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The entrance is by a lofty arch, rising on one side with the ir: regular bending of the massive rock, and falling on the other with the sweeping curve of the descending torrent. Passing onward through the gloomy portal, the visitor is placed behind the sheet, in a situation where the reality exceeds the most vivid anticipation, and he feels that earth has no scene of more awful grandeur. He stands on the slippery and shelving margin of the fathomless abyss, where one mis-step would pass the barrier separating the things of time from the dread uncertainties of eternity. The water from the falling mass above, is dashed upon him in torrents : the
bursting up from below like a dense cloud, rolls round the cavern and is driven down in a shower of heavy rain. The wind rushes out. in tremendous gusts, almost taking away the breath, and producing a horrible feeling of suffocation. The ceaseless storm rages with all the violence of a hurricane. The thunder of the cataract, reverberated among the caveros and recesses, is deafening. The human voice, in its loudest tone, is scarcely heard, and the direction to turn away the head from the sudden and violent blasts, and to draw the hand downward over the face, sounds like a whisper, even when shouted in the ear. The explorer, deasened by the stunning roar, blinded by the dashing showers, and gasping for breath, would gladly retreat, if he were not hurried on by the guide, who grasps his hand firmly, until these oppressive sensations become less painful than at first.
The bottom of the rock beneath the fall, like the cliff without, has been crumbled by the wasting hand of time, worn away by the constant rushing of the flood, or separated by some convulsion no eye witnessed. The upper portion projects far over the lower, and from its edge the river drops down in flashing splendor. The way is not over a smooth paved floor, level with the chasm which receives the tumbling current, nor along its brink. It runs upon the top of a bank, always wet and slippery, sloping down to the deep and dark abyss. The path is elevated more than twenty feet above the spot where the falling waters plunge into the fallen waves, and is more than twice that distance backward from the gushing sheet. Innumerable multitudes of eels cluster upon the shelves, or nestle in the crevices, and twine and fold around the naked feet; or, disturbed by the tread, roll down into the foam below: neither the pleasure or safety of the passage, is increased by the necessity of stepping over their black and ugly forms, or on their cold and slimy backs.
As we proceed, the only supports, in many places, are
the broken edges, or splintery flakes of the slaty stone : sometimes we climb a projecting crag, and again descend from the summit by little steps. We are frequently forced to pause and draw breath with a painful struggle against the violence of the wind and the choaking rain blown upon us in heavy quantities. It is dificult to catch a single view of the objects in the dim twilight which reigns in the cavern. At length, we arrive to a crag, standing out from the precipice, beyond which no foot can tread. Here we paused, and here for the first time, caught a glimpse of the morning sun, two hours high in the heavens, diminished to a pale circle, but silvering the sheet, where it is most thin, with splendid brightness. The roof of this majestic hall is more than an hundred feet above: bebiod is the naked precipice : before us, the waste of waters gushing down from on high with inconceivable swiftness, yet less changing than the ruinous rock; ever moving onward, yet ever permanent. Beneath, is the foaming gulf where life is not: on the right, the cavern stretches away into its unknown recesses, the surge rolling and whirling in its fury on the boundary man may never cross. the left, is the rugged road conducting to the spot where we stood. All things round quiver with a tremulous motion, and the solid mass above seems ready to sink beneath the measureless weight that presses on its height, and crush the intruder who has approached upinvited.
Let the proudest of human kind stand on sach a spot and his spirit will bow down before the mighty miracle, and shrink into its native insignificance. The solemn pleasure of present danger, and the mysterious awe of giant power, come heavily upon the mind, and the firmest nerves yield to their pressure. Let but one fragment of the time wasted precipices be shaken from its attachments, and none can save, but Him,
“ Who poured the cataract from his hollow hand,
And notch the centuries in the eternal rocks." Memorial or tale, there would be none, save that told by the margled corpse when thrown on the shore below.
The distance from the entrance to the impassible barrier of the cavern is estimated at little less than four rods. The reture is more easy than the advance, as we do not encounter the violence of the rushing storm.
The danger of the adventure is said to be more imaginary than real. Yet, all who look on the crumbling wall sustaining the overarching roof, agree, that it must at some time fall. None can measure the progress of its interior decay. It may not be broken in ruin till centuries are passed and gone ; it may be, tomorrow. The slippery path, the precarious foot hold, the frail trust on the splinters, contribute nothing to the safety of the approach. Yet many are those who inscribe their names on the books wherein are recorded the numbers who pass beneath the cataract; and among them are written many of the fairest daughters of fashion, who gratify the curiosity inherited from the mother of our race, by the sacrifice of ease and comfort, and the exposure of life itself. L.
VARIETY. Spain and the South of France.—During the eight centuries that the Moors or Arabs occupied Spain, that was the best cultivated, the most fertile, and most agreeable country in Europe. The fields were watered by means of canals, and covered with all the known productions. Since the expulsion of the Moors, Spain has continually declined. The agricultural prosperity of Spain under the Arabs was the consequence of their knowledge and their religious toleration. Ignorance and bigotry have destroyed the benefits produced by their knowledge and wisdom. The same causes will always produce similar results. Let the system of irrigation, introduced by the Saracens, be adopted in the south of Francelet political religious toleration leave all consciences at rest-let education dissipate ignorance and bigotry-and the highest agricultural prosperity will follow.
Mulberry Trees.--The silk worm mulberry is one of the most useful trees in France. Languedoc and Provence are the most propitious to its culture ; in the other southern provinces of France, the storms from the Pyrenees are fatal to silk worms. The bark of the mulberry tree can be made into thread, paper, and silk. A gentleman of Lyons presented several samples of silk made from this bark to the Lionean Society of Paris.
The silk exported from Lombardy and Venice, in Italy, in seven years, amounted to 420,000,000 of livres; in the same number of years, (from 1811 to 1817) the exports from Mexico to Europe were only 379,000,000 of livres ; “ a proof that the riches upon the surface of the earth are greater than those within its bowels.”
Heat.-The heat of the air on the Red Sea is above blood heat, even at night, and on the Gold Coast has been selt above 114° in the shade; the natives themselves are obliged to decamp southward during the dreadful months of summer. In Lisbon, 98 15 & common shade heat for months together; and a few years since it was for a long time 104, and even at 105. Africa is the hottest portion of the earth; presenting the greatest mass of land, or rather sand, to be found under the equator.
A gentleman known for his habitual tardiness, was invited to join a party to Nahant; and appointed for that purpose to be at his friend's house, at an early hour in the morning. Contrary to all expectation he was the first on the ground; and his friend in surprise at bis punctuality, burst out in the following lucid apostrophe -So you've come first at last ; you used to be behind before ; I suspect you get up early of late ; 'tis well you called in season, or you. would have found me within without."
1817 Thomas Jefferson, of Va. 1801 | John Quincy Adams, of Mass. . 1825
VICE PRESIDENTS. John Adams, of Mass.
1789 | Elbridge Gerry, of Mass. . 1813 Thomas Jefferson, of Va.
1797 Died, Nov. 23, 1814. Aaron Burr, of N. Y.
1801 Daniel D. Tompkins, of N. Y. . 1817 George Clinton, of N. Y. . . . 1805 Jolin C. Calhoun, of S. C. . . . 1825 Died, April 20, 1812.
SECRETARIES OF STATE.
1809 Edmund Randolph, of Va. . . 1794 James Monroe, of Va.
1811 Timothy Pickering, of Penn. . 1795 John Quincy Adams, of Mass. . 1817 John Marshall, of Va.. • 1800 Henry Clay, of Ky.
1826 James Madison, of Va. ... 1801
SECRETARIES OF THE TREASURY. Alexander Hamilton, of N. Y. . 1789 | George W. Campbell, of Ten. . 1814 Oliver Wolcoit, of Conn.. 1795 Alexander J. Dallas, of Penn. . 1814 Samuel Dexter, of Mass. . 1801 William H. Crawford, of Geo. . 1817 Albert Gallatin, of Penn. . . . 1802 Richard Rush, of Peun. 1825
SECRETARIES OF WAR. Henry Knox, of Mass. . 1789 John Armstrong, of N. Y. . . . 1813 Timothy Pickering, of Pepp. . 1795 William H. Crawford, of Geo.
1814 James M'Henry, of Md. . 1796 | Isaac Shelby, of Ky. . Samuel Dexter, of Mass. 1800 [Did not accept.] Roger Griswold, of Conn. 1801 John C. Calhoun, of S. C. Henry Dearborn, of Mass. 1801 James Barbour, of Va. William Eustis, of Mass. 1809
SECRETARIES OF THE NAVY.* George Cabot, of Masg.. 1798 | William Jones, of Penn. ... 1812 Benjamin Stoddart, of Md. 1798 | Benj. W. Crowninshield, of Mass. 1814 Robert Smith, of Md.
1802 Smith Thompson, of N. Y. 1818 Jacob Crowninshield, of Mass. . 1805 Samuel L. Southard, of N. J. 1823 Paul Hamilton, of S. C. .. 1809
POST MASTERS GENERAL. Samuel Osgood, of Mass. 1789 | Gideon Granger, of Ct. 1802 Timothy Pickering, of Penn. . 1791 Return J. Meigs, of Ohio .. 1814 Joseph Habersham, of Geo. : . 1795 | John M'Lean, of Ohio
1823 CHIEF JUSTICES OF THE SUPREME COURT. John Jay, of N. Y. 1789 | John Jay, of N. Y.
1800 William Cushing, of Mass. 1799 Joon Marshall, of Va.
1801 Oliver Ellsworth, of Ct. . . 1796
ATTORNIES GENERAL. Edmund Randolph, of Va. . . . 1789 | John Breckenridge, of Ky. 1806 William Bradford, of Peon. 1794 Cæsar A. Rodney, of Del. 1807 Charles Lee, of Va.
1795 William Pinkney, of Md. 1811 Levi Lincoln, of Mass. 1801 | Richard Rush, of l'enn. 1814 Robert Smith, of Md. 1805 | William Wirt, of Va.
1817 SPEAKERS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE
UNITED STATES. 1st Congress-First and second Sessions held at New York, the third at Philadelphia. Frederick A. Muhlenburg, of Pennsylvania,
1789 Congress-Held at Philadelphia. Jonathan Trumbull, of Connecticut,
1791 3d Congress-Held at Philadelphia. Frederick A. Muhlenburg, of Penosylvania,
1793 4th Congress-Held at Philadelphia. Jonathan Dayton, of New Jersey,
1795 5th Congress—Held at Philadelphia. Jonathan Dayton, of New Jersey,
1797 6th Congress--First Session at Philadelphia, Second at Washington. Theodore Sedgewick, of Massachusetts,
1799 7th Congress-Held at Washington. Nathaniel Macon, of North Carolina,
1801 8th Congress-Nathaniel Macon, of North Carolina,
1803 9th Congress-Nathaniel Macon, of North Carolina,
1805 10th Congress--Joseph B. Varnum, of Massachusetts,
1807 11th Congress-Joseph B. Varnum, of Massachusetts,
1809 12th Congress-Henry Clay, of Kentucky,
1811 13th Congress-Henry Clay, of Kentucky,
1813 Until January 17th, 1814. Langdon Cheeves, of South Carolina, for the residue of the Congress. 14th Congress_Henry Clay, of Kentucky,
1815 15th Congress--Henry Clay, of Kentucky,
1817 16th Congress-Henry Clay, of Kentucky, during the first session, 1819 John W. Taylor, of New York, during the second session,
1820 17th Congress-Philip P. Barbour, of Virginia,
1822 18th Congress-Henry Clay, of Kentucky,
1823 19th Congress—John W. Taylor, of New York,
1825 * This Department was not established until the 30th of April, 1798, being, prior to that date, a branch of the War Department.