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shepherds. • They are a fine-looking race, and the women are equally remarkable in this respect with the men. They are tall, erect, and well-featured, and, as a rule, are decently clad in dressed cow skins. The general appearance of the Watusi women can be gathered from Captain Grant's description. “One morning, to my surprise, in a wild jungle we came upon cattle, then upon a 'bomah,' or ring-fence, concealed by beautiful umbrageous large trees, quite the place for a gipsy camp. At the entry, two strapping fellows met me and invited my approach. I mingled with the people, got water from them, and was asked, 'Would I prefer some milk ?' This sounded to me more civilised than I expected from Africans, so I followed the men, who led me up to a beautiful lady-like creature, a Watusi woman, sitting alone under a tree. She received me without any expression of surprise, in the most dignified manner; and after talking with the men, rose smiling, showing great gentleness in her manner, and led me to her hut. She was a perfect beauty, although darker than a brunette. After the fair one had examined my skin and my clothes, I expressed great regret that I had no beads to present to her. They are not wanted,' she said, "sit down, drink this buttermilk, and here is also some butter for you.'” These Watusi are described as having many other pleasing qualities. Besides their skill as herdsmen and shepherds, which is so great as to inspire the surrounding tribes with high respect for them, they manifest great industry in the manufacture of baskets and even of metallic implements; and their amusements are of a simple and peaceful character. Captain Grant always speaks in the highest terms of the Watusi, calling them his favourite race. that they never permit themselves to be sold as slaves, preferring death to slavery, and they are distinguishable from all other tribes by their easy politeness, their intelligence, and especially by their neatness and cleanliness.

A large tract of swampy country separates Karagué from the land of the Waganda, on the north shore of the Victoria N'yanza. The accounts given by the travellers of these people resemble chiefly the marvellous tales of the Arabian nights. On entering Uganda, Speke says,

“I felt inclined to stop here a month, everything was so very pleasant. The temperature was perfect. The roads, as indeed they were everywhere, were as broad as our coach roads, cut through the long grasses straight over the hills and down through the woods in the dells—a strange contrast to the wretched tracks in all the adjacent countries. The huts were kept so clean and so neat, not a fault could

He says

be found with them,—the gardens the same. Wherever I strolled I saw nothing but richness, and what ought to be wealth. The whole land was a picture of quiescent beauty, with a boundless sea in the background.” He arrives at Mtésa's palace. “It was a magnificent sight. A whole hill was covered with gigantic huts, such as I had never seen in Africa before. I was even more surprised to find the unusual ceremonies that awaited me. There courtiers of high dignity stepped forward to greet me, dressed in the most scrupulously neat fashions. Men, women, bulls, dogs, and goats were led about by strings, cocks and hens were carried in men's arms; and little pages, with rope turbans, rushed about, conveying messages, as if their lives depended on their swiftness, every one holding his skin cloak tightly round him lest his naked legs might by accident be shown.” The character of the Waganda closely resembles that of the people of Karagué, but their king Mtésa is far inferior to Rumanika, Mtésa being vain and cruel, although he also has many features of character which raise him far above the ordinary Africans of his class.

North of Uganda is Unyoro, the country where Mr. and Mrs. Baker experienced such dreadful privations and misery, and which both Baker and Speke concur in describing as a barbarous and uninteresting place.

It is, therefore, on the banks of the Victoria N'yanza and near the equator that we find the people to approach most nearly to the character given to the central Africans by Swedenborg. But unfortunately the line of travel pursued by Speke lies too far to the eastward to cross the

very centre of Africa itself. Still, we think, the evidence goes to show that he approached very nearly the eastern limit of the central region, if he did not actually penetrate it. The country of Karagué lies between the three great lakes Tanganyika, Albert, and Victoria, and there is a passage westwards into the interior of the continent between the first two of these lakes. But that passage is blocked up with mountain ranges of enormous height. Karagué itself is a table-land 5000 feet above the sea, but Speke could see the snowy peaks of Ruanda rising far above the elevation upon which he was standing. It was from Rumanika that Speke heard some interesting particulars of the inhabitants of that mountainous land. He informed the traveller that “the villages in Ruanda were of enormous extent, and the people were great sportsmen, for they turned out in multitudes with small dogs, on whose necks were tied bells, and blowing horns themselves, to hunt leopards. They were, however, highly superstitious,

and would not allow any stranger to enter their country; for some years ago when some Arabs went there, a great drought and famine set in, which they attributed to evil influences brought by them, and turning them out of their country, said they would never admit any of their like amongst them again.'

Now, when we make allowances for the distortion of the truth which would be likely to take place in the description by Speke, second-hand, of a people such as those referred to by Swedenborg, it is not at all unlikely that this country of Ruanda may turn out to be the place in question, or at least a portion of it. Everything that was positively ascertained by the travellers perfectly agreed with what we should have expected. The gradual improvement in the people, the mountainous nature of the interior, the beauty of the country, the salubrity of the climate, the intelligence manifested in the whole proceedings of the natives of the interior regions, and finally, the arrival on the eastern borders of a country where strangers were positively excluded, are facts which, indeed, are at complete variance with all previous notions respecting the interior of Africa being a mere sandy wilderness, unfit for human habitation, but perfectly harmonise with the statements of Swedenborg. It is more than probable that the region described by him is approachable only from the eastward. Travellers who have explored the western parts of Africa have been stopped by inaccessible barriers from reaching the centre. And Swedenborg mentions that those who had penetrated into the place, were dismissed “per viam ad B.,” by a way towards B., the B. referring to a spot on the east of the sketch he gives us, and in the direction of Asia. It is, therefore, not beyond the range of probability that the "way” referred to leads into the country of Rumanika, who had heard of the dismissal of the Arabs by the people of Ruanda, and lies near the very mountains seen by Speke, lifting their snowy pyramids far to the westward. Now, the palace of Mtésa, on the north shore of the Victoria N'yanza, was found to be in N. lat. 0° 22'; E. long. 32° 44' 30". And if our surmise respecting the country of Ruanda be correct, we may conclude that the region of the good Africans, who possess the revelation, lies between the 25th and 30th meridians of east longitude, and for some distance, more or less, north and south of the equator.

But although this can, as yet, be suggested only as a matter of probability, it must be in the highest degree satisfactory to New Churchmen that every discovery made by the travellers whose works we have been examining, everything which is actual matter of fact, is remarkably confirmatory of the expectations which have been so long entertained by New Churchmen respecting this extraordinary and unexplored country.




(Concluded.) Having in the preceding paper demonstrated, on Scriptural grounds supplemented by the elucidations of Swedenborg, the necessity of persons being specially set apart to the office of the ministry, as a requirement of divine order, it remains to inquire what is the proper mode of inducting them into the ministerial function.

That the appointment to an office so sacred in its nature, and whose uses are so exalted in their character, should be accompanied by observances suitable to the solemnity of the occasion, and the grave responsibilities of the charge, must be felt by every one who seriously reflects on the subject. The function of the ministry is spiritual, involving duties which affect the highest interests of the human race, and as such stands apart from, and in importance is superior to all other uses, however high, whose object regards only secular ends. If, then, a sovereign, at his coronation, is required publicly to undertake the fulfilment of the solemn responsibilities of his position, and faithfully to discharge them, it is equally important and necessary that those about to enter on the higher uses of the ministry should publicly undertake the faithful discharge of the duties thereby imposed on them, and profess their full conviction in the Divine Word and its teachings. To appoint a person to the function of the ministry with no greater religious solemnity than would be observed had he been elected to fill a secular office of trust, would amount to little short of desecration.

What form was used by the Lord when he ordained the twelve, and the seventy, is not indeed particularized in the gospel narrative; but that it was by a public act is not only implied, but follows from the fact of the public exhortation he addressed to them when he gave them their commission.


To pass on, however, from these generalities bearing on the necessity of an appropriate form of inauguration, I proceed to inquire into its more specific nature. Without stopping here to consider the custom of the Jewish Church in this respect, which ought to be familiar to those to whom this is addressed, so far as regards the practice of the Apostles we have the most positive evidence that inauguration into the ministry was by the imposition of hands. The Apostle Paul, for instance, cautions Timothy against suddenly laying hands on any one (1 Tim. ν. 22, Χείρας ταχέως μηδενί επιτίθει);* and in the Epistle to the Hebrews (ch. vi. 2) the Apostle enumerates the “ doctrine of the laying on of hands” (évideosús Te neigāv) among those of “ baptism, resurrection of the dead, and eternal judgment.” Whether the Apostles derived this inaugural rite from the practice of the Lord, or through the illumination they enjoyed, or whether it was continued from the practice of the Jewish Church, may not be very clear, but the case of Paul is a remarkable instance in which the rite was performed by the direction of the Lord ; since, after Paul had seen the vision on his

way to Damascus, Ananias was commissioned by the Lord to go and lay his hands on him for the double purpose of restoring his sight, and inducting him into the office of “bearing the Lord's name before the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel.” (See Acts ix. 10-20.) Thus much for Scripture.

To turn now to the testimony of Swedenborg, and his explanation of the use of the observance, nothing can be more emphatically insisted on, nor can anything be more lucidly explained. In the “Arcana” (n. 10,023), he teaches that the laying on of hands signifies communication and reception, adding that,

“The reason why it has this signification, is because by the hands is signified power; and since this is the active principle of life, by hands is also signified whatever appertains to the man—thus the whole man, so far as he is an agent ; and by laying on is signified communication in reference to him who lays on, and reception in respect to him on whom hands were laid. Hence it is evident what was signified by the imposition of hands amongst the ancients, namely, communication and transference of that which is treated of, and also its reception by another, whether that be power, or obedience, or benediction, or testification.”

In a subsequent part of the same paragraph he continues

* Some ambiguity occurs in the A.V. from the translators having employed the phrase “ laying on of hands” in two distinct senses ; one, in that of seizing or apprehending; the other that of the imposition of the hands. No such uncertainty of meaning, however, attaches to the Greek, distinct terms being employed to mark the two ideas. The former is expressed by επιβαλλω, κρατέω, and πιάτω and the latter by επιτίθημι and τίθημι. .

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