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the Father of the Human Race. The trunks are siout and firmly rooted, shooting out strong horizontal branches, closely interwoven, and forming an almost impenetrable barrier. At about the distance of a mile from the summit, the thicket terminated, and a barren region commenced, covered with moss to the depth of a foot, and without trees. Rocks were piled together, in separate fragments of all varieties of shape and size, yet so firmly wedged and fixed as to afford a firm and solid foot-bold for the tread of the passer. The ascent was made toilsome by the steep declivity, and vexatious from the structure of the sterile waste. One peak, standing directly before other and higher elevations, intercepted the view from below, and seemed the termination of what had become a very weary journey for pleasure ; but after clembering up the rocky side, another steep presented itself rising beyond, raising the same hope that it was the last, to end in the same disappointment. At length we did reach the last, and stood on one of the highest summits of the most elevated land in North America.

An account of the sublime scenery, as well as of the descent from the mountain height, may perhaps occupy a small space in some future number.


TORTURE OF DAMIENS. Robert Francis Damiens, we are informed from history, in the year 1757, made an attempt to assassinate the king of France. Without entering into details of what led him to the commission of this crime, we shall merely state the sufferings he was made to undergo. Whoever wishes a detail of the affair, will find it in a work of 4 vols. printed in Paris in the same year. An Epitome of which may be found in the Monthly Review, vol. 17th, p. 57, from which our extracts are taken.

The prisoner was accordingly, January 17, 1757, removed, under a strong guard, from Versailles to the Conciergerie, where he arrived at two o'clock in the morning of the 17th.

The interesting charge of keeping this prisoner safe for judg. ment, made every possible human precaution to be taken bis escape, by strengthening the prison, by posting sentinels, guards, &c. who patrolled constantly the night round. On the inside of the Conciergerie, there were sentinels placed from the entry to the court in which stands the tower of Montgomery. At the bottom of this tower was placed a small corps-de-guard of twelve soldiers, who served to relieve the sentinels within. All along the stairs of the said tower, there were also posted sentinels at proper distances. In the first story was the room in which Damiens was confined. This room is round, and may be about twelve feet broad, every way; receiving no light but through two casements, or false windows, from eight to nine inches in breadth, by three feet in height. These openings are secured with double bars, and defended from the weather only by moveable frames with oil-paper. There was in this room neither chimney nor fire, but it was sufficiently warmed by a stove placed in the guard-room beneath it, and by the candles continually burning in the room. At first, they used tallow-candles, but afterwards, by the advice of the physicians, for the preserving of the wholesomeness of the air, they burnt none but wax. · The bed of the prisoner was disposed as follows: the head of the bed fronted the door exactly, at the distance of three feet from the wall. The bed was placed on a bed-stead about six inches from the ground, and mattresses round, so as to project six inches beyond the bed-stead. The bed's head was in the whole breadth raised three feet above the bolster, and was likewise mattressed; being so contrived with springs, to raise or lower, according as the convenience of the prisoner should require it. In this bed he was fastened by an assemblage of strong leather straps, two inches and a half broad. These straps kept his shoulders confined, and were, on each side of the bed, made fast to two rings stapled to the floor, Two other straps formed a ligature for each of his arms, and were connected by another placed on the breast bone; and these two branches formed a sort of hand-cuff, that left the hand and arm no liberty, but as directed to the mouth. These straps were likewise tied at their ends, to two rings secured as the first. Two straps of the same form also confined his thighs, and were tied in like manner; so that from each side of the bed came three bunches of straps. Besides these, that which was placed on the breast, dlescending to the feet, formed a sort of surcingle, and was tied at the foot of the bed to a ring in the middle of the floor : the strap too over his shoulders, was fastened in like manner over the bed's head, to a ring stapled in the Aoor like the rest. Under the arms and hands of the prisoner wils spread a large carpet of hide, that he might not contract any inflammatory heat, or exco. riation

Monday, March 28. At seven o'clock in the morning, the criminal was carried up to the torture room. From that moment he ceased to be under custody of the French guards, and according to custom, it was the Lieutenant of the Short-robe of the Chatelet who had charge of him.

The Recorder read the sentence to the criminal, who heard it through with attention and intrepidity, and, on raising himself, said, “ that the day would be a sharp one.”

A little before eight o'clock, six of the Commissaries being assembled in the torture-room, the criminal was placed on the stool, and underwent his last interrogatory, which lasted near an hour and an half: Damiens all the time preserving his usual firmness. That over, the executioners of justice began to put the legs of the criminal into the boot, and the ropes were tightened with more vigor than had ever been practised; and perhaps this is the most exquisitely painful moment of the whole process of that torture. Damiens began to send forth the most piercing cries, and seemed even to faint away; but the physicians and surgeons, who are always present at the torture, on examination, knew that the swooning was not real. Damiens asked to drink; they gave him water, but he insisted on having some wine in it, "now or never strength is necessary.” It was not till half an hour afterwards that the first wedge was applied. They had let this interval elapse, in order to have the numbness got over, which, commonly follows the violent compression of the ligature, and that the sensibility might be at its height; and indeed, at the application of the first wedge, Damiens made dreadful outcries, but without passion, or any indecent word. During the time, the First President renewed his interrogatories, and principally with respect to accomplices ; and having asked who induced him to commit the crime, he cried out "It is Gautier." (This was the first moment of his ever mentioning him.} Being asked who Gautier was, he told ; as also where he lived ; and charged him with having used very criminal expressions, in presence of Mons. le Maitre de Ferrieres, whose affairs this man managed, and lodged at his house. Upon this declaration, the Commissaries gave orders to the Lieutenant of the Short-robe to bring away directly before them, in that room, the said De Ferrieres and Gautier. Whilst they were gone for, the torture continued, with intervals of a quarter of an hour between the driving of each wedge, at every one of which Damiens renewed his shrieks and outcries. The most home and pressing interrogations imaginable were all the while put to him; and after having remained two hours and a half under the torture, the physician and surgeon advised not to keep him longer in it, as it could not be done without danger of his life. Consequently he was untied and placed upon the mattress, where having heard the verbal process, and his answers, he persisted therein.

The Commissaries seeing there was nothing more to be expect. ed from the criminal's declarations, ordered him to be led back to the Greve. He waited there some considerable time, because the executioner had not been careful enough to have every thing ready; for which he was afterwards punished by commitment for several days to the dungeon.

When Damiens was stripped, it was observed, that he surveyed and considered all his body and limbs with attention, and that he looked round with firmness on the vast concourse of spectators.

Towards five o'clock, he was placed on the scaffold which had been erected in the middle of the inclosed area, and was raised about three feet and a half from the ground; the length from eight to nine feet, and about the same breadth. The criminal was instantly tied, and afterwards fastened by iron gives which confined him under the arms and above the thighs. The first torment he underwent, was that of having his hand burnt in the fame of brimstone : the pain of which made him send forth such a terrible cry as might be heard a great way off. A moment afterwards he raised his head, and looked for some time earnestly at his hand, without renewing his cries, and without expressing any passion, or breaking out into any imprecation. To this first torment succeeded that of pinching him with red hot pincers, in the arms, thighs and breasts. At each pinch he was heard to shriek in the same manner, as when his hand was burnt. He looked and gazed at each wound, and his cries ceased as soon as the pinching was over. They afterwards poured boiling oil, and melted lead and rosin, into every wound, excepting those of the breast, which produced, in all those circumstances, the same effect as the two first tortures. The tenor of his articulated exclamations, at times, was as follows: “ Strengthen me, Lord God; strengthen me !-Lord God, have pity on me!-0 Lord, my God, what do I not suffer?—Lord God, give me patience !”

At length they proceeded to the ligatures of his arms, legs and thighs, in order to dismember bim. This operation was very long and paipful, the cords, straightly tied, bearing grievously upon the fresh wounds. This drew new cries from the sufferer; but did not hinder him from viewing and considering himself with a strange and singular curiosity.

The horses having been put to the draught, the pulls were repeated a long time, with frightful cries on the part of the sufferer: the extension of whose members was incredible, and yet no signs of dismemberment taking place.

In spite of the straining efforts of the horses, which were young and vigorous, and, perhaps, too much so, being the more restive and unmanageable for drawing in concert, this last torment had now lasted more than an hour, without any prospect of its ending: The physician and surgeon certified to the commissaries, that it was almost impossible to accomplish the dismemberment, if the action of the horses was not aided by cutting the principal sinews, which might, indeed, suffer a length of extension, but not be separated without amputation. Upon this attestation the commis-saries sent an order to the executioner, to make such amputation, with regard especially to the night coming on, as it seemed to them fitting that the execution should be over before the close of the day.

In consequence of this order, the sinews of the sufferer were cut at the joints of the arms and thighs. The horses then drew afresh, and after several pulls, a thigh and arm were seen to sunder from the body. Damiens still looked at this painful separation, and, seemed to preserve some sense and knowledge after both thighs, and one arm were thus severed from his body ; nor was it till the other arm went away that he expired.

As soon as it was certain, that there was no life left, the body and scattered limbs were thrown into a fire prepared for that purpose near the scaffold, where they were all reduced to ashes.


So passed the night of the 30th, a night of deep anxiety to many, and of high excitement to all; and many a will was made, as soldiers make their wills before morning. About an hour before day, the troops were as usual, under arms—and then the final orders were given for the assault. The division was to enter the trenches about ten o'clock, in what is called light marching order; that is, leaving their knapsacks, blankets, &c. behind, and carrying with them only their arms and ammunition; and their forlorn hope . was to prepare to move forward, as soon as the tide should appear

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