulture.
Mr. H. W. Wilson, president of the H. W. Wilson Company, described the methods being employed in making up the union check list of periodicals of the central states, and Dr. C. W. Andrews, librarian of the John Crerar Library, stated that they would waive exclusive use of the slugs, and would gladly give those for agricultural periodicals to this section, if an agricultural check list were undertaken.
After further discussion, a motion was made to ascertain whether the section thought it desirable to undertake the preparation of such a list, on the cooperative plan. The motion was carried unanimously. Mr. Severance then moved that the chair appoint a committee of three with power to act, and to decide upon methods of compiling and publishing a union check list to agricultural periodicals in libraries in the United States. It was understood that the committee was to make the final decision as to its scope. The following committee was appointed by the chair: Mr. Charles R. Green, chairman, Mr. H. O. Severance and Miss Lydia K. Wilkins.
The question of a union check list of agricultural periodicals is one of great importance to all scientists interested in agriculture. If there are any who have any suggestions to make on the subject, the committee would gladly receive them.
THE SCIENTIFIC MOBILIZATION IN ITALY FOR THE WAR
THE various manifestations of the present war have had, for the most part, their foundation in applied science and industry. The best minds turned to study methods of offense and defense, based on the application of pure or applied science, and inventive genius has had and still has a wide field in which to find new arms and new devices and to perfect those now existing.
From the beginning of the war, Italy, no less than her Allies, has mobilized her scientific and industrial forces for the one purpose to which all the activities of the country have had to be devoted, and nothing has been spared to help and perfect the great war-machine which had to bring victory.
The work began first individually and as demanded by the necessities of the moment; then, a little at a time, for individual work, for the work of individual scientists as officers on the fighting line or in the rear where their technical skill was required, or in the war industries which had to enlarge all their plants rapidly and modify them according to circumstances, there was substituted a single organization, a state institution. This was founded in order to mobilize properly for war purposes all available Italian scientific forces and all the means at the disposal of the numerous laboratories of the schools and state technical establishments.
This institution, which naturally was situated at the Ministry of Arms and Munitions, had the following duties:
(1) To classify and mobilize the various scientific institutions according to their possible utilization and the means at the disposal of each. (2) To study the problems which were eventually proposed by the military technical offices, distribute them to the laboratories and institutions best adapted to the particular
there available for the researches.
problem, follow the various experimental local institutions, and the quality of material phases, especially in the case of inventions worthy of attention. The institution was in this way the connection between the military offices and all those who had improvements to propose on the methods of war then existing or new applications or inventions. When the experiments had advanced to such a point of development as to be utilized, it transmitted the results to the military offices for application. (3) To take charge of the shops already mobilized for war work and to adapt others as the need arose. (4) To take care of the completed inventions and researches and the unsuccessful attempts, of the problems overcome and of those yet to be overcome, seeking to improve what already existed and to create new things without repeating long and fatiguing work. (5) To collaborate closely with the analogous institutions of the allies, by means of specially appointed delegates who had to keep informed of the progress made in the various problems, and follow the scientific movement in the allied countries.
The institution thus conceived was definitely established at the beginning of 1916 under the name of Office of Inventions and Research, acting as a department of the Ministry of Arms and Munitions, and under the direction of Senator V. Volterra, who was the authorized proposer and founder. The Minister of Education then authorized the directors of the universities, the heads of the other institutions of higher instruction, and the directors of the scientific and experimental bureaus to put themselves at the disposal of this office, and to correspond directly with it in order that predetermined objectives might be attained most rapidly. In the same way the mobilization was started of the scientific and technical department of our higher institutions of learning, and their relative personnel, with the exception of clinical and other similar institutions engaged in medical work, and they now work assiduously and efficiently.
Some of the institute directors came to Rome to form part of the central office, to coordinate and select the work according to the special aptitude of the personnel of the various
Along with the studies and researches on problems of various kinds and of immediate necessity, the study of inventions was brought under scientific supervision. We should notice that in large part the cases concern proposals made by persons who know little or nothing about the problem which their invention attempts to solve. For a group of those competent, it is easy to exclude, from the enormous number of inventions presented, those that have no foundation; then they may study those for which there is hope of succeeding. On the other hand, these same persons are in a position to engage themselves, each one in the branch of science in which he is most interested, studying the same problems and directing the line along which the same class of inventions must be worked out. More than that, it has been necessary to conduct systematic researches in order to learn the availability in Italy of the raw mineral products needed for certain war-productions; this problem was immediately attacked by our best mineralogists and geologists.
In this way the office promises also to be an institution of permanent utility when the present conflict has ceased and the work of the civilized world is again directed toward more profitable purposes of peace.
For evident reasons the moment for unveiling the results of the work of the Italian scientists for the war has not yet come. But at least we can give the names of the most efficient cooperators of Senator Volterra. Among them these ought to be remembered: Lori Nasini, Miolati, Piola, Fano, Vacca, Millosevich, Corbino, Occhialini, Trabacchi, Ciamician, Angeli, Martelli, Vinassa, Aloisi, Carrara, Dalla Vedova; of our universities and in the military and naval world, Avallone, Valsecchi, Vitali, Buffa and many others.
Although apparently there is no lack of persons and the already available methods are utilized as largely as possible, they are not sufficient. What must be done in Italy on a much larger scale than has been done heretofore is to bring scientific research into direct