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of Ware, it loses its name in the Chickopee in Palmer. Swist river, the east branch of which rises in Petersham, falls into it, before its junction with the Chickopee.
3d. The Chickopee, or according to the classical Dr. Dwight, who retains the orthography of 1654, the Chequapee, rises in Oakbam, Spencer, Leicester, and Paxton, from which towns it runs into Brookfield, where it takes the name of Mill River or Quaboag, and thence into Western, where it receives several tributary streams, and takes the name of Chickopee; which it retains until its union with the Connecticut.—This is the river, which in the common language of the people of that country, runs up to Springfield.
The rivers that fall into the Merrimack are the Souhegan, the Assabet, and the Nashaway.
4th. The Souhegan, a noted branch of the Merrimack, has its principal source in a pond in Ashburnham, from whence it passes into Ashby, but soon enters the State of New Hampshire, at New Ipswich.
5th. The Assabet rises in Berlin, Grafton, and Northborough, from thence flows into Marlborough, where it forms the north branch of Concord River.
6th. Sudbury River, which forms the south branch of the Concord, rises partly from a pond in Westborough, and running southeasterly, forms the boundary between Southborough and Hopkinton, where it leaves the County.
7th. The Nashaway or Nashua, the largest and most important of the Rivers of this County, is formed from two branches—the northerly has its source from the Wachusett Pond in Westminster, from whence it passes through Fitchburg and Leominster, to the centre of Lancaster, where it receives the south branch, which also has its principal source near the Wachusett. Its most northerly head water is Rocky pond, in the gore of unincorporated land called Notown, hetween the towns of Westminster, Fitchburg, Leominster, and Princeton. This branch, called Still river, passes through Princeton, the westerly part of Sterling, receiving large additions in both of those towns, then into West Boylston, where it receives the Quinepoxet from Holden. Now taking its proper name, the south branch of the Nashaway, it continues its course through Boylston into Lancaster, from whence, after its junction with the north branch, it passes through a corner of Bolton, receiviog another stream, called also Still river, then washing the westerly borders of Harvard, it holds its long way to the Merrimack, in the State of New Hampshire. Now diffusing fertility and wealth over its variegated and extended intervals, and now again ministering to the wants of men by affording an abundant supply of never failing water power, to the various and magnificent manufacturing establishments situated upon its banks, within almost every mile of its course.
The Quineboag and French rivers fall into the Thames, and seek the Ocean at Long Island Sound near New London :
8th. The first rises in the County of Hampden, and runs easterly through Sturbridge, Southbridge, and Charlton, then through Dudley and joins the French river in the State of Connecticut.
9th. French River, rises in Holden, and is there called Turkey brook :-Tatrick or Halfway river also rises in Holden and passes with Turkey brook through Worcester, these with Boggachoag, that rises in Worcester, together with several streams from Leicester, form the principal sources of French river. It runs through Ward, Oxford, and the easterly part of Dudley, where it leaves the State.
10th. Charles river, has some of its sources from the rivulets in Milford and Mendon, from whence it runs into the County of Middlesex.
11th. The Blackstone is one of the most important rivers of the County. Its most northerly source is North Pond in Worcester; from this flows a small but beautiful stream called Millbrook or Bimilick.* This receiving various other waters in its course, passes through Millbury, Sutton, and Grafton, ten miles below Worcester, where it receives the Quinsigamond river, from the lake of that name, then passing through Northbridge, Uxbridge, and the southerly part of Mendon, it enters the State of Rhode Island a short distance below the noted Blackstone factory, having received in its course Mumford's river, which rises in Upton, with various other streams. In Rhode Island it is increased by various tributaries, and afterwards assumes the names of Pawtucket, Narragansett or Providence River.
This noble stream washes some of the most flourishing and opulent districts of the County. From its sources in Worcester and Sutton to the sea at Providence, the traveller upon the fine roads, by its margin, is delighted by the view of a continued series of valuable Manufacturing establishments, furnishing employment for a vast amount of capital, as well as subsistence to an enterprizing, intelligent and thriving population. Where its bed is not precipitous it annually overflows many hundreds of acres of beautiful interval land, inferior to none in the County, if we except the fertile margin of the Nashaway. A canal is now constructing upon the banks of the Blackstone, and with their rapid growth, without this facility for communicating with tide waters, it is no easy task to predict, what improvements will be effected by the Inhabitants of this. region, after this great thoroughfare shall be completed. G..
* It is believed Bimilick is improperly applied to Millbrook. The name occurs but twice in the Proprietors books of Worcester, where it is given to a hill, north of Wigwam hill, near the north end of Quinsigamond lake. The written authorities found for calling it Bimilick, are Mass. Hist. Collections, Vol. I. 114. Whitney's History of the County of Worcester, 34. EDITORS.
ARTS AND SCIENCES,
SELECTED FROM THE EDINBURGH SCOTSMAN.
SHAWL MANUFACTURE. ACCIDENTAL circumstances lately called our attention to some facts connected with the history of the Shawl manufacture, a short statement of which our readers may perhaps consider not without interest. We need scarcely state that this species of manufacture has risen almost from nothing within the last 30 years, and that little more than twenty years have passed since it was established in this city, which may now be considered as the chief seat of the finest, though not the most extensive branch of the manufacture.Shawls were originally made in the East Indies, and they exhibit a curious example of the high perfection to which some single species of manufacture may be carried in a country where the arts in general are in a rude state. So highly are these India shawls prized in this country, that they fetch a price of £100 to £200, or even £500, while the best of those of domestic manufacture cap be had for £20 or £30. But what makes the preference shown to the foreign article the more surprising is, that no small proportion of the India shawls brought to Britain have been worn by the natives as turbans, girdles, &c. before they were imported. This is no secret among dealers, for the marks of wearing are often manifest to an experienced eye, in the discoloration or roughening of the surface, the attenuation of the fabric at particular places, and now and then in actual rents and holes. Strange as it may seem, therefore, it is literally true, that our wealthy and titled dames are content to array themselves in the cast clothes of our eastern suhjects, which vestments, notwithstanding, have no small intrinsic value.
There are two substances of which the body or fabric of fine shawls is made-silk and wool. Silk has generally been employed in Britain; but the Hindoos use an extremely fine wool, and from the use of this material the Indian shawls derive much of their superiority. First, it gives them an exquisite softness and warmth, to which it is impossible to approach when the fabric is chiefly of silk. Secondly, the fine wool takes a brighter color than silk, and keeps it incomparably better. Thirdly, the woollen fabric has an advantage which is perfectly understood by the ladies—its folds dispose themselves in more graceful and flowing lines, and of course it affords a fine drapery to the figure. With regard to the patterns, it must be admitted, that till we have discovered the mode of working the figure practiced by the Indians, and till our weavers can subsist on two-pence a day, and spend three or four years labor op a single shawl, we sha: scarcely be able to rival them. In the brightness of the dys we already s.rpass the Hindoos, anı! the tigures on their inferior who gurls whici are sewed in or embroidered, are not nearly equal no ho of those which we execute in the loom; but in the finest ', the India sbawls the figures are wove in a manner which we cannot perfectly imitate, and of which our weavers cnly comprehend enough to perceive, that it must be extremely laborious and infinitely tedious. Indeed it is certaio, that ever the smallest compartment of the figure must be worked on the principle on which we work an entire web—that the west must be turned at each margin of the compartment, though it should be but a tenth of an inch in breadth. The best idea we can form of the process may be derived from the mode of laying in the figures of tapestry ; and hence too the Indian mode of working enables them to sink the ground of the web more completely, and to exhibit the colors of the pattern in a more unmixed state than we possibly can. It is remarkable, too, that long practice has taught them to combine their colors with singular barmony, and to diversify their designs without falling into extravagance or incongruity, to such a degree, that the British manufacturer, with all his skill, finds it the best policy to copy their patterns, because he can seldom invent any thing better himself. In the execution of the figures, however, our manufacturers have made great progress within the last ten years; and this is not now the department in which their work has been felt to be most deficient. Latterly their leading object has been to rival the Indians in the fabric or basis of the web. Organzine silk was the material originally employed for warp, and upon this a west of wool or silk, or of various mixtures of the two substances, was thrown in. This was succeeded, about 1804 or 1805, by spun silk, that is, the waste of Italian silk chopped into short lengths, and worked upon the same principle as wool or cotton—a process long kept secret, but now well known. It was made to resemble the Indian yarn very closely, and was deservedly considered a great improvement, though it still wanted the best properties of fine wool. Some years afterwards another step was made towards the introduction of the proper material, by preparing a weft of silk and Merino wool, which received the name of Persian yarn. This still continues partially in use. At length, about three years ago, an attempt was made to make the fabric of wool entirely. To the substance employed, the name of Van Diemen's Land, or Indian, or Thibet wool, was given, though in reality it consisted merely of picked quantities taken from picked Saxon or English fleeces. Of this a fabric was made which surpassed those previously used. but it was still deficient in the exquisite softness and warmth which the Indian wool possesses ; and what was not of less importance, no figure could be worked in upon it with accuracy and beauty. British enterprise, however, is not easily discouraged. Inquiries were set on foot in the East ; and specimens of the actual material used in the fabrication of the very finest shawls were brought home. It was found to consist of the under growth of wool of the Thibet goat, or the down growing beneath the long rough hairs which form the exterior covering of the animal. It was found too that the article, though rery expensive, could be procured in considerable quantities. But a new difficulty presented itselfthis down was so extremely tender, that the most expert spinners in England despaired of forming it into a thread of sufficient tenacity to bear the operation of the loom. The practical skill and invention of our artizans is, however, inexhaustible ; and we verily believe, that if it were required to convert spiders' webs into cables, they would find means to accomplish it. An English spinner discovered a process by which he was able to form a very delicate yet firm and durable thread out of this soft material, and, according to custom, he secured his invention by a patent. Some farther difficulties remained, but not of very great magnitude. Our manufacturers had some advantages before, which the natives of the East wanted, and having now the material in their hands which