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who have taste, with Dr. Lowth's Prelec- of our best poets, may suffice while they are liones de Poësi Hebræa, which will enable students. Other books will occasionally come them to judge of the style and idiom of the in their way; for the tutor should have a Hebrew Bible, and particularly of the style well-chosen library for the accommodation of and beauties of the Hebrew poetry. Black- his pupils; but he will guard them against wall's Sacred Classics may be added for the spending too much time in this line of readGreek.

ing. For though it has its subordinate adSince the learned have of late years con- vantages, it may, if too much indulged, divert descended to lay open the way to the Hebrew them from the main point. And they should and Greek Scriptures, by publishing Lexi- be taught to refer every thing they read to cons, Grammars, and other helps in the Eng. the principles of scripture, to the knowledge lish tongue, the knowledge of the Latin is of the heart of man, and the works, the ways, less needful to a Bible student than it was the wisdom, and providence of God, otherformerly. But as there are many valuable wise reading will only tend to make them books in Latin, and not yet translated, I must wise in their own conceit. I make short wish our pupils so far acquainted with the work with this article, and hasten to conLatin language as to be able to read good sider, authors in it. But as they are not to preach Fourthly, What may be helpful (by the in Latin, an accurate skill is hardly worth divine blessing) to enable the pupils to comattempting, unless they have had a classical municate the fruits of their knowledge to school education before they come to the aca- advantage in the public ministry, that they demy. The mind is incapable of too many may appear workmen that need not be acquisitions : life is short, and more impor- ashamed. For this, as I have formerly intitant business awaits them, in subserviency to mated, their chief and immediate dependence which every thing else must be conducted. must be on the Lord. He alone can give

Books of criticism and on scripture-anti-them a mouth and wisdom for his service; quities are at hand in plenty. It will be im- and without the unction from on high, the possible to read them all. The selection be- study of divinity and every thing relative to longs not to me, but to the tutor. The Syn- it, will be but like learning the art of naviopsis Criticorum, Godwin and Jennings, will gation on shore, which is very different from perhaps be of the number he will choose. A the knowledge necessary to the mariner, good Ecclesiastical History seems to be still who is actually called to traverse the ocean. a desideratum. A mass of materials, so far But dependence upon the Lord should be as it goes, is already prepared in the Mague- no discouragement to the use of means. burg Centuriators, which affords a striking I would have my students good logicians. monument of the compiler's patience: but it The logic of the schools is in a great measure would likewise require some patience in the a cramp, forced, and formal affair, and may reader who should undertake to go through possibly have made almost as many pedants it. Mosheim is perhaps the best book we and sophists as good reasoners. But Dr. have upon the subject, if the reader knows so Watts has fürnished us with a system of much of himself and of the work of grace, as logic in a more intelligible and amiable form, to prevent him from being misled by him, and divested it of the solemn impertinences when treating on subjects which he does not with which it was encumbered. As the rules appear to have rightly understood. But as to of grammar are themselves drawn from the facts, I believe he is in general worthy of language they are designed to regulate, so credit. Bingham's Antiquities may deserve good logic is no more than the result of obinspection, if it be only to show how soon and servations upon the powers of the human how generally the beautiful simplicity of the mind: and thus we see, that many people of gospel was corrupted by those who professed plain sense are passable logicians, though it. Dupin and Dr. Cave's Historia Literaria they never saw a book upon the subject, and Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum are still more perhaps do not understand the meaning of valuable; but the characters of the writers, the term. But they may be much assisted and their strong prepossessions in favour of an- in the habits of thinking, judging, and reasontiquity, should be known and allowed for. ing, and in disposing their thoughts in an

Thirdly, Much time cannot be allowed in advantageous method, by rules judiciously our academy for the pursuit of polite litera- formed and arranged. In this view I judge ture. But an entrance may be made, and a Dr. Watts's logic, with his subsequent treatise relish for it acquired, under the direction and on the Improvement of the Mind, to be very restraint of the tutor, which may provide the valuable. And, together with the more students with a profitable amusement for lei- scientific part of the subject, he will provide sure hours in future life; for in this know my pupils with a great variety of hints for ledge they may advance from year to year. their conduct, and for distinguishing the A parusal of such books as Rollin on the principles and conduct of others. These Belles Lettres, Bossuet's Universal History, books should be frequently rend, and closely Derluan and Ray on the Creation, and a few studied, and will afford the tutor, an extez

sive scope for their instruction. Unless a diate design of comparing his style and man can conceive and define his subject manner with approved models. It might be clearly, distinguish and enumerate the seve. wished, that the best divines were always ral parts, and knows how to cast them into a the best writers; but the style of many of convenient order and dependence, he cannot them is quaint, involved, and obscure. Some be a masterly preacher. “And though a good books that are well written have little else understanding may supersede the necessity to recommend them, yet may be useful for of logical rules, it will likewise derive ad- this purpose; and the periodical writings of vantage from them.

Addison and Johnson abound with judicious I have not so much to say in favor of ano observations on men and manners, besides ther branch of artificial assistance, though being specimens of easy and elegant compomuch stress has been sometimes laid upon it. sition. Among writers in divinity I would We must not, however, quite omit it: for an recommend Dr. Watts and Dr. Witherspoon academic will be expected to know, that the as good models. By perusing such authors learned have thought proper to give Greek with attention, I hope the pupils will acquire names to certain forms and figures of speech, a taste for good writing, and be judges of a in the use of which the common people, with good style. Perspicuity, closeness, energy out being aware of their skill in rhetoric, and ease, are the chief properties of such a are little less expert than the learned them- style. On the contrary, a style that is either selves. When he can repeat these hard obscure, redundant, heavy, or affected, cannames, with their etymologies and significa- not be a good one. But I cannot advise them tions, rhetoric can do but little more for him. to copy the late Mr. Hervey. His dress, The rules it pro esses to teach are in general though it fits him, and he does not look amiss needless to those who have genius, and use in it, is rather too gaudy and ornamented for less to those who have none. If a youth has a divine. He had a fine imagination, an not a turn for eloquence, stuffing his head elegant taste, and shows much precision and with the names of tropes and figures will not judgment in his choice of words: but though give it hiin. To know the names of tools in his luxuriant manner of writing has many an artificer's shop is one thing, but to have of the excellencies both of good poetry and skill to use them as a workman is something good prose, it is in reality neither the one nor very different. Here the tutor will use his the other. An injudicious imitation of him discretion ; for if any of his pupils are not has spoiled some persons for writers, who, it likely to be orators, he will take care that, if they could have been content with the plain he can prevent it, they shall not be pedants, and natural mode of expression, might have 'or value themselves on retailing a list of succeeded tolerably well. technical terms, of which they know neither The pupil likewise must write as well as the use nor the application. At the best, read, and he should write frequently. Let too much attention to artificial rules will him fill one common-place book after anomake but an artificial orator, and rather ther, with extracts from good authors; this qualify the student to set off himself than his method, while it tends to fix the passages or subject. The grand characteristic of the their import in his mind, will also lead him gospel orator is simplicity. Many years to make such observations respecting the have passed since I read Fenelon's treatise order, and construction, and force of words, on Pulpit Eloquence; but I hope my tutor as will not so readily occur to his notice by will put it into the hands of his pupils. It reading only. Then let him try his own remains to inquire,

hand, and accustom himself to write his Fifthly, How the pupils are to be assisted thoughts, sometimes in notes and observations and directed, that they may be able to preach on the books he reads, sometimes in the form extempore: An ability which I suppose to be of essays or sermons. He will do well likeordinarily attainable by all who are called of wise to cultivate a correspondence with a God to preach the gospel, if they will dili- few select friends; for epistolary writing gently apply themselves to attain it, in the seems nearest to that easiness of manner use of proper means. I do not expect they which a public speaker should aim at. will succeed in this way to my wish, without I would not have his first attempt to speak prayer, study, effort, and practice. For as I publicly be in the preaching way, or even have already hinted, I mean something more upon spiritual subjects. It might probably by it than speaking at random.

abate the reverence due to divine truth, to A well-known observation of Lord Bacon employ it in efforts of ingenuity. Suppose is much to my present purpose. It is to this the tutor should read to them a passage of effect: That reading makes a full man, writ- history, and require them to repeat the relaing an exact man, and speaking a ready tion to him the next day, in their own maninan. The approved extempore preacher ner. He would then remark to them if they faust have a fund of knowledge collected had omitted any essential part, or used imfrom various reading: and it would not be proper expressions. Or they might be put improper to read some books, with the imme- upon making speeches or declamations 02.

such occasions or incidents as he should pro- | undertake to teach; and their sufficiency to pose. By degrees such of them as are judged be evidenced by a better testimonial than in be truly spiritual and humble, might begin their own good opinion of themselves. A to speak upon a text of scripture, in the pre-scribe well instructed, a workman that needsence of the tutor and pupils; and I should eth not to be ashamed, an able minister of the hope this might, in due time, become a part New Testament, are scriptural expressions, of the morning or evening devotions in the intimating what ought to be the qualifications family. But let them be especially cautioned of those who undertake the office of a preacher not to trifle with holy things, nor profane the or pastor. The apostle expressly forbids a great subjects of scripture, by making them novice to be employed in these services. mere exhibitions and trials of skill.

And though in the present day this caution Thus by combining much reading and is very much disregarded by persons who unwriting with their attempts to speak, and all doubtedly mean well; yet I believe the neunder the direction of a judicious tutor, I glect of scriptural rules (which are not arbishall have a cheerful hope that the pupils trary, but founded in a perfect knowledge of will gradually attain a readiness and pro- human nature) will always produce great inpriety of speech; and when actually sent conveniences. I shall think a young man of out to preach, will approve themselves scribes tolerable abilities makes a very good improvewell instructed in the mysteries of the king- ment of his time, if the tutor finds him fit for dom, qualified to bring forth from the trea- actual service, after three or four years close sury of their knowledge and experience, attention to his studies. things new and old for the edification of their But what have I done?-in compliance hearers.

with your request, I have been led to give And now I may draw towards a close. such an undisguised view of my sentiments There are some branches of science, or what on this interesting subject, that though I feel is so called, on which I lay but little stress. myself a cordial friend to all sides and parI have no great opinion of metaphysical stu- ties who hold the Head, and agree in the dies. For pneumatology and ethics I would grand principles of our common faith ; I fear, confine my pupils to the Bible. The re- lest some of every party will be displeased searches of wise men in this way, which with me. I rely on your friendship and your have not been governed by the word of God, knowledge of me to bear witness for me, that have produced little but uncertainty, futility, I would not willingly offend or grieve a sinor falsehood. My tutor will, I hope, think gle person. And you can likewise testify. it sufficient to show the pupils how success that I did not set myself to work that I was fully these wise and learned reasoners re- much surprised when you proposed it to me; ciprocally refute each other's hypotheses. and that you have reason to believe my reAnd if he informs them more in detail of the gard for you, and for the design you informed extravagances which have been started con- me of, were the only motives of my vencerning the nature and foundation of moral turing upon the task you assigned me. virtue; or of the dreams of philosophers, I have by no means exhausted the subject, some of whom would exclude matter; and though I hope I have not omitted any thing others would exclude mind out of the uni- that very materially relates to it. If I was verse; he will inform them likewise, that he really in Utopia, and to carry my plan into does not thereby mean properly to add to execution, other regulations would probably their stock of knowledge, (for we should in occur, which have at present escaped me. reality have been full as wise if these subtilties had never been heard of,) but only to

Semper aliquid apportent novi. guard them against being led into the mazes What I have written I submit to the canof error and folly, by depending too much on dour of you and your friends: adding my the reveries of philosophers.

prayers, that the great Head of the churcii, After this delineation of my plan, it will the fountain of grace, and author of salvation, be needless to inform you that I do not pro- may direct your deliberations, and bless you pose my academy to be a spiritual hot-bed, in with wisdom, unanimity, and success, in which the pupils shall be raised, and ripened whatever you may attempt for the honour of into teachers, almost immediately upon their his name, and the good of souls. admission. I have allowed for a few except I am, dear sir, ed cases; but in general it is my design, that Your sincere friend and servant, their education shall be comprehensive and

OMICRON. exact. I would have them learn before they May 14, 1782.

res, ætas, usus,

A MONUMENT

TO

THE PRAISE OF THE LORD'S GOODNESS,

ASD TO THE MEMORY OF

MISS ELIZA CUNNINGHAM,

THE LAST SURVIVING CHİLD OF MR. JAMES CUNNINGHAM, OF PITTARTHIE, FIFESHIRE.

Jesus amor meus est; si rideat, omnia rident.
O Death, where is thy sting? 1 Cor. xv.55.

PREFACE.

When the following narrative was drawn up, the writer was aware that his feelings rendered him incompetent to judge, how much of a relation, every part of which was interesting to himself, might be fit to offer to the Public. Many little circumstances which the indulgence of a friend could bear with, might to strangers appear trivial and impertinent. He therefore wrote only for his friends; and printed no more copies than he thought would be safficient to distribute within the circle of his personal acquaintance. But as the paper has been much inquired after, and many of his friends have expressed their wish, that it might be more extensively circulated, he has at length yielded to their judgment.

It is to be lamented, that in this enlightened age, so signalized by the prevalence of a spirit of investigation, Religion should, by many, be thought the only subject unworthy of a serious inquiry; and that, while in every branch of science they studiously endeavour to trace every fact to its proper and adequate cause, and are cautious of admitting any theory which cannot stand the test of experiment, they treat the use of the term experimental, when applied to Religion, with contempt. Yet there are many things connected with this subject, in which, whether we are willing or unwilling, we are, and must be nearly interested. Death, for instance, is inevitable. And if there be an hereafter, (and it is impossible to prove that there is not,) the consequences of death must be important. Many persons die, as they live, thoughtless and careless what consequences may await them. Others, whose characters and conduct do not appear to have been worse than those of the former, cannot die so. They have dark and painful fore. bodings, and leave this world with reluctance and terror. And there are others, who, though conscious that they are sinners, and sure that they are about to enter upon an unchangeable and endless state of existence, possess peace, composure, and joy. These declare that they owe this happy state of mind to their dependence upon Jesus the Saviour, on whose blood and mediation they have built their hopes. And who can possibly disprove their words! Such an instance is now in the Reader's hands. The fact is indubitable. A child under the age of fifteen did thus rejoice in the midst of pains and agonies, to the admiration of all who bor VOL. IL 30

473

held her. She was willing to leave all her friends whom she dearly loved, and by whom she was tenderly beloved; for she knew in whom she believed, and that when she should be absent from the body, she would be present with the Lord. With this assurance, she triumphed in the prospect of glory, and smiled upon the approach of death.

It may be presumed, that whoever seriously considers this case, will not be able to satisfy himself, by ascribing such remarkable effects, in so young a subject, 10 the power of habit, example, or system. If he does not account for them upon the principles of the gospel, he will be unable to assign any proportionable cause. And it is to be feared, that she is not affected by a testimony so simple and so striking, neither would he be persuaded though one should rise froin the dead.

Hoxton, Nov. 17, 1785.

A MONUMENT, &c. As I write not for the eye of the public, but our own daughter. My active fond imagichiefly to put a testimony of the Lord's good nation anticipated the time of her arrival, ness into the hands of my dear friends who and drew a pleasing picture of the addition have kindly afforded us their sympathy and the company of such a sister, such a friend, prayers on the late occasion ; I do not mean would make to the happiness of our family. either to restrain the emotions of my heart, The children likewise—there was no great or to apologize for them. I shall write simply disparity between them either in years or staand freely, as I might speak to a person, to ture. From what I had heard of Eliza, I was whose intimacy and tenderness I can fully prepared to love her before I saw her; though entrust myself, and who I know will bear she came afterwards into my hands like a with all my weaknesses.

heap of untold gold, which, when counted In May, 1782, my sister Cunningham was over, proves to be a larger sum than was at Edinburgh, chiefly on the account of her expected. My fancy paired and united these eldest daughter, then in the fourteenth year children; I hoped that the friendship between of her age, who was very ill of a consumption. us and my sister would be perpetuated in She had already buried an only son, at the them. I seemed to see them like twin age of twelve; and while all a mother's care sisters, of one heart and mind, habited and feelings were engaged by the rapid de- nearly alike, always together, always with cline of a second amiable child, she was us.—Such was my plan-but the Lord's plan unexpectedly and suddenly bereaved of an was very different, and therefore mine failed. affectionate and excellent husband. Her It is happy for us, poor short-sighted creatrials were great, but the Lord had prepared tures, unable as we are to foresee the conseher for them. She was a believer. Her quences of our own wishes, that if we knov faith was strong, her graces active, and her and trust him, he often is pleased to put a eonduct exemplary. She walked with God, merciful negative upon our purposes; and and he supported her. And though she was condescends to choose better for us than we a tender and sympathizing friend, she had a can for ourselves. What might have been happy firmness of temper, so that her charac- the issue of my plan, could it have taken ter as a christian, and the propriety of her place, I know not; but I can now praise and behaviour in every branch of relative life, adore him for the gracious issue of his. I appeared with peculiar advantage in the praise his name, that I can cheerfully comply season of affliction. She returned to An- with his word, which says, "Be still, and struther a widow, with her sick child, who know that I am God." I not only can bow languished till October, and then died. (as it becomes a creature and a sinner to do)

Though my sister had many valuable and to his sovereignty; but I admire his wisdom pleasing connections in Scotland, yet her and goodness, and can say from my heart, strongest tie being broken, she readily ac- "He has done all things well." cepted my invitation to come and live with My sister had settled her affairs previous

She was not only dear to me as Mrs. to her removal, and nothing remained but to Newton's sister, but we had lived long in the take leave of her friends, of whom she had habits of intimate friendship. I knew her many, not only in Anstruther, but in differworth, and she was partial to me. She had ent parts of the county. In February, 1783, yet one child remaining, her dear Eliza. I received a letter from her, which, before I We already had a dear orphan niece, whom opened it, I expected was to inform me that she we had, about seven years before, adopted for was upon the road in her way to London

us.

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