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any impropriety. My labour, therefore, is more irksome than have ever known it; but none of my pupils give me any uneasines on the most serious points, and five of them staid the sacramer when it was last administered. I ought constantly to impress upo my mind how light an evil is the greatest ignorance or dulness whe compared with habits of profligacy, or even of wilful irregularity an riotousness."

“I regret in your son," he says, in writing to a parent,)“ a careles ness which does not allow him to think seriously of what he is livin for, and to do what is right not merely as a matter of regularity, by because it is a duty. I trust you will not think that I am meanin anything more than my words convey, or that what I am regrettir in your son is not to be found in nineteen out of every twenty youn men of his age ; but I conceive that you would wish me to form my

d sire of what your son should be, not according to the common stan ard, but according to the highest,—to be satisfied with no less in hi than I should have been anxious to find in a son of my own. He capable of doing a great deal; and I have not seen anything in hi which has called for reproof since he has been with me. I am on desirous that he should work more heartily,-just, in short, as 1 would work if he took an interest of himself in his own improv ment. On this, of course, all distinction in Oxford must depend but much more than distinction depends on it; for the differen between a useful education, and one which does not affect the futu life, rests mainly on the greater or less activity which it has con municated to the pupil's mind, whether he has learned to think, to act, and to gain knowledge by himself, or whether he has mere followed passively as long as there was some one to draw him."

It is needless to anticipate the far more extended influen which he exercised over his Rugby scholars, by describing detail the impression produced upon his pupils at Lalehar Yet the mere difference of the relation in which he stood t wards them in itself gave a peculiar character to his earli sphere of education, and as such may best be described in t words of one amongst those whom he most esteemed, Mr. Pri who afterwards became one of his assistant-masters at Rugby


I cannot allow Mr. Price's name to appear in these pages, without express how much I am indebted to him for the assistance which, amidst his many press

Nearly eighteen years have passed away since I resided at Laleham, and I had the misfortune of being but two months as a pupil there. I am unable, therefore, to give you a complete picture of the Laleham life of my late revered tutor; I can only impart to you such impressions as my brief sojourn there has indelibly fixed in my recollection.

“ The most remarkable thing which struck me at once on joining the Laleham circle was, the wonderful healthiness of tone and feeling which prevailed in it. Everything about me I immediately found to be most real; it was a place where a new comer at once felt that a great and earnest work was going forward. Dr. Arnold's great power as a private tutor resided in this, that he gave such an intense earnestness to life. Every pupil was made to feel that there was a work for him to do—that his happiness as well as his duty lay in doing that work well. Hence an indescribable zest was communicated to a young man's feeling about life; a strange joy came over him on discovering that he had the means of being useful, and thus of being happy; and a deep respect and ardent attachment sprang up towards him who had taught him thus to value life and bis own self, and his work and mission in this world. All this was founded on the breadth and comprehensiveness of Arnold's character, as well as its striking truth and reality; on the unfeigned regard he had for work of all kinds, and the sense he had of its value both for the complex aggregate of society and the growth and perfection of the individual. Thus, pupils of the most different natures were keenly stimulated; none felt that he was left out, or that, because he was not endowed with large powers of mind, there was no sphere open to him in the honourable pursuit of usefulness. This wonderful power of making all his pupils respect themselves, and of awakening in them a consciousness of the duties that God had assigned to them personally, and of the consequent reward each should have of his labours, was one of Arnold's most characteristic features as a trainer of youth; he possessed it eminently at Rugby ;

duties, he has rendered to this work, not only here, but throughout, and which in many cases, from his long knowledge and complete understanding of Dr. Arnold's views and character, he alone could have rendered. Nothing, indeed, but the very fact of the perpetual recurrence of instances in which I have availed myself not only of his suggestions, but of his words, wonld have prevented me from more frequently acknowledging obligations, for which I bere wish to return my thanks, however inadequately, once for all.

but, if I may trust my own vivid recollections, he had it remarkably at Laleham. His hold over all his pupils I kr fectly astonished me. It was not so much an enthusiastic tion for his genius, or learning, or eloquence which stirred them; it was a sympathetic thrill, caught from a spirit th earnestly at work in the world—whose work was healthy, sus and constantly carried forward in the fear of God a work th founded on a deep sense of its duty and its value; and was c with such a true humility, such an unaffected simplicity, that could not help being invigorated by the same feeling, and wi belief that they too in their measure could go and do likewise.

“ In all this there was no excitement, no predilection for one of work above another; no enthusiasm for any one-sided object an humble, profound, and most religious consciousness that we the appointed calling of man on earth, the end for which his va faculties were given, the element in which his nature is ordaint develop itself, and in which his progressive advance towards he is to lie. Hence, each pupil felt assured of Arnold's sympath his own particular growth and character of talent; in striving cultivate his own gifts, in whatever direction they might lead ! he infallibly found Arnold not only approving, but positively and cerely valuing for themselves the results he had arrived at; and t approbation and esteem gave a dignity and a worth both to him and his labour.

“ His humility was very deeply seated; his respect for all kn ledge sincere. A strange feeling passed over the pupil's mind wh he found great, and often undue, credit given him for knowledge which his tutor was ignorant. But this generated no conceit: example before his eyes daily reminded him that it was only as means of usefulness, as an improvement of talents for his own go and that of others that knowledge was valued. He could not fi comfort in the presence of such reality, in any shallow knledge.o

“There was then, as afterwards, great simplicity in his religio character. It was no isolated part of his nature, it was a bright a genial light shining on every branch of his life. He took very gre pains with the Divinity lessons of his pupils : and his lectures we admirable, and, I distinctly remember, very highly prized for th depth and originality. Neither generally in ordinary conversati nor in his walks with his pupils, was his style of speaking directly mainly religious; but he was ever very ready to discuss any religio


question; whilst the depth and truth of his nature, and the earnestness of his religious convictions and feelings, were ever bursting forth, so as to make it strongly felt that his life, both outward and in ward, was rooted in God.

“ In the details of daily business, the quantity of time that he devoted to his pupils was very remarkable. Lessons began at seven, and with the interval of breakfast lasted till nearly three; then he would walk with his pupils, and dine at half-past five. At seven he usually had some lesson on hand; and it was only when we all were gathered up in the drawing-room after tea, amidst young men on all sides of him, that he would commence work for himself, in writing his sermons or Roman History.

“Who that ever had the happiness of being at Laleham, does not remember the lightness and joyousness of heart, with which he would romp and play in the garden, or plunge with a boy's delight into the Thames; or the merry fun with which he would battle with spears with his pupils ? Which of them does not recollect how the Tutor entered into his amusements with scarcely less glee than himself?

“ But I must conclude: I do not pretend to touch on every point. I have told you what struck me most, and I have tried to keep away all remembrance of what he was when I knew him better. I have confined myself to the impression Laleham left upon me.


The studies which most occupied his spare time at Laleham were philology and history, and he employed himself chiefly on a Lexicon of Thucydides, and also on an edition of that author with Latin notes, subsequently exchanged for English ones, a short History of Greece, never finished or published, and on articles on Roman History from the times of the Gracchi to that of Trajan, written for the Encyclopædia Metropolitana, between 1821 and 1827.

It was in 1825 that, through the recommendation of Archdeacon Hare, he first became acquainted with Niebuhr's History of Rome. In the study of this work, which was the first German book he ever read, and for the sake of reading which he had learned that language, a new intellectual world dawned upon him, not only in the subject to which it related, but in the


disclosure to him of the depth and research of German literature, which from that moment he learned more and more to appreciate, and, as far as his own occupations would allow him, to emulate.

On his view of Roman History its effect was immediate: “It is a work (he writes on first perusing it) of such extraordinary ability and learning, that it opened wide before my eyes the extent of my own ignorance;” and he at once resolved to delay any independent work of his own till he had more completely studied the new field of inquiry suggested to him, in addition to the doubts he had himself already expressed as to the authenticity of much of the early Roman history in one of his first articles in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana. In an article in the Quarterly Review of 1825, he was (to use Niebuhr's own words of thanks to him in the second edition of his first volume, Note 1053. i. p. 451, Eng. Transl.) “the scholar who introduced the first edition of this history to the English public;" and the feeling which had dictated this friendly notice of it grew with years. The reluctance which he had at first entertained to admit the whole of Niebuhr's conclusions, and which remained even to 1832, when in regard to his views of ancient history he was inclined to "charge him with a tendency to excessive scepticism,” (Pref. to 1st ed. of 2nd vol. of Thucyd. p. xiv.,) settled by degrees into a determination “never to differ from him without a full consciousness of the probability that further inquiry might prove him to be right;” (Pref. to Hist. of Rome, vol. i. p. x.;) and with this increasing adhesion to his views, increased also a sentiment of something like personal veneration, which made him, as he used to say, “ at once emulous and hopeless," rendering him jealous for Niebuhr's reputation, as if for his own, and anxious, amidst the pressure of his other occupations, to undertake, or at least superintend, the translation of the third volume when it was given up by Hare and Thirlwall, from a “desire to have his name connected with the translation of that great work, which no one had studied more or admired more entirely." But yet more than by his mere reading, all these feelings towards Niebuhr, towards Germany, and towards Roman history, were strengthened by his

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