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done in the body, not according to that he hath believed, whether it be true or false, but according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. "St. Peter asserts that the Father "without respect of persons judgeth according to every man's work."-And St. John who next to our Lord gives us the most particular description of the Day of Judgment, concludes it by these awful words, “And the dead were judged out of the things written in the books, according to their works." It is not once said according to their faith.

Permit me, Sir, to sum all these testimonies in the words of two kings and two apostles. "Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter," says the King who chose wisdom, "Fear God and keep his commandments; for this is the whole duty of man; for God shall bring every work into judgment, whether it be good or evil."-"They that have done good," says the King who is wisdom itself (and the Athanasian creed after him) "shall go into everlasting life; and they that have not done good, or that have done evil, to everlasting punishment." "You see then" and they are the words of St. James, "that a man is justified by works, and not by faith only." By faith he is justified at his conver. sion, and when his backslidings are healed. But he is justified by works, 1. In the hour of trial, as Abraham was when he had offered up Isaac; 2. In a court of spiritual or civil judicature, as St. Paul at the bar of Festus; and 3. before the judgment seat of Christ, as every one will be, whose faith when he goes hence, is found working by love: "For there, [says St. Paul, as well as in consistorial courts, circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God." 1 Cor. vii. 19. III. This doctrine is so obvious in the Scripture, so generally received in all the Churches of Christ, and so deeply engraven on the conscience of sincere professors, that the most eminent ministers of all denominations perpetually allude to it, (Yourself, Sir, not excepted, as I could prove from your sermons, if you had not recanted them.) How often, for instance, has that great man of God, the truly reverend Mr. Whitefield said to his immense congregations, "You are warned, I am clear of your blood, I shall rise as a swift witness against you, or you against me, in the terrible day of the Lord: O remember to clear me then;" or words to that purpose. And is not this just as if he had said, "We shall be justified or condemned in the Day of Judgment by what we are now doing: I by my preaching, and you by your hearing?"

And say not, Sir, that "such expressions were only flights of oratory, and prove. nothing." If you do you touch the apple of God's eye. Mr. Whitefield was not a flighty orator, but spoke the words of soberness and

truth, with divine pathos, and floods of tears declarative of his sincerity.


Instead of swelling this letter into a volume (as I easily might) by producing quotations from all the sober Puritan divines, who have directly or indirectly asserted a second justification by works, I shall present you only with two passages from Mr. Henry. On Matt. xii. 37, he says, "Consider how strict the judgment will be on account of our words. By thy words thou shalt be justified or condemned," a common rule in men's judgment, and here applied to God's. Note, the constant tenor of our discourse, according as it is gracious or not gracious, will be an evidence for us, or against us at that day. Those that seemed to be religious, but bridled not their tongue, will then be found to have put a cheat upon themselves with a vain religion. It concerns us to think much of the Day of Judgment, that it may be a check upon our tongues." And again.

Upon those words, Rom. ii. 13, "Not the hearers of the Law are just before God, but the doers of the Law shall be justified :" the honest commentator says, "The Jewish (Antinomian) Doctors bolstered up their followers with an opinion that all that were Jews (the elect people of God) how bad soever they lived, should have a glorious place in the world to come. This the Apostle here opposes. It was a very great privilege that they had the law, but not a saving privilege, unless they lived up to the law they had.-We may apply it to the gospel: It is not hearing but doing that will save us, John xiii. 17. Jam. i. 22." Who does not perceive that Mr. Henry saw the truth, and spoke it so far as he thought his calvinist readers could bear it? Surely if that good man dared to say so much, we who have done "leaning too much towards Calvinism," should be inexcusable if we did not say all.

IV. These testimonies will, I hope, make you weigh with an additional degree of candour the following arguments, which I shall produce as a Logician, lest any should be tempted to call me a bold Metaphysician, or almost a Magician.

The voice that St. John heard in heaven did not say, Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord, for their faith follows them: no, it is their works. Faith is the hidden root, hope the rising stalk, and love, together with good works, the nourishing corn and as the king's agents who fill a royal granary, do not take in the roots and stalks, but the pure wheat alone; so Christ takes neither faith nor hope into heaven, the former being gloriously absorbed in sight, and the latter in enjoyment.

If I may compare faith and hope to the chariot of Israel and the courser thereof, they both bring believers to the everlasting doors of glory, but do not enter in themselves. Not

so Love and good Works, for love is both the nature and element of saints in glory; and good Works necessarily follow them, both in the books of remembrance which shall then be opened, and in the objects and witnesses of those works, who shall then be all present; as it appears from the words of our Lord, "You have done it, or you have not done it, to one of the least of these my brethren ;" and those of St Paul to his dear converts, "You shall be my joy and my crown in that day." Thus it is evident that although faith is the temporary measure according to which God deals ont his mercy and grace in this World, as we may gather from that sweet saying of our Lord," Be it done according to thy faith;" yet love and good works are the eternal measures, according to which he distributes justification and glory in the world to come. On these observations I argue,

We shall be justified in the last day by the grace and evidences which shall then remain.

Love and good Works, the fruits of faith, shall then remain.

Therefore we shall then be justified by Love and good Works, that is, not by faith but by its fruits.

V. This doctrine so agreeable to Scripture, the sentiment of moderate Calvinists, and the dictates of reason, recommends itself likewise to every man's conscience in the sight of God. Who, but Dr. Crisp, could (after a calm review of the whole affair) affirm that in the day of judgment, if I am accused of being actually an hypocrite, Christ's sincerity will justify me, whether it be found in me or


to follow hard after holiness," and reconcile fatal differences among Christians, and seeming contradictions in the scripture.

1. It will re-awaken Antinomians,* who fancy there is no condemnation to them whether they walk after the Spirit in love, or after the flesh in malice; whether they forsake all to follow Christ, or like Judas and Sapphira keep back part of what should be the Lord's without reserve. Thousands boldly profess justifying faith, and perhaps eternal justification, who reverence the commandments of God, just as much as they regard the Scriptures quoted in Mr. Wesley's Minutes.

Upon their doctrinal systems they raise a tower of presumption, whence they bid defiance both to the Law and Gospel of Jesus. His Law says, "Love God with all thy heart, and thy neighbour as thyself, that thou mayest live" in glory." If thou wilt enter the life (of glory,) keep the commandments." But this raises their pity, instead of commanding their respect, and exciting their diligence. "Moses is buried, say they: We have nothing to do with the law! We are not under the law to Christ! Jesus is not a Lawgiver to control, but a Redeemer to save us."

* 1 beg I may not be understood to level the following paragraphs, or any part of these letters, at ny God knows how deeply pious Calvinist brethren.

reverence many, who are immoveably fixed in what some call the doctrines of grace; how gladly (as conscious of their genuine conversion and eminent usefulness) I would lie in the dust at their feet to honour

our Lord in his dear members; and how often have


thought it a peculiar infelicity in any degree to dissent from such excellent men, with whom, I wanted both to live and die, and with whom I hope soon to

reign for ever,

As these real children of God lament the bad use antinomians make of their principles, I hope they will not be offended if I bear my testimony against a growing evil, which they have frequently opposed themselves. While the Calvinists guard the foundation against pharisees, for which I return them my sincere thanks; they will, I hope, allow the Remonstrants to guard the superstructure against Antinomians. If in doing those good offices to the church, we find ourselves obliged to bear a little hard upon the peculiar sentiments of our opposite friends, let us do it in such a manner as not to break the bonds of peace and brotherly kindness; so shall our honest reproofs become matter of useful exercise to that love which thinketh no evil, hopeth all things, rejoiceth even in the galling truth, and is neither quenched by many waters, nor damped by any opposition.

Again. Suppose I am charged with being a drunkard, a thief, a whoremonger, a covetous person; or a fretful, impatient, ill natured man, or if you please a proud bigot, an implacable zealot, a malicious persecutor, who notwithstanding fair appearances of godliness, would raise disturbances even in heaven if I were admitted there: Will Christ's sobriety, honesty, chastity, generosity; or will his gentleness, patience, and meekness, justify me from such dreadful charges? Must I not be found really sober, honest, chaste, and charitable? Must I not be inherently gentle, meek, and loving? Can we deny this without flying in the face of tion about which we unhappily divide, moderate men I have long wished to see, on both sides of the quescommon sense, breaking the strongest bars of step out of the unthinking, noisy crowd of their party, scriptural truth, and opening the flood gates to look each other lovingly in the face, and to convince to the foulest waves of Antinomianism? If the world that with impartial zeal they will guard both the foundation and the superstructure against all adverwe grant it, do we not grant a second justifi-saries, those of their own party not excepted. Whocation by works? And does not St. Paul grant, or rather insist upon as much, when he declares that "Without holiness no man shall see the Lord ?"

VI. You will probably ask what advantage the Church will reap from this doctrine of a second justification by works? I answer, that, under God, it will rouse Antinomians out of their carnal security, stir up believers

ever does this omne tulit punctum, he is a friend to both parties, and to the whole gospel; for he cordially embraces all the people of God, and joins in one blessed medium the seemingly incompatible extremes of scriptural truth. Ye men of clear heads, honest hearts, and humble loving spirits, nature and grace have formed you on purpose to do the church this important service. Therefore without regarding the bigots of your own party, in the name of the loving Jesus, and by his ca tholic Spirit, give professors public lessons of moderation and consistency, and perimit me to learn those rare virtues with thousands at your feet.

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The Gospel cries to them, "Repent and believe," and, just as if God was to be the penitent believing sinner, they carelessly reply, "The Lord must do all, repentance and faith are his works, and they will be done in the day of his power;" and so without resistance they decently follow the stream of worldly vanities and fleshly lusts.-St. Paul cries, "If ye live after the flesh ye shall die :" "We know better, answer they, there are neither ifs nor conditions in all the gospel." He adds, "This one thing I do, leaving the things that are behind, I press towards the mark, for the prize of my high calling in Christ Jesus- the crown of life; Be ye followers of me: Run also the race that is set before you." "What! say they, would you have us run and work for life? Will you always harp upon that legal string do! do! instead of telling us that we have nothing to do, but to believe that all is done? -St. James cries, show your faith by your works; faith without works is dead already, much more that which is accompanied by bad works. "What! say they, do you think the lamp of faith can be put out as a candle can be extinguished, by not being suffered to shine? We orthodox hold just the contrary: We maintain both that faith can never die, and that living faith is consistent not only with the omission of good works, but with the commission of the most horrid crimes." -St. Peter bids them give all diligence to make their election sure, by adding to their virtue, &c. "Legal stuff! say they, the covenant is well ordered in all things and sure: Neither will our virtue save us, nor our sins damn us."-St. John comes next and declares, he that sinneth is of the devil. "What! say they, do you think to make us converts to Arminianism, by thus insinuating that a man can be a child of God to day and a child of the devil to-morrow?" -St. Jude advances last, and charges them to keep themselves in the love of God, and they supinely reply, "We can do nothing: besides, we are as easy and safe without a frame as with one." ""

With the sevenfold shield of their Antinomian faith they would fight the twelve Apostles round, and come off in their own imagination, more than conquerors. Nay, were Christ himself to come to them incognito as he did to the Disciples that went to Emmaus, and say, "Be ye perfect, as your Father who is in heaven is perfect:" It is well if, while they measured him from head to foot with looks of pity or surprise, some would not be bold enough to say with a sneer, "You are a perfectionist it seems, a follower of poor John Wesley! are you? for our part we are for Christ and free grace, but John Wesley and you are for perfection and free will."

Now, Sir, if any doctrine, humanly speak ing, can rescue these mistaken souls out of

so dreadful a snare, it is that which I contend for. Antinomian dreams vanish before it, as the noxious damps of the night before the rising sun. St Paul, if they would but hear him out with this one saying, as with a thousand rams, would demolish, all their Babels; "Circumcision is nothing, uncircumcision is nothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God:" or, to speak agreeable to our times,"before the tribunal of Christ, forms of godliness, Calvinian and Arminian notions are nothing: confessions of faith and recantations of error, past manifestations and former experiences are nothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God;' the very thing which Antinomians ridicule or neglect !

2. This doctrine is not less proper to animate feeble believers in their pursuits of holiness. O if it were clearly preached and steadily believed:—if we were fully persuaded, we shall soon appear before the judgment seat of Christ, to answer for every thought, word, and work, for every business we enter upon, every sum of money we lay out, every meal we eat, every pleasure we take, every affliction we endure, every hour we spend, every idle word we speak, yea, and every temper we secretly indulge ;-if we knew we shall certainly give account of all the chapters we read, of all the prayers we offer, all the Sermons we hear or preach, all the sacraments we receive; of all the motions of divine grace, all the beams of heavenly light, all the breathings of the Spirit, all the invitations of Christ, all the drawings of the Father, reproofs of our friends, and checks of our own conscience:

And if we were deeply conscious that every neglect of duty will rob us of a degree of glory, and every wilful sin of a jewel in our crown,if not our crown itself; what humble, watchful, holy, heavenly persons should we be! How serious and self-denying! How diligent and faithful? In a word, how angelical and divine, in all manner of conversation!

Did the Woman, the professing church, cordially embrace this doctrine, she would no more stay in the wilderness, idly talking of her beloved; but actually leaning upon him she would come out of it, in the sight of all her enemies. No more wrapped up in the showy cloud of ideal perfection or imaginary righteousness, and casting away her cold garments, her moon-like changes of merely doctrinal apparel, she would shine with the dazzling glory of her Lord, she would burn with the hallowing fires of his love: once more she should be "clothed with the Sun, and have the Moon under her feet!"

Ye lukewarm talkers of Jesus's ardent love, if you were deeply conscious that nothing but love shall enter heaven, instead of judging of your growth in grace, by the warmth with which you espouse the tenets of Calvin or

Arminius, would you not instantly try your state by the xiiith chapter to the Corinthians, and by our Lord's alarming messages to the falling or fallen churches of Asia? Springing out of your Laodicean indifference, would you not earnestly pray for the faith of the gospel, the faith that works by burning love? If the fire is kindled, would you not be afraid of putting it out by quenching the Spirit? Would you not even dread grieving him, lest your love should grow cold! Far from accounting the shedding abroad of the love of God in your hearts an unnecessary frame, would you not be straitened till you were baptized, every one of you, with the Holy Ghost and with fire!

Ye who hold the doctrine of perfection without going on to perfection, and ye who explode it as a pernicious delusion, and inconsistently publish hymns of solemn prayer for it, how would you agree from the bottom of your re-awakened hearts, to sing together, in days of peace and social worship, as you have carelessly sung asunder,

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O ye Halcyon days! Ye days of brotherly love and genuine holiness! If you appeared to pacify and gladden our distracted Jerusalem, how soon would practical Christianity emerge from under the frothy billows of Antinomianism, and the proud waves of Pharisaism, which continually break against each other, and openly foam out their own shame! What carefulness would godly sorrow work in us all! What clearing our. selves by casting away our dearest idols! What indignation against our former lukewarmness? What fear of offending either God or man! What vehement desire after the full image of Christ! What zeal for his glory! And what revenge of our sins! In all things we should approve ourselves, for the time to come, to be clear from the Antinomian delusions! Then would we see what has seldom been seen in our age, distinct (not opposed) societies of meek professors of the common faith, walking in humble love, and supporting each other with cheerful readiness, like different battallions of the same invincible army. And if ever we perceived any contention among them, it would be only about the lowest place and the most dangerous post. Instead of striving for the mastery, they would strive only who should stand truest to the standard of the cross, and best answer the neglected motto of the primitive Christians :-Non magna loquimur sed vivi

mus. "Our religion does not consist in high words but in good works."

3. I observed that this doctrine will likewise reconcile seeming contradictions in the Scriptures, and fatal differences among Christians: Take one instance of the former: What can those who reject a second justifi cation by works, make of the solemn words of our Lord, "By thy words thou shalt be justified, or by thy words thou shalt be condemned," Matt. xii. 37? And by what art can they possibly reconcile them with St. Paul's assertions, Rom. iv. 5. "To him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his Faith is imputed to him for Righteousness." And v. 1. "Being justified by Faith, we have peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ." Accept an example of the latter. In the Antinomian days of Dr. Crisp, arose the honest people we call Quakers. Shocked at 'the general abuse of the doctrine of justification by faith, they rashly inferred it could never be from God; and seeing none shall be justified in glory but the doers of the law, they hastily concluded there is but one justification, namely, the being made inherently just, or the being sanctified, and then declared holy. Admit our doctrine, and you have both parts of the truth, that which the Antinomians hold against the Quakers, and that which the Quakers maintain against the Antinomians. Each alone is dangerous, both together mutually defend each other, and make up the Scriptural doctrine of justification, which is invincibly guarded, on the one hand by faith against Pharisees, and on the other by works against Antinomians. Reader, may both be thy portion! So shalt thou be eternally reinstated both in the favour and image of God.

VI. But while I enumerate the benefits which the Church will reap from a practical knowledge of our second justification by works, an honest Protestant, who has more zeal for, than acquaintance with the truth, advances with his heart full of holy indignation, and his mouth of objections which he says are unanswerable. Let us consider them one by one.

Obj. 1. "Your Popish, Antichristian doctrine I abhor, and could even burn at a stake as a witness against it. Away with your new-fangled Arminian tenets! I am for old Christianity, and, with St. Paul, determined to know nothing for justification but Christ, and him crucified."

Ans. Do you indeed! Then I am sure you will not deny both Jesus Christ and St. Paul in this old christian doctrine, for Christ says, "By thy words shalt thou be justified," and St. Paul declares, "Not the hearers, but the doers of the law (of Christ) shall be justified." Alas, how often are those who say they will know and have nothing but Christ, the first to set him at nought as a

Prophet, by railing at his holy doctrine; or to reject him as a King, by trampling upon his royal proclamations! But I wot that through ignorance they do it, as do also their Rulers.

Obj. 2. "This legal doctrine robs God's dear children of their comforts and gospelliberty, binds Moses's intolerable burden upon their free shoulders, and entangles them again in the galling yoke of bondage."

Ans. If God's dear children have got into a false liberty of doing the devil's works, either by not going into the vineyard when they have said, Lord, I go, or by beating their fellow servants there, instead of work ing with them: the sooner they are robbed of it the better: for if they continue thus free, they will ere long be bound hand and foot, and cast into outer darkness. It is the very spirit of Antinomianism to represent God's commandments as grievous, and the keeping of his law as bondage.

had foreseen how his Epistle to the Galatians would be abused to Antinomian purposes, gives us in it the most powerful antidotes against that poison. Take two or three instances. 1. He exhorts his fallen converts to the fulfiling of the law: "Love one another, says he, for all the Law is fulfilled in this one word, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself;" because none can love his neighbour as himself, but he that loves God with all his heart. How different is this doctrine from the bold Antinomian cry, "We have nothing to do with the law!" 2. He enu. merates the works of the flesh, adultery, hatred, variance, wrath, strife, heresies, envyings, &c. of which, says he, I tell you before, as I have told you in time past, that they who do such things shall not be justified in the day of judgment, or which is the same thing, shall not inherit the kingdom of God. How different a gospel is this, from 66 Not so the dutiful that which insinuates, impenitent adulterers may be dear children of God, even while such, and in a very safe state, and quite sure of glory!" And 3. as if this awful warning was not enough, he point-blank cautions his readers against the Crispian error; not deceived, says he, whatever a man (not whatever Christ) soweth, that shall he also reap, He that soweth to the flesh shall reap corruption, and he that soweth to the Spirit shall reap life everlasting." How amazingly strong therefore must your prejudice be, which makes you produce this Epistle to thrust love and good works out of the important place allotted them in all the word of God! And no where more than in this very Epistle!

children of God: their hearts are never so much at liberty, as when they run the way of his commandments, and so fulfil the law of Christ. Keep them from obedience, and you keep them "in the snare of the devil, promising liberty to others while they themselves are the servants of corruption."

Again, you confound the heavy yoke, of the circumcision and ceremonial bondage, with which the Galatians once intangled themselves, with the easy yoke of Jesus Christ. The former was intolerable, the latter is so light a burden, that the only way to find rest to our souls, is to take it upon us. St. Paul calls a dear brother his yoke-fellow: You know the word Belial in the original signifies without yoke: they are the sons of Belial who shake off the Lord's yoke; and though they should boast of their election as much as the Jews did, Christ himself will say concerning them, Those mine enemies that refuse my yoke, and will not that I should reign over them, bring hither and slay them before me. So inexpressibly dreadful is the end of lawless liberty!

Obj. 3. "Your doctrine is the damnable error of the Galatians, who madly left Mount Sion for Mount Sinai, made Christ the Alpha and not the Omega, and after having begun in the Spirit would be made perfect by the flesh. This is the other Gospel which St. Paul thought so diametrically contrary to his own, that he wished the teachers of it though they were angels of God, might be even accursed and cut off."

Ans. You are under a capital mistake; St. Paul could never be so wild as to curse himself, anathematize St. James, and wish the Messiah to be again cut off: for he himself taught the Romans, that the doers of the law shall be justified; St. James evidently maintains a justification By works; and our Lord expressly says, by thy words thou shalt be justified. Again, the Apostle, as if he

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Obj. 4. "Notwithstanding all you say, I am persuaded you are in the dreadful heresy of the Galatians, for they were, like you, for justification by the works of the law; and St. Paul resolutely maintained against them the fundamental doctrine of justification by faith."

Ans. If you once read over the Epistle to the Galatians without prejudice, and without comment, you will see that, 1. They had returned to the beggarly elements of this world, by superstitiously observing days, months, times, and years. 2. Imagining they could not be saved except they were circumcised, they submitted even to that grievous and bloody injuction. 3. Exact in their useless ceremonies, and fondly hoping to be justified by their partial observance of Moses's Law, they well-nigh forgot the merits of Christ, and openly trampled upon his law, and walked after the flesh. Stirred up to contentious zeal by their new teachers, they despised the old Apostle's ministry, hated his person, and devoured one another. In short they trusted partly in the 'merit of their superstitious performances, and partly in Christ's merits; and on this preposterous foundation, they built the hay of Jewish

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