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for four to walk abreast; which I would have to be perfect circles, without any bulwarks or embossments; and the whole mount to be thirty foot high ; and some fine banqueting-house', with some chimneys neatly cast, and without too much glass.

For fountains, they are a great beauty and refreshment; but pools mar all ?, and make the garden unwholesome, and full of flies and frogs. Fountains I intend to be of two natures: the one that sprinkleth or spouteth water; the other a fair receipt of water', of some thirty or forty foot square, but without fish, or slime, or mud. For the first, the ornaments of images gilt, or of marble, which are in use, do well : but the main matter is so to convey the water, as it never stay“, either in the bowls or in the cistern ; that the water be never by rest discoloured, green or red or the like; or gather any mossiness or putrefaction. Besides that, it is to be cleansed every day by the hand. Also some steps up to it, and some fine pavement about it, doth well. As for the other kind of fountain, which we may call a bathing pool, it may admit much curiosity and beauty ; wherewith we will not trouble ourselves : as, that the bottom be finely paved, and with images; the sides likewise ; and withal embellished with coloured glass, and such things of lustre; encompassed also with fine rails of low statua's. But the main point is the same which we mentioned in the former kind of fountain ; which is, that the water be in perpetual motion, fed by a water higher than the pool, and delivered into it by fair spouts, and then discharged away under ground, by some equality of bores, that it stay little. And for fine devices, of arching water without spilling, and making it rise in several forms (of feathers, drinking glasses, canopies, and the like), they be pretty things to look on, but nothing to health and sweetness.

For the heath, which was the third part of our plot, I wish it to be framed, as much as may be, to a natural wildness. Trees I would have none in it, but some thickets made only of

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I atque in vertice domicellus elegans extruatur. ? sed stagna et piscina exulent.

unum qui aquam salientem verset et dispergat, cum crateribus suis ; alterum nitidum aquæ puræ receptaculum, &c.

* ut perpetuo fluat, nec consistat. 6 The translation adds : ut maneat limpida.

5 The copy in the British Museum has a semicolon after curiosity : my copy has a comma. And as it has certainly been a change in the type, and not a variety in the impression or an alteration made by the hand, I am inclined to think that the Museum copy was a proof in which corrections were afterwards made.

? The translation adds: nisi quod, in aliquibus locis erigi præcipio arborum series, quæ in vertice ambulacra contineant, ramis arborum cooperta, cum fenestris. Subjaccat

sweet-briar and honeysuckle, and some wild vine amongst ; and the ground set with violets, strawberries ', and primroses. For these are sweet, and prosper in the shade. And these to be in the heath, here and there, not in any order. I like also little heaps, in the nature of mole-hills (such as are in wild heaths), to be set, some with wild thyme; some with pinks; some with germander, that gives a good flower to the eye; some with periwinkle; some with violets; some with strawberries; some with cowslips ; some with daisies; some with red roses ; some with lilium convallium; some with sweet-williams red; some with bear's-foot 3: and the like low flowers, being withal sweet and sightly. Part of which heaps are to be with standards of little bushes pricked upon their top, and part without. The standards to be roses *; juniper; holly; berberries; (but here and there, because of the smell of their blossom 5;) red currants ; gooseberry; rosemary; bays; sweet-briar; and such like. But these standards to be kept with cutting, that they grow not out of course.

For the side grounds, you are to fill them with variety of alleys, private, to give a full shade, some of them, wheresoever the sun be. You are to frame some of them likewise for shelter, that when the wind blows sharp, you may walk as in a gallery. And those alleys must be likewise hedged at both ends, to keep out the wind; and these closer alleys must be ever finely gravelled, and no grass, because of going wet. In many of these alleys likewise, you are to set fruit-trees of all sorts ; as well upon the walls as in ranges. And this would be generally observed, that the borders wherein you plant your fruit-trees be fair and large, and low, and not steep"; and set with fine flowers, but thin and sparingly, lest they deceive & the

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autem pars soli floribus odoris suavis abunde consita, qui auras in superius exhalent ; alias fruticetum apertum esse sine arboribus velim.

fragis præcipue. Dumeta autem, et ambulacra super arbores, spargi volumus ad placitum, non in ordine aliquo collocari.

3 Helleboro flore purpureo.
Pars autem cumulorum habeat in vertice frutices; ea sint rosa, &c.

5 sed hæc rarior, propter odoris gravitatem dum floret. The British Museum copy has a semicolon after blossom and no stop after berberries (or beare-berries as it is spelt): my copy has a semicolon after beare-berries and no stop after blossom. It is difficult to say which has been the alteration; for in the original setting of the type room for a semicolon does not seem to have been left in either place. Here (as before) I suspect the intention of the corrector was to insert the first without removing the second. The parenthesis certainly refers to the berberry; the blossom of which has an offensive smell, when too near. o ne deformiter excrescant.

i et molliter ascendens. & succo defraudent.

trees. At the end of both the side grounds, I would have a mount of some pretty height, leaving the wall of the enclosure breast high, to look abroad into the fields."

For the main garden, I do not deny but there should be some fair alleys ranged on both sides, with fruit trees; and some pretty tufts of fruit trees, and arbours with seats, set in some decent order? ; but these to be by no means set too thick; but to leave the main garden so as it be not close, but the air open and free. For as for shade, I would have you rest upon the alleys of the side grounds, there to walk, if you be disposed, in the heat of the year or day; but to make account that the main garden is for the more temperate parts of the year; and in the heat of summer, for the morning and the evening, or overcast days.

For aviaries, I like them not, except they be of that largeness as they may be turfed, and have living plants and bushes set in them; that the birds may have more scope, and natural nestling 3, and that no foulness appear in the floor of the aviary. So I have made a platform of a princely garden, partly by precept, partly by drawing, not a model, but some general lines of its; and in this I have spared for no cost. But it is nothing for great princes, that for the most part taking advice with workmen , with no less cost set their things together?; and sometimes add statua's, and such things, for state and magnificence, but nothing to the true pleasure of a garden.

XLVII. OF NEGOCIATING.

It is generally better to deal by speech than by letter ; and by the mediation of a third than by a man's self. Letters are good,

I ad talem altitudinem parietis exterioris, ut in monticello stanti in agros pateat prospectus.

? ambulacra quædam, eaque minime angusta, arboribus fructiferis utrinque consita. Quin et arboreta aliqua, arborum fructiferarum prope consitarum ; et umbracula artificiosa et bella cum sedibus ordine eleganti locata.

ut aves liberius volitent, et se per diversa oblectare et componere possint. * The translation adds. Quantum vero ad ambulacra in clivis et variis ascensibus amænis conficienda, illa Naturæ dona sunt, nec ubique extrui possunt ; nos autem ea posuimus quæ omni loco conveniunt.

partim modulo generali, sed minime accurato. hortulanos.

? varia, parum cum judicio, componunt.

when a man would draw an answer by letter back again; or when it may serve for a man's justification afterwards to produce his own letter; or where it may be danger to be interrupted, or heard by pieces. To deal in person is good, when a man's face breedeth regard, as commonly with inferiors; or in tender cases', where a man's eye upon the countenance of him with whom he speaketh may give him a direction how far to go; and generally, where a man will reserve to himself liberty either to disavow or to expound. In choice of instruments, it is better to choose men of a plainer sort, that are like to do that that is committed to them, and to report back again faithfully the success, than those that are cunning to contrive out of other men's business somewhat to grace themselves, and will help the matter in report? for satisfaction sake. Use also such persons as affect the business wherein they are employed; for that quickeneth much ; and such as are fit for the matter; as bold men for expostulation, fair-spoken men for persuasion, crafty men for inquiry and observation, froward and absurd men for business that doth not well bear out itself.3 Use also such as have been lucky, and prevailed before in things wherein you have employed them; for that breeds confidence, and they will strive to maintain their prescription. It is better to sound a person with whom one deals afar off, than to fall upon the point at first; except you mean to surprise him by some short question. It is better dealing with men in appetite, than with those that are where they would be. If a man deal with another upon conditions, the start or first performance is all“; which a man cannot reasonably demand, except either the nature of the thing be such, which must go before; or else a man can persuade the other party that he shall still need him in some other thing; or else that he be counted the honester man.5 All practice is to discover, or to work. Men discover themselves in trust, in passion, at unawares, and of necessity, when they would have somewhat done and cannot find an apt pretext.

would work ? any man, you must either know his nature and fashions, and so lead him; or his ends, and so persuade

If you

1 in rebus quas extremis tantum digitis tangere convenit. ea quæ referent verbis emollient.

quæ aliquid iniqui habeat, prima velut occupatio aut possessio votorum in præcipuis numeranda. pro homine imprimis integro et verace.

negotiatio, si quem ad nutum fingere cupias, ut inde efficias aliquid.

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him; or his weakness and disadvantages, and so awe him ; or those that have interest in him, and so govern him. In dealing with cunning persons, we must ever consider their ends, to interpret their speeches; and it is good to say little to them, and that which they least look for. In all negociations of difficulty, a man may not look to sow and reap at once; but must prepare business, and so ripen it by degrees.

XLVIII. OF FOLLOWERS AND FRIENDS.

Costly followers are not to be liked; lest while a man maketh his train longer, he make his wings shorter. I reckon to be costly, not them alone which charge the purse, but which are wearisome and importune in suits. Ordinary followers ought to challenge no higher conditions than countenance, recommendation, and protection from wrongs. Factious followers are worse to be liked, which follow not upon affection to him with whom they range themselves, but upon discontentment conceived against some other; whereupon commonly ensueth that ill intelligence that we many times see between great personages. Likewise glorious followers, who make themselves as trumpets of the commendation of those they follow, are full of inconvenience; for they taint business through want of secrecy'; and they export honour from a man', and make him a return in envy. There is a kind of followers likewise which are dangerous, being indeed espials; which inquire the secrets of the house, and bear tales of them to others. Yet such men, many times, are in great favour; for they are officious, and commonly exchange tales. The following by certain estates of men, answerable to that which a great person himself professeth, (as of soldiers to him that hath been employed in the wars, and the like,) hath ever been a thing civil >, and well taken even in monarchies; so it be without too much pomp or popularity. But the most honourable kind of following is to be followed as one that apprehendeth to advance virtue and desert" in all sorts of persons. And yet, where there is no eminent odds in suf

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' futilitate sua.

? The translation inserts, si quis vere rem reputet. pro re decorá habitum est, ut quis patronum se profiteatur eorum qui virtute et meritis clarent.

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