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worshipped every whered in spirit and in truth e; as in private families f daily 5% and in secret each one by him. selfh; so more solemnly in the public assemblies, which are not carelessly or wilfully to be neglected or forsaken, when God, by his word or providence, calleth thereunto i

VII. As it is of the law of nature, that, in general, a due proportion of time be set apart for the worship of God; so, in his word, by a positive, moral, and perpetual commandment, binding all men, in all ages, he hath particularly incense shall be offered unto my name, of hosts. Ver. 20. Then David re. and a pure offering : for my name turned to bless his household. 1 Pet. shall be great among the heathen, iii. 7. Likewise, ye husbands, dwell saith the Lord of hosts. 1 Tim. ii. with them according to knowledge, 8. I'will therefore that men pray eve giving honour unto the wife as unto ry where, lifting up holy hands, with the weaker vessel, and as being heirs out wrath and doubting.

together of the grace of life ; that e John iv. 23. But the hour cometh, your prayers be not hindered. Acis and now is, when the true worship- x. 2. A devout man, and one that pers shall worship the Father in spi- feareth God with all his house, which rit and in truth: for the Father seek. gave much alms to the people, and eth such to worship him. Ver. 24. prayed to God alway. God is a Spirit; and they that wor. & Matth. vi. 11. Give us this day ship him must worship him in spirit our daily bread. and in truth.

b Matth. vi. 6. But thou, when f Jer. x. 25. Pour out thy fury up- thou prayest, enter into thy closet; on the heathen that know thee not, and, when thou hast shut thy door, and upon the families that call not on pray to thy Father which is in secret ; thy name : for they have eaten up Ja- and thy Father which seeth in secret cob, and devoured him, and consumed shall reward thee openly. Eph. vi. him, and have made his habitation 18. Praying always with all prayer desolate. Deut. vi. 6. And these and supplication in the Spirit, and words which I command thee this day watching thereunto with all perseveshall be in thine heart: Ver. 7. And rance, and supplication for all saints. thou shalt teach them diligently unto i Isa. lvi. 6. Also the sons of the thy children; and shalt talk of them stranger, that join themselves to the when thou sittest in thine house, and Lord, to serve him, and to love the when thou walkest by the way, and name of the Lord, to be his servants, when thou liest down, and when thou every one that keepeth the sabbath visest up. Job i. 5. And it was so, from polluting it, and taketh hold of when the days of their feasting were my covenant: Ver. 7. Even them gone about, that Job sent and sancti- will I bring to my holy mountain, and fied them, and rose up early in the make them joyful in my house of morning, and offered burnt offerings, prayer: their burnt-offerings and their according to the number of them all : sacrifices shall be aecepted upon mine for Job said, It may be that my sons altar; for mine house shall be called have sipned, and cursed God in their an house of prayer for all people. hearts. Thus did Job continually: Heb. x. 25. Not forsaking the assem2 Sam. vi. 18. And as soon as David bling of ourselves together, as the had made an end of offering burnt-of- manner of some is; but exhorting one ferings, and peace-offerings, he bless. another: and so much the more, as ye ed the people in the name of the Lord see the day approaching. Prov. i. 20.

appointed one day in seven for a sabbath, to be kept holy unto him k: which, from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week; and, from the resurrection of Christ, was changed into the first day of the week!, which in scripture is called the Lord's Day", and is to be continued to the end of the world, as the Christian Sabbath ".

VIII. This sabbath is then kept holy unto the Lord, when men, after a due preparing of their hearts, and ordering of their common affairs beforehand, do not only observe Wisdom crieth without, she uttereth the sabbath from polluting it, and her voice in the streets : Ver. 21. keepeth his hand from doing any She crieth in the chief place of con- evil. Ver. 4. For thus saith the course, in the openings of the gates: Lord unto the eunuchs that keep my in the city she uttereth her words, sabbaths, and choose the things that saying, Ver. 24. Because I have call. please me, and take hold of my coveed, and ye refused, I have stretched nant. Ver. 6, 7. (See in letter i.] out my hand, and no man regarded. I Gen. ii. 2. And on the seventh Prov. viji. 34. Blessed is the man that day God ended his work which he heareth me, watching daily at my had made: and he rested on the se. gates, waiting at the posts of my venth day from all his work which he doors. Acts xiii. 42. And when the had made. Ver. 3. And God blessed Jews were gone out of the synagogue, the seventh day, and sanctified it: be. the Gentiles besought that these words cause that in it he had rested from all might be preached to them the next his work, which God created and sabbath. Luke iv. 16. And he came made. 1 Cor. xvi. 1. Now concern. to Nazareth, where he had been ing the collection for the saints, as I brought up : and, as his custom was, have given order to the churches of he went into the synagogue on the Galatia, even so do ye. Ver. 2. Upon sabbath-day, and stood up for to read. the first day of the week let every one Acts ii. 42. And they continued of you lay by him in store, as God hath stedfastly in the apostles' doctrine and prospered him, that there be no gafellowship, and in breaking of bread, therings when I come. Acts xx. 7. and in prayers:

And upon the first day of the week, VII. k Exod. xx. 8. Remember the when the disciples came together to sabbath-day, to keep it holy. Ver. 10. break bread, Paul preached unto them, But the seventh day is the sabbath of ready to depart on the morrow, and the l.ord thy God: in it thou shalt continued his speech until midnight. dot do any work, thou, nor thy son, m Rev. i. 10. I was in the Spirit nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, on the Lord's day, and heard behind nor thy maid servant, nor thy cattle, me a great voice, as of a trumpet. nor thy stranger that is within thy n Exod. xx. 8, 10. (See letter k.] gates. Ver. 11. For in six days the With Matt. y. 17. Think not that I Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, am come to destroy the law or the proand all that in them is, and rested the phets : I am not come to destroy, but seventh day: wherefore the Lord to fulfil. Ver. 18. For verily I say blessed the sabbath-day, and hallow- unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, ed it. Isa. Ivi. 2. Blessed is the man one joi or one tittle shall in no wise that doeth this, and the son of man pass from the law, till all be ful. that layeth hold on it: that keepeth filled.

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an holy rest all the day from their own works, words, and thoughts, about their worldly employments and recreations; but also are taken up the whole time in the public and private exercises of his worship, and in the duties of necessity and mercy P.

VIII. o Exod. xx. 8. (See letter k.] some treading wine-presses on the sabExod. xvi. 23. And he said unto them, bath, and bringing in sheaves, and laThis is that which the Lord hath said, ding asses; as also wine, grapes, and To-morrow is the rest of the holy sab- figs, and all manner of burdens, which bath unto the Lord: bake that which they brought into Jerusalem on the ye will bake to-day, and seethe that sabbath-day: and I testified against ye will seethe; and that which remain them in the day wherein they sold eth over, lay up for you, to be kept victuals. Ver. 16. There dwelt men until the morning. Ver. 25. And Mo. of Tyre also therein, which brought ses said, Eat that to-day; for to-day fish, and all manner of ware, and sold is a sabbath unto the Lord : today on the sabbath unto the children of ye shall not find it in the field. Ver. Judah, and in Jerusalem. Ver. 17. 26. Six days ye shall gather it: but. Then I contended with the nobles of on the seventh day, which is the sab- Judah, and said unto them, What evil bath, in it there shall be none. Ver. thing is this that ye do, and profane 29. See, for that the Lord hath given the sabbath-day! Ver. 18. Did not you the sabbath, therefore he giveth your fathers thus, and did not our you on the sixth day the bread of two God bring all this evil upon us, and days: abide ye every man in his place, upon this city? yet ye bring more let no man go out of his place on the wrath upon Israel, by profaning the seventh day. Ver. 30. So the people sabbath." Ver. 19. And it came to rested on the seventh day. Exod. xxxi. pass, that, when the gates of Jerusa15. Six days may work be done, but lem began to be dark before the sabin the seventh is the sabbath of rest, bath, I commanded that the gates holy to the Lord: whosoever doeth should be shut, and charged that they any work in the sabbath-day, he shall should not be opened till after the sahsurely be put to death. Ver. 16. bath : and some of my servants set I Wherefore the children of Israel shall at the gates, that there should no burkeep the sabbath, to observe the sab- den be brought in on the Sabbath-day. bath throughout their generations, for Ver. 21. Then I testified against them, a perpetual covenant. Ver. 17. It is and said unto them, Why lodge ye a sign between me and the children of about the wall? If ye do so again, I Israel for ever: for in six days the will lay hands on you. From that Lord made heaven and earth, and on time forth came they no more on the the seventh day he rested, and was sabbath. Ver. 22. And I commanded refreshed. Isa. lviii. 13. If thou turn the Levites, that they should cleanse away thy foot from the sabbath, from themselves, and that they should come doing thy pleasure on my holy day, and keep the gates, to sanctify the sab. and call the sabbath a delight, the ho- bath-day. Remember me, O my God, ly of the Lord, honourable, and shalt concerning this also, and spare me ackonour him, not doing thine own ways, cording to the greatness of thy mercy. nor finding thine own pieasure, nor p Isa. lviii. 13. [See in letter o. speaking thine own words. Neh. xiii. Matt. xii. 1. to the 13th Verse ] 15. In those days saw I in Judah

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CHAP. XXII. Of lawful Oaths and Vows.


LAWFUL oath is a part of religious worship, where

in, upon just occasion, the person swearing solemnly calleth God to witness what he asserteth or promiseth ; and to judge him according to the truth or falsehood of what he sweareth b.

II. The name of God only is that by which men ought to swear, and therein it is to be used with all holy fear and reverence +: therefore, to swear vainly or rashly by that glorious and dreadful name, or to swear at all by any other thing, is sinful, and to be abhorredd. Yet as, in matters of weight and moment, an oath is warranted by the word of God under the New Testament, as well as under the Old ; so a lawful oath being imposed by lawful authority, in such matters, ought to be taken'

I. a Deut. x. 20. Thou shalt fear sworn by them that are no gods: when the Lord thy God; him shalt thou I fed them to the full, they then com-serve, and to him shalt thou cleave, mitied adultery, anil assembled them. and swear by his name.

selves by troops in the harlots' houses, 6 Exod. xx. 7. Thou shalt not take Matt. v. 34. But I say unto you, the name of the Lord thy God in vain: Swear not at all: neither by heaven, for the Lord will not hold him guilt for it is God's throne. Ver. 37. But less that taketh his name in vain. let your communication be, Yea, yea ; Lev. xix. 12. And ye shall not swear Nay, nay; for whatsoever is more by my name falsely, neither shalt thou than these cometh of evil. James v. profane the name of thy God: I am 12. But above all things, my brethren, the Lord. 2 Cor. i. 23. Moreover, I swear not; neither by heaven, neither call God for a record upon my soul, by the earth, neither by any other that to spare you I came not as yet oath : but let your yea be yea ; and unto Corinth. 2 Chron. vi. 22. If a your nay, nay; lest ye fall into conman sin against his neighbour, and an demnation. oath be laid upon him to make him e Heb. vi. 16. For men verily swear swear, and the oath come before thine by the greater : and an oath for conaltar in this house : Ver. 23. Then firmation is to them an end of all strife. hear thou from heaven, and do, and 2 Cor. i. 23. [See letter b.} Isa. lxv. 16. judge thy servants, by requiting the That he who blesseth himself in the wicked, by recompensing his way up- earth, shall bless himself in the God of on his own head, and by justifying truth ; and he that sweareth in the the righteous, by giving him according earth, shall swear by the God of truth; to his righteousness.

because the former troubles are forgotII. c Deut. vi. 13. Thou shalt fear ten, and because they are hid from the Lord thy God, and serve him, and mine eyes. shalt swear by his name.

f 1 Kings viii. 31. If any man tres. d Exod. xx. 7. [See letter b.] Jer. pass against his neighbour, and an v.7. How shall I pardon thee for this? oath be laid upon him to cause him thy children have forsaken me, and 'to swear, and the oath come be


III. Whosoever taketh an oath, ought duly to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act, and therein to avouch nothing but what he is fully persuaded is the truth 8. Neither may any man bind himself by oath to any thing but what is good and just, and what he believeth so to be, and what he is able and resolved to perform. Yet it is a sin to refuse an oath touching any thing that is good and just, being imposed by lawful authority i.

fore thine altar in this house. Neh. Abraham his master, and sware to xiii. 25. And I contended with them him concerning that matter. and cursed them, and smote cer- į Numb. v. 19. And the priest tain of them, and plucked off their shall charge her by an oath, and say bair, and made them swear by God, unto the woman, If no man have lain saying, Ye shall not give your daugh- with thee, and if thou hast not gone ters unto their sons, nor take their aside to uncleanness with another indaughters unto your sons, or for your stead of thy husband, be thou free selves. Ezra. x. 5. Then arose Ezra, from this bitter water that causeth and made the chief priests, the Le- the curse. Ver. 21. Then the priest vites, and all Israel, to swear that they shall charge the woman with an oath should do according to this word: of cursing; and the priest shall say unand they sware.

to the woman, The Lord make thee III.


Exod. xx. 7. [See letter b.] a curse and an oath among thy peo. Jer. iv. 2. And thou shalt swear, The ple, when the Lord doth make thy Lord liveth, in truth, in judgment, thigh to rot, and thy belly to swell. and in righteousness; and the na- Neh. v. 12. Then said they, We will tions shall bless themselves in him, restore them, and will require nothing and in him shall they glory.

of them : so will we do as thou sayest. b Gen. xxiv. 2. And Abraham said Then I called the priests, and took unto his eldest servant of his house, an oath of them, that they should do that ruled over all that he had, Put, I according to this promise. Exod. pray thee, thy hand under my thigh: xxii. 7. If a man shall deliver unto Ver. 3. And I will make thee swear his neighbour money or stuff to keep, by the Lord, the God of heaven, and and it be stolen out of the man's the God of the earth, that thou house; if the thief be found, let him shalt not take a wife unto my son pay double. Ver. 8. If the thief Le of the daughters of the Canaanites, not found, then the master of the among whom I dwell. Ver. 5. And house shall be brought unto the judges, the servant said unto him, Peradven- to see whether he have put his hand ture the woman will not be willing unto his neighbour's goods. Ver. 9. to follow me unto this land : must I For all manner of trespass, whether needs bring thy son again unto the it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for land from whence thou camest ? Ver. raiment, or for any manner of lost 6. And Abraham said unto him, Be thing, which another challengeth to ware thou, that thou bring not my son be his, the cause of both parties shall thither again. Ver. 8. And if the come before the judges; and whom woman will not be willing to follow the judges shall condemn, he shall pay thee, then thou shalt be clear from double unto his neighbour. Ver. 10. this my oath : only bring not my son If a man deliver unto his neighbour thither again. Ver. 9. And the ser. an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any vant put his hand under the thigh of beast, to keep; and it die, or be hurt,

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