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Plymouth. He was required to deliver into the hands of his ene. mies all bis weapons of defence ; and was charged with perfidy in breaking promises made while under restraint; and with impiety,for adhering to the religion of his ancestors in compliance with the injunctions of his father.* Expressions of reverence and respect for the British Monarch were tortured into declarations of submission and fealty. Three of his intimate friends and counsellors whom he had impelled to the base act of assassinating an Indian friendly to the English, were arraigned and ignominiously executed for the murder.f Such were his supposed wrongs; whether real or imaginary, it is not our province to determine. His vengeance could be glutted only by the blood of his enemies. In violation of all bis treaties and promises, without waiting for his allies, the more perfidious Narrhagansetts, he flew to arms, on the 24th of June, 1675. The war began in his immediate neighborhood, but in July his Nipmuc subjects fell upon Mendon, in this County, and killed four or five of the inhabitants. This is said by the historians of that day, to be the first blood shed in Massachusetts in a hostile manner, after its settlement by the English. The town was deserted by its inhabitants, and the next winter was laid in ashes.f Early in August Brookfield was destroyed. Twenty houses were consumed by fire, and the inhabitants slaughtered or hurried into a dreadful captivity. These outrages were not, probably, committed without the direction of Philip ; for when the facts were communicated to him by the Quabaog and Nipper Indians, the next day in a swamp where they had been secreted, and where the Sachem and his men joined them, he rewarded the perpetrators, by a liberal supply of Wampum. After this event Philip disappeared. He knew that vengeance awaited him, and that a price was set upon bis head. There is some evidence that he passed the winter in the vicinity of Albany, or in Canada. It is not improbable that he was at the destruction of Lancaster, or, at least, that he instigated the bloody deed. This event took place, February 10th, 1676. The whole of that flourishing plantation, containing above fifty fainilies, was destroyed. -Most of the houses were burnt. A quarter part of the men were instantly killed or reserved for torture. About twenty of the women and children were carried into captivity, among whom was the wife of their minister, the Rev. Mr. Rowlandson, who upon her return, published a minute history of her " twenty removes." About six weeks after this desolation, the town was abandoned, and remained in that state for four years.

* Hutchinson 1_253. Ibid—260. The unfortunate victim of this cruelty was John Sausaman, who had been educated by the English and by Philip considered as a renegade. These criminals were tried by the humane principles of the English common law; and in order to afford an impartial trial, one half of the Jurors were Indians.- Col. Records. Mather's Magnalia II - 493. The learned pedant of the Magnalia uses the vulgar Orthog. raphy, “Mendham," in speaking of this town. Harrington's Century Sermon-12. Mr. H. states that Philip with 1500 of his men achieved these atrocities. Dr. Mather says that the French from Canada sent, recruits for this purpose. This is the first instance when our Fathers were called to drink the waters of bitterness, that afterwards flowed in such profusion, from that baleful spring

The death of Philip, in August of that year, put an end to hostilities in this part of the country. He was killed by one of his own tribe to whom he had given some offence. His body which was identified by a remarkable scar upon the right hand, was treated with indignities, more worthy the malignant triumphs of barbarians, than of conquerors who boasted civilization and christianity. This noted right hand which had achieved so many feats of valor, was shown about the country for money. The body was hung in quarters, and his head carried in triumph to Plymouth, where it was received on a Thanksgiving day.* His followers immediately sbared his fate, or fled with precipitation from our borders, and were incorporated with the more distant tribes. Most of the Indians who had been converted to christianity took no part in this controversy and those who have since resided here, were all, probably, descendants from those faithful disciples. In reviewing this period, a thousand interesting reflexions crowd upon the mind. The brief limits set to this retrospect of our history forces us to reserve for a future opportunity many of the remarks fitted for this occasion. In tracing the progress of society in New England, the present generation, wbile they find many causes for humiliation, must also find much for gratitude, and much to felicitate themselves upon their present situation. Great allowance must, undoubtedly, be made for the erfors of the age in which our fathers were placed, and much for the exasperated state of mind into which they were thrown by the cruel barbarities of the Savages. Out of their scattered population, six hundred at least fell victims in this war, and the same number of dwelling houses were burnt. The most impartial historian informs us that there was scarcely a person in the two colonies, but mourned the loss of a relation or near friend. Living as we do at this remote period with more exalted ideas of justice and the rights of men; with better notions of international law; and influenced as we

* Math. Mag. II-499. + Hutchinson I--277.

ought to be, by more liberal sentiments of christianity, it is difficult for us to judge properly of the merits of this great controversy. In their early treaties with the Savages, our fathers undoubtedly obtained more than they intended, and the natives yielded much that they expected to retain. Neither party could foresee the consequences of two independent nations, with different laws, customs and religions, inhabiting the same territory. That our ancestors were scrupulously conscientious' of right in their early contracts with the Indians, no facts from bistory will lead us to doubt. They proceeded upon erroneous principles, when they attempted to coerce them to allegiance to their King, or to enforce penal laws against them for the exercise of what they conceived to be the religion of their fathers.*

New provocations daily springing up, they were at last driven to all the horrors of a civil war. It resulted in a war of mutual extermination. The superior prowess of civilized life prevailed over the rude violence of barbarian warfare, and the ancient inhabitants of New England were erased from the lists of nations.

After this war, it was long before our infant plantations again struggled into existence. In 1680, the re-settlement of Lancaster commenced. It advanced prosperously until the year 1689, when the great French Monarcb, Louis XIV. espousing the cause of the renegade King, James II. of England, the Colonies were again involved in a most bloody contest, called King William's war. The French from Canada with their Indian allies, again carried all the atrocities of savage warfare into the frontier settlements. Many of the inhabitants were barbarously butchered in their houses or fields, and many endured the sufferings of captivity in the wilderness.Worcester was settled about the year 1685. The sufferings of the inhabitants were great, but not to the extent of their neighbors at Lancaster. Mendon was also re-settled about the same time, but the precautionary measures taken by, the planters, prevented any enormities by the Savages. History, at least, is silent upon the subject. In 1692, Brookfield was so far re-built, as that a Committee of the General Court was appointed to manage the affairs as formerly. In the summer of that year it received several attacks from the Indians, and many lives were lost.f

In 1686, a number of families of French protestants or Hugonots Aying from the sanguinary persecutions that followed the revocation of the edict of Nantz, planted themselves in Oxford in this County ; but in this war they were destroyed, or driven off by the natives. Alter the peace, many of them returned to their possessions, and their descendants have been found among the most respectable inhabitants of that town.

* Colony Law9–61, Sect. 19, A. D. 1646. † Rev. Mr. Fiske's History of Brookfield, and Rev. Mr. Whitney.- These venerable authors mistake, in placing this mischief in Queen Ann's war.

The peace of Ryswick, Dec. 10, 1697, put an end to hostilities between the parent countries, and the Indians, unsupported by their Freach allies, ceased any further depredations.

G.

REVOLUTIONARY PAPERS.
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF THE ARMY,
ON THE DEPRECIATION OF THE CURRENCY.

CONTINUED FROM PAGE 136. Nothing now being necessary with regard to the rate of depreciation, but the approbation of the whole court, it was accordingly submitted to them on the 1st January, where it met with the most violent opposition ; and after fully debating the matter previous to the final vote, they passed the following kesolve, viz:

In the House of Representatives, January 6, 1780. Whereas, it is just and reasonable, that all advances which have been made to that part of the army, raised in this State, in consequence of the high prices of the necessaries of life, should be taken into the account when their wages are made good, therefore, Resolved, That the committee who have been appointed to settle the accounts of the army, be, and they are hereby directed to reckon to the accounts of any of the non-commissioned officers or private soldiers, any bounties they already have or may receive, from any town or individual person in this State ; provided proper return of the same is made, agreeable to the orders of this court; the resolve of November 25th, 1779, to the contrary notwithstanding. Sent up for concurrence.

JOHN HANCOCK, Speaker.
In Council January 7, 1780,
Read and Concurred.

John Avery, D. Secretary.
Consented to by the major part of the Council.
True Copy Attest.

JOHN AVERY, D. Secretary. This Resolve being agreed to by both Houses, the Court then approved of the rate of depreciation, and proceeded to enact the following Law.

ought to be, by more liberal sentiments of christianity, it is difficult for us to judge properly of the merits of this great controversy. In their early treaties with the Savages, our fathers undoubtedly obtained more than they intended, and the natives yielded much that they expected to retain. Neither party could foresee the consequences of two independent nations, with different laws, customs and religions, inhabiting the same territory. That our ancestors were scrupulously conscientious' of right in their early contracts with the Indians, no facts from bistory will lead us to doubt. They proceeded upon erroneous principles, when they attempted to coerce them to allegiance to their King, or to enforce penal laws against them for the exercise of what they conceived to be the religion of their fathers.*

New provocations daily springing up, they were at last driven to all the horrors of a civil war. It resulted in a war of mutual extermination. The superior prowess of civilized life prevailed over the rude violence of barbarian warfare, and the ancient inhabitants of New England were erased from the lists of nations.

After this war, it was long before our infant plantations again struggled into existence. In 1680, the re-settlement of Lancaster commenced. It advanced prosperously until the year 1689, when the great French Monarch, Louis XIV. espousing the cause of the renegade King, James II. of England, the Colonies were again involved in a most bloody contest, called King William's war. The Freach from Canada with their Indian allies, again carried all the atrocities of savage warfare into the frontier settlements. Many of the inhabitants were barbarously butchered in their houses or fields, and many endured the sufferings of captivity in the wilderness.Worcester was settled about the year 1685. The sufferings of the inhabitants were great, but not to the extent of their neighbors at Lancaster. Mendon was also re-settled about the same time, but the precautionary measures taken by, the planters, presented any enormities by the Savages. History, at least, is silent upon the subject. In 1692, Brookfield was so far re-built, as that a Committee of the General Court was appointed to manage the affairs as formerly. In the summer of that year it received several attacks from the Indians, and many lives were lost.f

In 1686, a number of families of French protestants or Hugo

* Colony Law9–61, Sect. 19, A. D. 1646. + Rev. Mr. Fiske's History of Brookfield, and Rev. Mr. Whitney.-These venerable authors mistake, in placing this mischief in Queen Ann's war.

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