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RULE I.-Pause after the nominative, when it consists of more than one word. The rolling year is full of thee.

Note-A pause may be made after a nominative, even when it consists of one word, if it be a word of importance, or when we wish it to be particularly observed; as,

Modesty is an ornament.

RULE II.-When two verbs come together, and the latter is in the infinitive mood, if any words come between, they must be separated from the latter verb by a pause.

Hail, universal Lord; be bounteous still
To give us only good.

RULE III.-When several nouns become the nominative to the same verb, a pause must be made between the last noun and the verb, as well as after each of the other nouns.

Riches, pleasure, and health become evils to those who do not know how to use them.

RULE IV. When any member comes between the nominative case and the verb, it must be separated from both of them by a short pause.

Disappointments and afflictions I however disagreeable I often improve us.

RULE V.-When any member comes between the verb and the objective case, it must be separated from both of them by a short pause.

All who were possessed of any office resigned without delay their former commissions.

RULE VI.-When several adjectives belong to one noun, they are separated from each other by a short pause.

Wild sparkling rage inflames the father's eyes.

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RULE VII. Whatever words occur in the case absolute must be separated from the rest of the sentence by a pause both before and after it.

If a man borrow aught of his neighbour, and it be hurt or die the owner thereof not being with it he shall surely make it good.

RULE VIII.-Nouns in apposition, or words in the same case, where the latter is only explanatory of the former, have a short pause between them, either if both these nouns, or subjects, consist of many terms, or the latter only.

Industry the handmaid of fortune is strictly enjoined upon us

RULE IX.-When substantives are connected by the preposition of, and the last of them is accompanied by several words, and denotes some quality or property of the first, as in the genitive case, a pause may be made immediately before the preposition.

The king was looked upon as the author of the public calamities.

RULE X-Who, which, when in the nominative case, and the pronoun that, when used for who or which, require a short pause before them.

In the poetical quarter I found there were poets I who had no monuments, and monuments which had no poets.

RULE XI.-Pause before that, when it is used for a conjunction.
It is in affliction that we feel the value of religion.

RULE XII.-When a pause is necessary at prepositions and conjunctions, il must be before them.

Never sport with pain and distress in any of your amusements.

RULE XIII.-In every elliptical sentence, pause where the ellipsis takes place. Justice seems most agreeable to the nature of God, and mercy to that of man.

RULE XIV.-Words placed either in opposition to, or in apposition with each other, must be distinguished by a pause.

Some place the bliss in action, some in ease;
Those call it pleasure, and contentment these.





[JOSEPH ADDISON was the son of a clergyman. He was born at Milston, Wilt. shire, in the year 1672, and died at Holland House in 1719. He received the rudiments of education at Salisbury and Lichfield, and was afterwards sent to the Charter-house, where he contracted his first intimacy with Mr., afterwards Sir Richard Steele. His great success at the university of Oxford, the friends he had formed, and the elegance of his accomplishments, brought him early into the sphere of fortunate patronage. Addison and his friend Steele contributed the greater portion of the papers in the "Tatler," the "Spectator," and the "Guardian." In 1713 the production of his tragedy of "Cato" was the 66 'grand climacteric of Addison's reputation." As a prose writer, he holds the first rank for elegance and purity of style. Dr. Johnson has justly remarked"Whoever would attain an English style, familiar but not coarse, and elegant but not ostentatious, must give his days and nights to the volumes of Addison."]

I CONSIDER a human soul without education, like marble in the quarry, which shows none of its inherent beaúties' until the skill of the pólisher fetches out the còlours, makes the surface shíne, and discovers every ornamental cloùd, spòt, and vein that runs through the body of it. Education, after the same manner, when it works upon a noble mínd, draws out to view every latent virtue and perféction, which, without such helps, are never áble to make their appearance.

If my reader will give me leave to change the allusion so sóon upon him, I shall make use of the same instance to illustrate the force of education, which Aristotle has brought! to explain his doctrine of substantial forms, when he tells us' that a statue lies híd in a block of marble, and that the art of the státuary only clears away the superfluous matter! and removes the rubbish. The figure is ín the stone, and the sculptor' only finds it. What sculpture is to a block of márble, education is to a human sòul. The philosopher, the


sáint, or the hero-the wise, the goòd, or the great manvery often lies hid and concealed in a plebèian, which a proper education might have disintérred, and have brought to light. I am therefore much delighted' with reading the accounts of savage nations, and with contemplating those vírtues which are wild and uncultivated; to see couragelexerting itself in fierceness, resolution in òbstinacy, wisdom' in cúnning, patiencel in sullenness and despair.

It is an unspeakable blessing to be born in those parts of the world' where wisdom and knowledge floùrish; though it must be confessed there are, even in thèse parts, several poor uninstructed persons, who are but little above the inhabitants of those nations' of which I have been here speaking; as those who have had the advantages of a more liberal education, rise above one another' by several different degrees of perfection. For, to return to our statue in the block of márble, we see it sometimes only begun to be chipped; sometimes rough-héwn, and but just sketched into a human figure; sometimes! we see the man appearing distinctly in all his limbs and features; sometimes we find the figure wrought up to great élegancy; but seldom meet with any to which the hand of a Phidias or a Praxíteles' could not give several nice toúches and finishings.



THE plague raged violently in Marseilles (1630). Every link of affection was broken; the father turned from the child, the child from the father: ingratitude no longer caused indignation. Misery is at its height when it thus destroys every generous feeling. The city became a desert; grass grew in the streets; a funeral met you at every step. The physicians assembled in a body to hold a consultation on the fearful malady, for which no cure had yet been discovered. After a long deliberation, they decided that the malady had a peculiar and mysterious character, which

could only be found out by opening a corpse-an operation which it was death to attempt, since the operator must infallibly fall a victim in a few hours, beyond the power of human art to save him. A dead pause succeeded this fatal announcement. Suddenly a surgeon named Guyon, in the prime of life, and of great celebrity in his profession, rose and said firmly, "Be it so: I devote myself for the sake of my country. To-morrow, at the break of day, I will dissect a body, and write down as I proceed what I observe." Guyon acted up to his words. He had never married; he was rich; and he immediately made a will, dictated by justice and piety. A man had died of the plague in his house within four-and-twenty hours. Guyon, at day-break, shut himself up in the same room, taking with him pens, ink, and paper. He began and finished the dreadful operation, and wrote in detail his surgical operations. He then left the room, placed the papers into a vase of vinegar, and afterwards sought the lazaretto, where he died in twelve hours

-a death ten thousand times more glorious than that of the soldier, who, to save his country, rushes on the ranks of the enemy. MADAME DE GENLIS,


SUFFER me to impress upon you the importance of a just estimate of time. Consider how much is to be performed, attained, and conquered, ere you are fitted to discharge the duties which your sphere may comprehend. Think of the brevity of life. The most aged have compared it to a span in compass, and to a shuttle in flight. Compute its bearings upon the bliss or woe of eternity, and remember, if misspent, it can never be recalled. Other errors admit of reformation. Lost wealth may be regained by a course of industry; the wreck of health repaired by temperance; forgotten knowledge restored by study; alienated friendship soothed into forgiveness; even forfeited reputation won back

by penitence and virtue. But who ever again looked upon his vanished hours-recalled his slighted years, and stamped them with wisdom-or effaced from Heaven's record the fearful blot of a wasted life?

The waste of time in youth is a greater evil than at any other period of existence. "The misimprovement of youthful days is more than the mere loss of time. Figure to yourself what the year would sustain were the spring taken away: such a loss do they sustain who trifle in youth."

When there is so much to be done for individual improvement, in the formation of correct habits, and preparation for untried duty-so much for parents and benefactors, to pay even imperfectly the debt of gratitude-so much for brothers, and sisters, and friends-so much for the poor, the uneducated, the afflicted-so much in obedience to Him who hath commanded us to "work out our own salvation with fear and trembling"-how unreasonable is it to do but little, and to do that little carelessly! how sinful to trifle away our time in light amusement, or profitless pursuit! It is no excuse for us, that others devote their days to desultory pleasures, or pass their youth without motive and without improvement. Every one must stand alone to give an account at last. The example of an associate will not be accepted as a palliation; nor will the habit of excuse, however it might have deceived men, justify us before a Judge who readeth the intents of the heart.

The successful improvement of time is aided by order in its distribution. A division of the day into parts facilitates the successful discharge of its duties. Many of those who have become eminent in science and literature have adhered to a systematic arrangement of time. King Alfred, who so remedied the defects of early education as to gain distinction in the field of intellect, as well as in the annals of royalty, was an example of regularity. He divided the twenty-four hours into three equal portions. One of these periods of eight hours was devoted to the duties of religion; one to repose, recreation, and literature; and the other to the cares of his realm. Sir William Jones, who acquired

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