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the attention of the criminal, who now lifted |TRATION. You know I hate theories : this up his eyes, and cast on his late master a is realizing; this is PHILOSOPHY made easy look so dreadful that Fantom wished for a /to the meanest capacity. This is the premoment that he had given up all hope of the cions fruit which grows on that darling tree, spoons, rather than have exposed himself to so many slips of which have been transplansuch a scene. At length the poor wretch ted from that land of liberty of which it is the said, in a low voice that would have melted native, but which, with all your digging, a heart of stone, O, sir are you there? I planting, watering, (lunging, and dressing, did indeed wish to see you before my dread- will, I trust, never thrive in this blessed land ful sentence is put in execution. Oh, sir ! of ours.' to-morrow ! to-morrow! But I have a con- Mr. Fantom sneaked off to finish his work fession to make to you.' This revived Mr. at home ; and Mr. Trueman staid to finish Fantom, who again ventured to glance a his in the prison. He passed the night with hope at the spoons, “Sir,' said William, 1 the wretched convict; he prayed with him could not die without making my confession.' and for him, and read to him the penitential • Ay, and restitution too, I hope,' replied psalms, and some portions of the Gospel. — Fantom : 'vhere are my spoons?' 'Sir, But he was too humble and too prudent a they are gone with the rest of my wretched man to venture out of his depth by argubooty. But oh, sir ! those spoons make soments and consolations which he was not petty an article in my black account, that I warranted to use: this he left for the clergyhardly think of them. Murder ! sir, mur-man-hut be pressed on William the great der is the crime for which I am justly cloom-duty of making the only amends now in his ed to die. Oh, sir, who can abide the anger power to those whom he had led astray.of an offended God? Who can dwell with They then drew up the following paper, everlasting burnings ?' As this was a ques- which Mr. Trueman got printed, and gave tion which even a philosopher could not an-away at the place of execution. swer, Mr. Fantom was going to steal off, especially as he now gave up all hope of the The last words, confission, and dying speech spous: but William called hini back: of WILLIAM WILSON, who was executed

Stay, sir, stay, I conjure you, as you will at Chelmsford for murder. answer it at the bar of God. You must I was bred up in the fear of God, and bear the sins of which you have been the lived with credit in many sober families, in occasion. You are the cause of my being which I was a faithful servant; but being about to suffer a shameful death.— Yes, sir, tempted by a little higher wages, I left a you made me a drunkard, a thief, and a mur- good place to go and live with Mr. Fantom, derer,' How dare you, William,' cried who, however, made good none of his fine Mr. Fantom, with great emotion, 'accuse promises, but proved a hard master. Full of me with being the cause of such horrid fine words and charitable speeches in favour crimes?" "Sir,' answered the criminal, of the poor ; but apt to oppress, overwork, • from you I learned the principles which and underpay them. In his service I was lead to those crimes. By the grace of God vot allowed time to go to church. This I should never have fallen into sins deserving troubled me at first, till I overheard my masof the gallows, if I hari not overheard you ter say, that going to church was a superstisay there was no hereafter, no judgment, no tious prejudice, and only meant for the vulfuture reckoning. O, sir ! there is a hell, gar. Upon this I resolved to go no more; dreadful, inconceivable, eternal !' Here, for I thought there could not be two relithrough the excess of anguish, the poor fel- gions, one for the master, and one for the low fainted away. Mr. Fantom, who did servant. Finding my master never praved, not at all relish this scene, said to his friend, I too left off praying: this gave Satan great • well, sir, we will go, if you please, for you power over me, so that I from that time fell sce there is nothing to be done.'

linto almost every sin. I was very uneasy at "Sir,' replied Mr. Trueman, mournfully, first, and my conscience gave me no rest ; you may go it you please, but I shall stay, but I was soon reconciled by overhearing for I see there is a great deal to be done.:- my master and another gentleman say, that “What!' rejoined the other, 'do you think it death was only an eternal sleep, and hell and possible his life can be saved.' No, indeed,' judgment were but an invention of priests to said Trueman ; 'but I hope it is possible his keep the poor in order. I mention this as a soul may be saved.' 'I do not understand / warning to all masters and mistresses to take these things,' said Fantom, making toward care what they converse about while serthe door. Nor I neither,' said Trueman; vants are waiting at table. They cannot .but as a fellow-sinner, I am bound to do tell how many souls they have sent to perdiwhat I can for this poor man. Do you go tion by such' loose talk. The crime for home, Mr. Fantom, and finish your treatise which I die is the natural consequence of the on universal benevolence, and the blessed principles I learnt of my master. A rich effects of philosophy ; and hark ye, be sure man, indeed, who throws off religion, may you let the frontispiece of your book repre-escape the gallows, because want does not sent William on the gibbet ; that will be drive him to commit those crimes which lead wilat our minister calls a PRACTICAL ILLUS-I to it; but what shall restrain a needy man,

who has been taught that there is no dread- penitent till he was launched into eternity, ful reckoning? Honesty is but a dream but attended him with the minister in the without the awful sanctions of heaven and cart. This pious clergyman never cared to hell. Virtue is but a shadow, if it be strip-say what he thought of William's state,---ped of the terrors and the promises of the When Mr. Trueman ventured to mention his Gospel. Morality is but an empty name, if hope, that though his penitence was late, yet it be destitute of the principle and power of it was sincere, and spoke of the dying thief Christianity. Oh, my dear fellow-servants! on the cross as a ground of encouragement, take warning by my sad fate; never be the minister, with a very serious look, maile tenopted away from a sober service for the this answer: "Sir, that instance is too often sake of a little more wages : never venture brought forward on occasions to which it your immortal souls in houses where God is does not apply : I do not chuse to say any Dot feared. And now hear me, (), my God, thing to your application of it in the present though I have blasphemed thee! forgive me, case, but I will answer you in the words of a O my Saviour, though I have denied thee! / good man speaking of the penitent thief: O Lord most holy, O God most mighty, de- There is one such instance given that noliver me from the bitter pains of eternal body might despair, and there is but one, death, and receive my soul for His sake who that nobody might presume.' died for sinners.

| Poor William was turned off just a quarWILLIAM Wilson.' ter before eleven ; and may the Lord have Mr. Trueman would never leave this poor | mercy on his soul !




It was his constant rule to undervalue PART I.-THE VISIT.

Jevery thing he was about to buy, and to MR. BRAGWELL and Mr. Worthy hap-overvalue every thing he was about to sell ; pened to meet last year at Weyhill fair. but as he seldom lost sight of his discretion, They were glad to see each other, as they heavoided every thing that was very shamehad but seldom met of late; Mr. Bragwell ful; so that he was considered merely as a haring renoved some years before from hard dealer, and a keen hand at a bargain, Mr. Worthy's neighbourhood, to a distant Now and then when he had been caught in village, where he had bought an estate, pushing his own advantage too far, he con

Mr. Bragwell was a substantial farmer trived to get out of the scrape by turning the and grazier. He had risen in the world by whole into a jest, saying it was a good take what worldly men call a run of good fortune. I in, a rare joke, and he had only a mind to He had also been a man of great industry ; divert himself with the folly of his neighbour, that is, he had paid a diligent and constant who could be so easily imposed on. attention to his own interest. He understood | Mr. Bragwell, however, in his way, set a business, and had a knack of turning almost high value on character: not indeed that he every thing to his own advantage. He had had a right sense of its worth; he did not that sort of sense which good men call cun- consider reputation as desirable because it ning, and knaves call wisdom. He was too increases intiuence, and for that reason prudent ever to do any thing so wrong that strengthens the hands of a good man, and the law could take hold of him ; yet he was enlarges his sphere of usefulness : but he not over scrupulous about the morality of an made the advantage of reputation, as well as action, when the prospect of enriching him- of every other good, centre in himself. Had self by it was very great, and the chance of he observed a strict attention to principle, he hurting his character was small. The corn feared he should not have got on so fast in he sent home to his customers was not al- the world as those do who consult expedienways quite so good as the samples he had cy rather than probity, while, without a cerproduced at market; and he now and then tain degree of character, he knew also, that forgot to name some capital blemish in the he should forfeit that confidence which put horses he sold at fair, He scorned to be other men in his power, and would set them guilty of the petty frauds of cheating in as much on their guard against him, as he, weights and measures, for he thought that who thought all mankind pretty much alike, was a beggarly sin; but he valued himself on was on his guard against them. his skill in making a bargain, and fancied it! Mr. Bragwell had one favourite maxim ; showed his superior knowledge of the world namely, that a man's success in life was a to take advantage of the ignorance of a sure proof of his wisdom : and that all faidealer,

llure and misfortune was the consequence of

a man's own folly. As this opinion was first | delight of Bragwell to eclipse, in his way of taken up by him from vanity and ignorance, life, men of larger fortune. He did not see so it was more and more confirmed by his how much this vanity raised the envy of his own prosperity. He saw that he himself had inferior's, the ill-will of his equals, and the succeeried greatly without either money or contempt of his betters.. education to begin with ; and he therefore! His wife was a notable stirring woman, now despised every man, however excellent but vain, violent, and ambitious ; very ignohis character or talents might be, who hadi rant, and very bigh-minded. She had marnot the same success in life. His natural ried Bragwell before he was worth a shildisposition was not particularly bad, but ling, and as she had brought him a good deal prosperity had hardened his heart. He of money, she thought herself the grand made his own progress in life the rule by cause of his rising in the world ; and thence which the conduct of all other men was to cook occasion to govern him most completebe judgerl, without any allowance for their ly. Whenever he ventured to oppose her, peculiar disadvantages, or the visitations of she took care to put him in mind that he Providence. He thought, for his part, that owed every thing to her; that had it not every man of sense could command success been for her, he miglit still have been stumpon his unclertakings, and control and dispose ling after a plough-tail, or serving hogs in the events of his own life,

old Worthy's farm-yard; but that it was she But though he considered those who had who had made a gentleman of him. In order had less success than himself as no better to set about making him a gentleman, she than fools, yet he did not extend this opinion had begun by teazing him till he had turned to Mr. Worthy, whom he looked upon not away all his poor relations who worked in only as a good but a wise man. They had the farm: she next drew him (ff from keepbeen bred up when children in the same ing company with his old acquaintance; and house ; but with this difference, that Wor- at last persuaded him to remove from the thay was the nephew of the master, and place where he had got his money. Poor Bragwell the son of the servant.

woman! she had not sense and virtud enough Bragwell's father had been ploughman in to see how honourable it is for a man to raise the family of Mr. Worthy's uncle, a sensible himself in the world by fair means, and then man, who farmed a small estate of his own, to help forward his poor relations and and who having no children, bred up young friends; engaging their services by his kindWorthy as his son, instructed him in the ness, and endeavouring to turn his own adbusiness of husbandry, and at his death left vancement in life to the best account, that him his estate. The father of Worthy was of making it the instrument of assisting a pious clergyman, who lived with his bro- those who had a natural claim to his protecther the farmer, in order to help out a nar- tion. row income, He had bestowed much pains Mrs. Bragwell was an excellent mistress, on the instruction of his son, and used fre- according to her own notions of excellence; quently to repeat to him a saying, which he for no one could say that she ever lost an had picked up in a book written by one of opportunity of scolding a servant, or was the greatest men this country ever produced ever guilty of the weakness of overlooking a

That there were two things with which tault. Towards her two daughters her beevery man ought to he acquainted, RELI- haviour was far otherwise. In them she GION AND HIS OWN BUSINESS, - While he could see nothing but perfections ; but her therefore took care that his son should be extravagant fondness for these girls was full made an excellent farmer, he filled up his as much owing to pride as to affection. She leisure hours in improving his mind ; so that was bent on making a family, and having young Worthy had read more good books, found out that she was too ignorant, and too and understood them better, than most men much trained to the habits of getting money, in his station. His reading however had ever to hope to make a figure herself, she been chiefly confined to husbandry and di- looked to her daughter's as the persons who vinity, the two subjects which were of the were to raise the family of the Bragwell's; most immediate importance to him.

and in this hope she foolishly submitted to The reader will see by this time that Mr. any drudgery for their sakes, and bore every Bragwell and Mr. Worthy were as likely to kind of mpertinence from them. be as opposite to each other as two men The first wish of her heart was to set them could well be, who were nearly of the same above their neighbours; for she used to say, age and condition, and who were neither of what was the use of having substance, if her them without credit in the world. Bragwell Klaughters might not carry themselves above indeed made far the greater figure ; for he girls who had nothing? To do her justice, liked to cut a dash, as he called it. It was she herself would be about early and late to his delight to make the ancient gentry of the see that the business of the house was not neighbourhood stare, at seeing a grazier vie neglected. She had been bred to great inwith them in show, and exceed them in ex-dustry, and continued to work when it was pense. And while it was the study of Wor- no longer necessary, both from early habit, thy to conform to his station, and to set a and the desire of heaping up money for her good example to those about him, it was the daughters, Yet her whole notion of gentility

was, that it consisted in being rich and idle; despise and ridicule every girl who was net and, though she was willing to be a drudge as vainly dressed as themselves, herself, she resolved to make her daughters The mother had been comforting herself gentlewomen on this principle. To be well for the heavy expense of their bringing up. Cressed, to eat elegantly, and to do nothing, by looking forward to the pleasure of seeing or nothing of which is of any use, was what them become fine ladies, and the pride of she fancied distinguished people in genteel marrying them above their station; and to life. And this is too common a notion of a this hope she constantly referred in all her fine education among a certain class; they conversations with them; assuring them that do not esteem things by their use, but by all her happiness depended on their future their show. They estimate the value of elevation. their children's education by the money it Their father hoped, with far more judg. costs, and not by the knowledge and good-ment, that they would be a comfort to him ness it bestows. People of this stamp often both in sickness and in health. He had had take a pride in the expense of learning, in- no learning himself, and could write but stead of taking pleasure in the advantages of poorly, and owed what skill he had in figures it. And the silly vanity of letting others see to his natural turn of business. He reasonthat they can afford any thing, often sets ably hoped that his daughters, after all the parents on letting their daughters learn not money he had spent on them, would now only things of no use, but things which may write his letters and keep his accounts, be really hurtful in their situation : either by And as he was now and then laid up with a setting them above their proper duties, or fit of the gout, he was enjoying the prospect by taking up their time in a way inconsistent of having two affectionate children to nurse with them.

Thim, as well as two skilful assistants to reMrs. Bragwell sent her daughters to a lieve hin. boarding-school, where she instructed them When they came home, however, he had to hold up their heads as high as any body; the mortification to find, that though he had to have more spirit than to be put upon by two smart showy ladies to visit him, he had any one ; never to be pitiful about money, neither dutiful daughters to nurse him, nor but rather to show that they could afford to faithful stewards to keep his books, nor pruspend with the best ; to keep company with dent children to manage his house. They the richest and most fashionable girls, in the neither soothed him by their kindness when school, and to make no acquaintance with he was sick, nor helped him by their indusfarmers' daughters.

try when he was busy. They thought the They came home at the usual age of leav- maid might take care of him in the gout as ing school, with a large portion of vanity she did before; for they fancied that nursing grafted on their native ignorance. The va- was a coarse and servile employment : and Hity was added, but the ignorance was not as to their skill in cyphering he soon found, taken away. Of religion they could not pos- to his cost, that though they knew how to sibly learn any thing, since pone was taught, spend both pounds, shullings, and pence, yet for at that place Christianity was considered they did not know so well how to cast them as a part of education which belonged only up. Indeed it is to be regretted that woto charity schools. They went to church in- men in general, especially in the middle deed once a Sunday, yet effectually to coun-class, are so little grounded in so indispensateract any benefit such an attendance might|ble, solid, and valuable an acquirement as produce, it was the rule of the school that arithmetic. they should use only French prayer-books; Mrs. Bragwell being one day very busy in of course, such superficial scholars as the preparing a great dinner for the neighbours, Miss Bragwells would always be literally ventured to request her daughters to assist praying in an unknown tongue ; while girls in making the pastry. They asked her with of better capacity and more industry would a scornful smile, whether she had sent them infallibly be picking out the nominative case, to a boarding school to learn to cook ; and the verb, and participle of a foreign lan- added, that they supposed she would exguage, in the solemn act of kneeling before pect thein next to make hasty-puddings for the Father of Spirits, “who searcheth the the hay-makers. So saying, they coolly heart and tryeth the reins.' During the re- marched off to their music. When the momainder of the Sunday they learnt their ther found her girls were too polite to be of Worldly tasks, all except actual needle- any use, she would take comfort in observwork, which omission alone marked the dis- ing how her parlour was set out with their tinction of Sunday from other days; and the fillagree and flowers, their embroidery and governess being a French Roman Catholic, cut paper. They spent the morning in bed, it became a doubtful point with some people, the noon in dressing, the evening at the whether her zeal or her negligence in the harpsichord, and the night in reading noarticle of religion would be most to the ad- vels. vantage of her pupils. Of knowledge the With all these fine qualifications it is easy Miss Bragwells had got just enough to laugh to suppose, that as they despised their sober at their fond parents' rustic manners and duties, they no less despised their plain vulgar language, and just enough taste to neighbours. When they could not get to a



horse-race, a petty-ball, or a strollin 5-play, 1 beasts in your neighbourhood, I will take a with some company as idle and as smart as bed at your house, and we will pass the evethemselves, they were driven for amuse- ning in debating as we used to do. You ment to the circulating library, Jack, the know I always loved a bit of an argument, ploughboy, on whom they had now put a and am not reckoned not to make the worst livery jacket, was employed half his time in figure at our club: I had not, to be sure, trotting backwards and forwards with the such good learning as you had, because your most wretched trash the little neighbouring father was a parson, and you got it for nobookshop could furnish. The choice was thing: but I can bear my part pretty well for often left to Jack, who could not read, but all that. When any man talks to me about who had general orders to bring all the new his learning, I ask if it has helped him to get things, and a great many of them,

a good estate ; if he says no, then I would It was a misiortune, that at the school at not give him a rush for it; for of what use is which they had been bred, and at some all the learning in the world, if it does not others, there was no system of education make a man rich? But, as I was saying, I which had any immediate reference to the will come and see you to-morrow; but now station of life to which the girls chiefly be- don't let your wife put herself in a fuss for longed. As persons in the middle line, for me: don't alter your own plain way; for I Want of that acquaintance with books, and am not proud, I assure you, nor above my with life and manners, which the great pos- old friends; though, I thank God, I am sess, do not always see the connexion be- pretty well in the world.' tween remote consequences and their cau- To all this flourishing speech Mr. Worses, the evils of a corrupt and inappropriate thy coolly answered, that certainly worldly system of education do not strike them so prosperity ought never to make any man forcibly ; and provided they can pay for it, proud, since it is God who gireth strength to which is made the grand criterion between get riches, and without his blessing, 'tis in the fit and the unfit, they are too little dis- vain to rise up early, and to cut the bread of posed to consider the value, or rather the carefulness. worthlessness, of the thing which is paid for:About the middle of the next day Mr. but literally go on to give their money for Bragwell reached Mr. Worthy's neat and that which is not bread.

pleasant dwelling. He found every thing in Their subsequent course of reading serves it the reverse of his own. It had not so to establish all the errors of their education. many ornaments, but it had more comforts, Instead of such books as might help to con-| And when he saw his friend's good old-fafirm and strengthen them in all the virtues shioned arm-chair in a warm corner, he gave of their station, in humility, economy, meek- a sigh to think how his own had been ba- , ness, contentment, self-clenial, and industry; nished to make room for his daughter's pithe studies now adopted are, by a graft on ano forte. Instead of made flowers in glass the old stock, made to grow on the habits cases, and tea-chiests and screens too fine to acquired at school. Of those novels and be used, which he saw at home, and about plays which are so eagerly devoured by per- which he was cautioned, and scolded as ofsons of this description, there is perhaps ten as he came near them; his daughters scarce one which is not foundled upon prin- watching his motions with the same anxieciples which would lead young women of the ty as they would have watched the motions middle ranks to be discontented with their of a cat in a china shop. Instead of this, I station. It is rank-it is elegance it is beau- say, he saw some neat shelves of good books ty-it is sentimental feelings-it is sensibilia for the service of the family, and a small ly--it is some needless, or some superficial, medicine chest for the benefit of the poor. or some quality hurtful, even in that fashion- Mrs. Worthy and her daughter's had preable person to whom the author ascribes it, pared a plain but neat and good dinner. which is the ruling principle. This quality. The tarts were so excellent, that Bragwell transferred into the heart and the conduct of telt a secret kind of regret that his own an illiterate woman in an interior station be- daughters were too genteel to do any thing comes impropriety, becomes absurdity, be- so very useful. Indeed he had been always comes sinfulness.

unwilling to believe that any thing which Things were in this state in the family we was very proper and very necessary, could are describing, or rather growing worse ; be so extremely vulgar and unbecoming as for idliness and vanity are never at a stand; uis claughters were alwars declaring it to be. when these two wealthy farmers, Bragwell and his late experience of the little comfort and Worthy, met at Weyhill fair, as was he found at home, inclined him now still said before. Afier many hearty salutations more strongly to suspect that things were had passed between them, it was agreed not so right there as he had been made! that Mr. Bragwell should spend the next suppose. But it was in vain to speak; for his day with his old friend, whose house was not daughters constahtly stopped his mouth by many miles distant. Bragwell invited him-la favourite saving of theirs, which equally self in the following manner : “We have not indicated affectation and vulgarity, that is had a comfortable day's chat for years,' said was better to be out of the world than out of lie, and as I am to look at a drove of lean the fashion.

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