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ing his mind, and patiently increasing bis scanty stock of knowl. edge, until he at last became an eminent counsellor, and an excellent special pleader.

It would be highly interesting to trace all the windings of the paths by which great men become eminent. But we know no more of the early progress of Sir Edmund than what we baye re. lated. It was through such embarrassing difficulties that he made his way at last to the bar, where his practice soon became equal to that of any practitioner at the King's Bench.

He was employed by the crown officers in drawing all difficult indictments and informations, and the pleadings upon the same. This was true particularly, in the case of the famous Quo Warranto against the city of London, which was instituted and prosecuted by King Charles II. in which he was encountered by the most distinguished and learned lawyers of the age.

His loyalty, great learning, and integrity, pointed him out as a proper candidate for the office of Chief Justice of King's Bench, to which he was appointed by Charles II. during the troublesome times of the latter part of that Monarch's reign. In this office he acquired a very high reputation, and discharged its duties to the great acceptance of all concerned.

Yet he attained this office without the aid of friends, or the influence of wealth, or personal prepossessions. He was always totally regardless of wealth, and in all his dealings was perfectly honest. He possessed a disposition distinguished for its kindness and generosity, and was truly a philanthropist.

But with all his fine qualities, his general course of life was far from regular or commendable. He used no bodily exercise, and his sottishness, from the use of brandy and beer, rendered bim an object of disgust to every one. His person was corpulent, and but little better than a mass of morbid Desh. It is quaintly said of him that “those whose ill fortune it was to stand near him, were confessors, and, in summer time, were almost martyrs.” He showed as little refinement in the selection of his lodgings as in his course of life. These were in Butcher's row, at a Tailor's house, where by his profusion of money he became master of the family in more senses than one.

It may seem strange, that with so loathsome a person, and so little delicacy or refinement, he should be able to command so much business in the courts, and bave his society so much sought after. But his great skill in the management of causes, especially his

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adroitness in special pleading, by which he often entrapped his superiors, secured to him a very extensive business, although the court often reprimanded him severely for his irregularities of life, and his disposition to trick even the court itself.

His great charm, and that for which his society and conversation were chiefly sought, was his ever ready. wit, and his never tiring good humor and vivacity.

His wit was of a low broad kind, but irresistible in its effect. He never took offence at the complaints with which he was often assailed of the intolerable effluria from his person, but always met the complaint with a jest, and turned the reproof into laughter by his wit. He was a bachelor, 6 but, by my troggs," said he, “no one can say that I have no issue, for I have got nine already on my back.” With such low wit he was ever ready, and when in the Temple, he never moved without a number of young men around him, with whom he jested and made himself merry. He was always ready to encourage the students, and younger members of the profession, by his advice and conversation." He was,” says the writer before quoted, “a very Silenus to the students of the law. He would stand, hours together, before the court sat, with an audience of students over against him, putting cases to them, and arguing and debating with each according to his capacity, in order to encourage their industry."

His wit, like a cloak of charity, covered a multitude of his sins in the eyes of his cotemporaries. When pressed upon a subject of politics, with which he never seems to have meddled, he met the attack with his ready jest, and overcame all difficulties with the same weapon. Once, when in the employment of the crown officers, he was invited to dine with the Lord Chancellor, and accordingly went. After dioner he sat down to a harpsichord and played several “jigs," to the no small surprise and amusement of the company, both on account of his playing at all, and of his grotesque appearance while seated on a music stool before such an instrument.

After his appointment to the King's Bench, he was obliged to change his irregular course of life somewhat, which, together with the incessant press of business, and a change in his diet and exercise, soon brought on a palsy, and an attack of the apoplexy, from which he never recovered. He survived till after the final judgment in the Quo Warranto case, which was decided in 1683; but the precise period of bis death we have not been able to ascertain. As he lived a bachelor be left no heirs at his death.

He was the author of two volumes of valuable reports, especially as authorities on that part of the law in which he so much excelled special pleading. They are evidently the work of a very learned, accurate, and withal honest lawyer, and occasionally exhibit that peculiar frankness and good humor that marked his character. In one of the reported cases, he was counsel for one of the parties, and was laboring a point before the court, when, says he, " Twysden, Justice, interrupted Saunders, and said to him, what makes you labor so? the court is of your opinion and the matter is clear.” This Twysden seems to have been something of a testy judge: Saunders speaks of his differing from the other judges in opinion on one case, and that he opposed them “totis viribis," (with all his might.) In anotber case, wherein Saunders was counsel for the Plaintiff, judgment was given against him. There were, however, several strong points in the case which be omitted. “These matters," says he in his reports, "were not moved through the forgetfulness of the plaintiff's counsel, wbich he thought a great fault in himself afterwards"--a confession which few practitioners would wish to put in print against themselves. But we will not multiply these specimens of his manner of telling all about the case. They illustrate that openness of character and freedom from disguise which were so remarkable in his life.

The We may be thought to have dwelt too long upon the character of Sir Edmund Saunders. But we cannot think even this sketch will be entirely destitute of interest, or without its good effect, since it is the mémoir of one, who, from the depths of poverty and want, attained to one of the highest stations of honor under the British crown, and this, by his own force of character, without the aid of wealth or family, or the patronage of the great.

W.

SELECTIONS FROM RARE AND CURIOUS OLD WORKS, From William Wood's “ New England's Prospect : being a true, lively, and experimental description of that part of America, commonly called New England, discovering the state of that country both as it stands to our new come English Planters, and to the old native Inhabitants; and laying down that which may both enrich the knowledge of the mind travelling Reader, or benefit the future Voyager.” London, printed, 1639. Boston, reprinted, 1764. OF THE SEASONS OF THE YEAR, WINTER AND SUMMER, TOGETHER WITH THE

HEAT, COLD, SNOW, RAIN, AND THE EFFECTS OF IT. For that part of the country wherein most of the English bave their habitation; it is, for certain, the best ground and sweetest climate in all those parts, bearing the name of New England, agree

ing well with the temper of our English bodies, being high land, and sharp air; and though most of our English towns border upon the sea coast, yet they are not often troubled with mists, or unwholesome fogs, or cold weather from the sea, which lies east and south from the land. And whereas, in England most of the cold wiods and weathers come from the sea, and those situations are counted most unwholesome, that are near the sea coast ; in that country it is not so, but otherwise ; for in the extremities of wialer, the north east and south wind coming from the sea, produceth warm weather, and bringing in the warm working waters of the sea, loosnetb the frozep bays, carrying away their ice with their tides, melting the snow, and thawing the ground; only the north west wiad coming over the land is a cause of extreme cold weather, being always accompanied with deep snows and bitter frost, so that in two or three days the rivers are passable for horse and man. But as it is an axiom in nature, Nullum violentum est perpetuum, No extremes last long ; so this cold wind blows seldom above three days together, after which the weather is more toler. able, the air being nothing so sharp, but peradventure in four or five days after, this cold messenger will blow afresh, commanding every man to his house, forbidding any to outface him without prejudice to their noses. But it may be objected, that it is too cold a country for our Englishmen, who have been accustomed to a warmer climate; to which it may be answered, Igne levatur hyems.

There is wood good store, and cheap, to build warm houses, and make good fires, which makes the winter less tedious ; and moreover, the extremity of this cold weather lastęth but for two months, or ten weeks, beginning in December, and breaking up the tenth day of February, which hath become a passage very remarkable, that for ten or a dozen years the weather bath held himself to his day, unlocking his icy bays and rivers, which are never frozen again the same year, except there be some small frost until the middle of March. It is observed by the Indians that every tenth year there is little or no winter, which hath been twice observed by the English ; the year of New Plimouth men's arrival was no winter in comparison ; and in the tenth year after likewise, (1630) when the great company settled themselves in Massachusetts Bay, was a very mild season, little frost, and less snow, but clear serene Reather, few northwest winds, which was a great mercy to the English coming over so rawly and uncomfortably provided, wanting all utensils and provisions, which belonged to the wellbeing of planters : He was the author of two volumes of valuable reports, especially as authorities on that part of the law in which he so much excelled-special pleading. They are evidently the work of a very learned, accurate, and withal honest lawyer, and occasionally exhibit that peculiar frankness and good humor that marked his character. In one of the reported cases, he was counsel for one of the parties, and was laboring a point before the court, when, says be, “ Twysden, Justice, interrupted Saunders, and said to him, what makes you labor so ? the court is of your opioion and the matter is clear.” This Twysden seems to have been something of a testy judge: Saunders speaks of his differing from the other judges in opinion on one case, and that he opposed them “ totis viribis," (with all his might.) In anotber case, wherein Saunders was counsel for the Plaintiff, judgment was given against him. There were, however, several strong points in the case which he omitted. “These matters," says he in his reports, “were not moved through the forgetfulness of the Plaintiff's counsel, which he thought a great fault in himself afterwards”-a confession which few practitioners would wish to put in print against themselves. But we will not multiply these specimens of his manner of telling all about the case. They illustrate that openness of character and freedom from disguise which were so remarkable in his life.

We may be thought to have dwelt too long upon the character of Sir Edmund Saunders. But we cannot think even this sketch will be entirely destitute of interest, or without its good effect, since it is the memoir of one, who, from the depths of poverty and want, attained to one of the highest stations of honor under the British crown, and this, by his own force of character, without the aid of wealth or family, or the patronage of the great.

W.

SELECTIONS FROM RARE AND CURIOUS OLD WORKS, From William Wood's “ New England's Prospect : being a true, lively, and experimental description of that part of America, commonly called New England, discovering the state of that country both as it stands to our new come English Planters, and to the old native Inhabitants; and laying down that which may both enrich the knowledge of the mind travelling Reader, or benefit the future Voyager." London, printed, 1639. Boston, reprinted, 1764. OF THE SEASONS OF THE YEAR, WINTER AND SUMMER, TOGETHER WITH THE · HEAT, COLD, SNOW, RAIN, AND THE EFFECTS OF IT.

For that part of the country wherein most of the English have their habitation ; it is, for certain, the best ground and sweetest climate in all those parts, bearing the name of New England, agree

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