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'Tis safer to be that which we destroy, Than, by destruction, dwell in doubtful joy.

Enter MACBETH. How now, my lord? why do you keep alone, Of sorriest fancies' your companions making? Using those thoughts, which should indeed have died With them they think on? Things without remedy, Should be without regard: what 's done, is done.

Macb. We have scotch'd the snake, not kill'd it; She 'll close, and be herself; whilst our poor malice Remains in danger of her former tooth. But let The frame of things disjoint, both the worlds suffer,


For a few words. Madam, I will. All's spent, is a complete verse.

There is sufficient reason to suppose the metre of Shakspeare was originally uniform and regular. His frequent exactness in making one speaker complete the verse which another had left imperfect, is too evident to need exemplification. Sir T. Hanmer was aware of this, and occasionally struggled with such metrical difficulties as occurred; though for want of familiarity with ancient language, he often failed in the choice of words to be rejected or supplied. Steevens.

- sorriest fancies - ) i. e. worthless, ignoble, vile. So, in Othello :

“ I have a salt and sorry rheum offends me." Sorry, however, might signify sorrowful, melancholy, dismal. So, in The Comedy of Errors:

“ The place of death and sorry execution." Again, in the play before us, (as Mr. M. Mason observes) Macbeth says, -“ This is a sorry sight.” Steevens.

Things witbout remedy,] The old copy-all remedy. But surely, as Sir T. Hanmer thinks, the word all is an inter. polation, hurtful to the metre, without improvement of the sense. The same thought occurs in King Richard II, Act II, sc. iii: “ Things past redress, are now with me past care.Steevens.

scotch'd -] Mr. Theobald.-Fol. scorch'd. Johnson. Scotch'd is the true reading. So, in Coriolanus, Act IV, sc. v: he scotcb'd him and notch'd him like a carbonado.”

Steevens. 4. But let

The frame of things disjoint, both the worlds suffer,] The. old copy reads thus, and I have followed it, rejecting the modern contraction, which was ;


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Ere we will eat our meal in fear, and sleep
In the affliction of these terrible dreams,
That shake us nightly: Better be with the dead,
Whom we, to gain our place, have sent to peace,
Than on the torture of the mind to lie
In restless ecstasy. Duncan is in his grave;
After life's fitful fever, he sleeps well ;
Treason has done his worst: nor steel, nor poison,
Malice domestick, foreign levy, nothing,
Can touch him further!

Lady M. Come on;
Gentle my lord, sleek o'er your rugged looks;
Be bright and jovial 'mong your guests to-night.

Macb. So shall I, love; and so, I pray, be you:
Let your remembrance? apply to Banquo;
Present him eminence,8 both with eye
Unsafe the while, that we
Must lave our honours in these lattering streams;

and tongue:

But let both worlds disjoint, and all things suffer.
The same idea occurs in Hamlet:

“ That borb the worlds I give to negligence.” Steevens.
5 W bom we, to gain our place, have sent to peace,]. The old

copy reads:

Whom we, to gain our peace For the judicious correctionplace, we are indebted to the second folio. Steevens.

6 In restless ecstasy.] Ecstasy, for madness. Warburton.

Ecstasy, in its general sense, signifies any violent emotion of the mind. Here it means the emotions of pain, agony. So, in Marlowe's Tumburlaine, P. I:

Griping our bowels with retorqued thoughts,

“ And have no hope to end our extasies." Again, Milton, in bis ode on The Nativity:

“ In pensive trance, and anguish, and ecstatic fit."
Thus also Chapman, in his version of the last lliad, where
he describes the distracting sorrow of Achilles :

Although he saw the morn
Shew sea and shore his extasie.Steevens.

remembrance -] is here employed asa quadrisyllable. So, in Twelfth Night:

“ And lasting in her sad remembrance”. Stecvens. 8 Present him eminence,] i. c. do him the highest honours.



And make our faces vizards to our hearts,
Disguising what they are.
Lady M.

You must leave this. Macb. O, full of scorpions is my mind, dear wife Thou know'st, that Banquo, and his Fleance, lives.

Lady M. But in them nature's copy 's not eterne.


9 Unsafe the wbile, that we

Must lave our bonours in these flattering streams;
And make our faces vizards to our hearts,

Disguising wbat they are.] The sense of this passage (though clouded by metaphor, and perhaps by omission) ap. pears to be as follows:- It is a sure sign that our royalty is unsafe, wben it must descend to flattery, and stoop to dissimulation.

And yet I cannot help supposing (from the hemistich, unsafe the while that we) some words to be wanting which originally rendered the sentiment less obscure. Shakspeare might have written

Unsafe the while it is for us, that we &c. By a different arrangement in the old copy, the present he. mistich, indeed, is avoided; but, in my opinion, to the disad. vantage of the other lines. See former editions. Steevens.

nature's copy's not eterne.] The copy, the lease, by which they hold their lives from nature, has its time of termi. nation limited. Johnson.

Fterre for eternal is often used by Chaueer. So, in The Knight's Tale, Mr. Tyrwhitt's edit. v. 1305:

O cruel goddes, that governe
“ This world with binding of your word eterne,
And writen in the table of athamant

Your parlement and your eterne grant.” Steevens. Dr. Johnson's interpretation is supported by a subsequent past sage in this play:

and our high-plac'd Macbeth
“ Shall live the lease of nature, pay his breath

« To time and mortal custom." Again, by our author's 13th Sonnet:

So should that beauty which you hold in lease,

“ Find no determination.” Malone. I once thought that by “ Nature's copy" &c. our author meant (to use a Scriptural phrase) man, as formed after the Deity, though not, like bim, immortal. So, in K. Henry VIIL,

how shall man, The image of bis maker, hope to thrive by 't!" Or, as Milton <xpresses the same idea, Comus, v. 69:

the human countenance,

"Th' express resemblance of the gods —.” But, (as Mr. M. Mason observes) in support of Dr. Johnson's explanation, we find that Macbeth, in his next speech but one,

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Mach. There's comfort yet; they are assailable; Then be thou jocund: Ere the bat hath flown His cloister'd flight;2 ere, to black Hecate's summons, The shard-borne beetle,3 with his drowsy hums,


alluding to the intended murder of Banquo and Fleance, says: “ Cancel, and tear to pieces, that great

bond “ That keeps me pale.” Mr. M. Mason, however, adds, that by

« nature's copy," Shakspeare might only mean-the buman form divine. Steevens,

The allusion is to an estate for lives held by copy of court-roll. It is clear, from numberless allusions of the same kind, that Shakspeare had been an attorney's clerk. Ritson.

the bat bath flown His cloister'd flight;] The bats wheeling round the dim cloisters of Queen's College, Cambridge, have frequently impressed on me the singular propriety of this original epithet.

Steerens. Bats are often seen flying round cloisters, in the dusk of the evening, for a considerable length of time. Malone.

3 The shard-borne beetle,] i. e. the beetle hatched in clefts of wood So, in Antony and Cleopatra:

" They are his shards, and he their beetle.Warburton. The sbard-borne beetle is the beetle børne along the air by its sbards or scaly wings. From a passage in Gower, De Confessione Amantis, it appears that shards signified scales :

* She sigh, her thought, a dragon tho,

"Whose scherdes shynen as the sonne.” L. VI, fol. 138. and hence the upper or outward wings of the beetle were called sbards, they being of a scaly substance. To have an outward pair of wings of a scaly hardness, serving as integuments to a filmy pair beneath them, is the characteristick of the beetle kind. Ben Jonson, in his Sad Sbepherd, says

* The scaly beetles with their habergeons,

“ That make a humming murmur as they fly.”. In Cymbeline, Shakspeare applies this epithet again to the beetle:

we find
" The sbarded beetle in a safer hold

“ Than is the full-wing'd eagle." Here there is a manifest opposition intended between the wings and Aight of the insect and the bird. The beetle, whose sharded wings can but just raise him above the ground, is often in a state of greater security than the vast-winged eagle, that can soar to any brigbt.

As Shakspeare is here describing the beetle in the act of fly. ing (for he never in:kes his humming noise but when he flies) it Hath rung night's yawning peal, there shall be done

is more natural to suppose the epithet should allude to the peculiarity of his wings, than to the circumstance of his origin, or bis place of habitation, both of which are common to him with several other creatures of the insect kind.

Such another description of the beetle occurs in Chapman's Eugenia, 4to. 1614:

The beetle

there did raise
“With his Irate wings his most unwieldie paise;
And with his knollike bumming gave the dor

Of death to men It is almost needless to say, that the word irate, in the second line, must be a corruption.

The quotation from Antony and Cleopatra, seems to make against Dr. Warburton's explanation.

The meaning of Ænobarbus, in that passage, is evidently as follows: Lepidus, says he, is the beetle of the triumvirate, a dull, blind creature, that would but crawl on the earth, if Octavius and Antony, his more active colleagues in power, did not serve him for sbards or wings to raise him a little above the ground.

What idea is afforded, if we say that Octavius and Antony are two clefts in the old wood in which Lepidus was hatched;

Steevena. The sbard-born beetle is the beetle born in dung. Aristotle and Pliny mention beetles that breed in dung. Poets as well as natural historians have made the same observation. See Drayton's Ideas, 31: " I scorn all earthly dung-bred scarabies." So, Ben Jonson, Whalley's edit Vol. J. p. 59:

“ But men of thy condition feed on sloth,

“ As doth the beetle on the dung she breeds in." That sbard signifies dung, is well known in the North of Staffordshire, where cowsbard is the word generally used for cowdung. So, in A petite Palace of Pettic bis Pleasure, p. 165: “ The humble bee taketh no scorn to loge on a cowe's foule shard.” Again, in Bacon's Natural History exp. 775: “ Turf and peat, and cow sbeards, are cheap fuels, and last long."

Sbarded beetle, in Cymbeline, means the beetle lodged in dung, and there the humble earthly abode of the beetle is opposed to the lofty eyry of the eagle in “ the cedar, whose top branch overpeerd Jove's spreading tree,” as the poet observes, in The Third Part of King Henry VI, Act V, sc. ii. Tollet.

The shard-born beetle is, perhaps, the beetle born among shards, i. e. (not cow's dung, for that is only a secondary or .metonymical signification of the word, and not even so, gene. rally, but) pieces of broken pots, tiles, and such-like things, which are frequently thrown together in corners as rubbish, and under which these beetles may usually breed, or (what is the same) may have been supposed so to do.

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