Page images
PDF
EPUB
[blocks in formation]

6

Septuagesima. M. L.-Gen. 1 and 2 to v. 4, Rev. 21 to v. 9; E. L.-Gen. 2 v. 4, or Job

7 M

Battle of Eylau, 1807.

[38, Rev. 21 v. 9 to 22 v. 6.

8 Tu

West End Riots, 1886.

[blocks in formation]

13 S

14 M

Battle of Cape St. Vincent, 1797.

15 Tu

Sexagesima. M. L.-Gen. 3, Matt. 24 v. 29; E. L.-Gen. 6 or 8, Acts 27 v. 18.

Death of Lord Cardwell, 1886.

16 W

Death of Sir H. Stewart at Gakdul, 1885.

17 TH

First vessel (a small one) passed Suez Canal, 1865.

18 F

Riots at Cairo against Nubar Pasha, 1879.

19 S

20 S

21 M

Parliament reassembled, 1885.

Quinquagesima. M. L.-Gen. 9 to v. 20, Matt. 27 v. 27 to 57; E. L.-Gen. 12 or 13,
Mr. Disraeli Premier (the second time), 1874.

[Rom. 4.

[blocks in formation]

271S 1 Sunday in Lent. M. L.-Gen. 19 v. 12 to v. 30, Mark 3 v. 13; E. L.-Gen. 22 to v. 20 28 M End of Carlist War in Spain, 1876.

POSTAL INFORMATION.

Letters.-Inland. Not exceeding 1 oz. 1d.; 2 oz. 1 d., and for all greater weights d. additional for every 2 oz.-thus, a packet weighing over 22 oz. and under 24 oz. will be liable to a postage of 7d., and so on. No letter packet may exceed 18 in. by 9 in. by 6 in.

Post Cards.-Inland.—Thın 7d., thick 8d. per dozen, or singly at d. each, either sort. Nothing may appear on the stamped side but the address, nor may anything be attached front or back, under penalty of id. on delivery.

Post Cards.-Foreign.-1d., 1d., and 2a. each, may be sent to all countries in the Postal Union; the rate varying according to destination.

Reply Post Cards, for use in United Kingdom, and to most countries in the Postal Union, are issued at double the cost of ordinary post cards.

Wrappers, for enclosing newspapers and book packets, are issued, bearing stamps of the value of d. and id., and are sold in bundles of 7 half penny ones for 4d. and 8 penny ones at 8d., or singly at d. and 1d. each.

Registration. The fee for letters, book packets, newspapers, etc., is 2d. This mus tbe prepaid in stamps in addition to the ordinary postage, and a receipt obtained from the Post Office. Registered packets must be enclosed in strong envelopes securely fastened, and those containing coin must be enclosed in special stamped envelopes, which are sold at all post offices in five

sizes.

Newspapers.-Registered Newspapers (ie., those having paid a fee of 5s. for transmission at the newspaper rate) may be sent to any part

[or 23, Rom. 7.

[blocks in formation]

Book Packets.-Inland.-May not exceed 5 lb. in weight, 1 ft. 6 in. in length, 9 in. wide, and 6 in. in depth. Ends must be left open, and must be prepaid in stamps at the rate of d. for every 2 oz. or fraction of same. If insufficiently prepaid, will be charged with double the deficiency, but any packet which bears no stamps will be charged double postage. A Book Packet may consist of any number of separate books, newspapers, magazines, circulars, invoices, maps, photographs (not on glass), or prints, and any quantity of paper, vellum, or parchment, or any legitimate binding, covering, either to their safe transit or naturally pertainor mounting, fixed or detached, necessary ing to them (to the exclusion of letters, or any communication of the nature of a letter), and the books, maps, papers, etc., may be printed, written, or plain. Printed Circulars, in identical terms, may also be sent by book post.

Book Packets.-Foreign.-The regulations are are in most cases the same as for Inland, but the limits of weight and size are not the same.

[Full information concerning Money Orders, Postal Orders, Post Office Investments, Insurances, and Annuities, will be found under their respective headings in the text.]

REFERENCE CALENDAR FOR THE NINETEENTH CENTURY For finding any Day of the Week for any given time within the Present Century. See Key.

[blocks in formation]

2

1810 1812 1827 1838 1849 1855

EXPLANATORY KEY.

In order to ascertain any day of the week in any year of the present century, first look in the table of years for the year required. Under the months are figures which refer to the corresponding figures at the head of the columns of days below. For Example:-To know what day of the week May 3rd will be on in the year 1878, in the table of years look for 1878, and in a parallel line, under May, is fig. 3, which directs to column 3, by which it will be seen that May 3rd falls on a Friday.

3

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

1897 5 11 46

47 3

1898 6 2 2 5 7 35 1462

1895 25 513614725

+31 Jan.

28 Feb.

w30

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

+

[ocr errors]

Apr.

31 May

30 June

31 July

[ocr errors]

31 Aug.

30 Sept.

31 Oct.

30 Nov.

6 247 25 I

36

[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

116

3

3

35

[blocks in formation]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

627

3614

4 6

4 7

[ocr errors]

573

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

A

HAZELL'S ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

1886.

A. B. C. Sewage Process. See SEWAGE. Abd-el-Kader. See ALGERIA. Abduction. The offences comprised under this term may be distinguished as follows. To take away or detain against her will any woman of any age with intent to marry or carnally know her, or with intent to cause her to be married or carnally known by another, and fraudulently with such intent to allure, take away or detain out of the possession and Aagainst the will of her father and mother or of any other person having the lawful charge of her, any woman under the age of twenty-one years, and having an interest in property, are crimes each rendering the offender liable to fourteen years' penal servitude. The person convicted becomes incapable of taking any interest in any property belonging to the woman, and if a marriage has taken place the property must be settled as the Chancery Division shall appoint. To take or cause to be taken out of the possession and against the will of her father and mother or any other person having the lawful charge of her, with intent that she should be unlawfully and carnally known by any man, any girl under the age of eighteen, and so to take or cause to be taken, no matter with what intent, any unmarried girl under the age of sixteen years, are crimes each rendering the offender liable to two years' imprisonment with hard labour. This offence in Scotch criminal law is termed Plagium. The abduction of a man is called Kidnapping. (See Sir James Stephen's "Digest of the Criminal Law," Articles 261 and 262, and the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1885, § 7.),

Abd-ul-Hamid II., Sultan of Turkey. Is the fourth son of Abd-ul-Mejid; b. August 6th, 1842. He was proclaimed Sultan in succession to his brother Murad V., who was deposed in consequence of his mental incapacity (Aug. 31st, 1876). Under the rule of Abd-ul-Hamid the Ottoman Empire has experienced reverses through her last war with Russia. The results of that conflict, which led to the Treaty of Berlin, 1878 (q.v.), are well known, and need not be related here. Since then the Sultan has shown reluctance to carry out reforms, both in Europe and Asia, in accordance with the expressed stipulations contained in the treaty, and in 1879 it was only through pressure put upon him by the English Government that the Porte submitted, and that new pledges were obtained from the Sultan for the speedy and thorough fulfilment of his treaty engagements. In 1884 the Sultan expressed his discontent concerning the proceedings of our agents in Egypt and the Soudan, for the settlement of which Sir Drummond Wolff (q.v.) was sent as a special envoy from the British Government (Aug. 1885). The Sultan has acted with great prudence in the recent Bulgarian imbroglio,

[blocks in formation]

calling upon the Powers to appoint a Conference to discuss and determine the crisis.

Abecedarians, a sixteenth-century German anabaptist sect, so called because they, in claiming direct inspiration from God, denied the value of all human learning, and maintained that the knowledge of even the ABC is detrimental to man, since it opens the door to all that which obscures the Divinity and is an obstacle to Divine illumination.

Abercorn, James Hamilton, 2nd Duke of (creat. 1868), was b. 1838. Educated at Harrow and Ch. Ch., Oxford, and succeeded his father the 1st Duke (who was for some time Lord Lieutenant of Ireland) 1885; m. (1869), Lady Mary Anna Curzon, dau. of the 1st Earl Howe; has been a Lord of the Bed-chamber to the Prince of Wales (since 1866); and sat as M.P. for Donegal in the Conservative interest (1860-80). His title of Baron of Paisley was conferred by James I. (1587) on the 3rd son of the Earl of Arran, Duke of Chatelherault, for services to Mary Queen of Scots. He holds his seat in the House of Lords as Viscount Hamilton (creat. 1786).

Abercromby, George Ralph Abercromby, 4th Baron (creat. 1801), was b. 1838. Deputy Lieutenant of Stirling. Mar. the dau. of the 2nd Earl of Camperdown.

as

Aberdare, Henry Austin Bruce, P.C., Ist Baron (creat. 1873), was b. 1815. He was police magistrate for Merthyr Tydvil and Aberdare (1847-52), when he entered Parliament Liberal member for Merthyr Tydvil;_was Under-Secretary of State for the Home Dept. (1862-64); Vice President of the Council (1864-66); Home Secretary (1868-73), and Lord President of the Council (1873-74). His career at the Home Office is memorable for his bill for the earlier closing of public-houses. He lost his seat for Merthyr (1868), but in the following year was elected for Renfrewshire, which he continued to represent till his elevation to the peerage.

Aberdeen, John Campbell Hamilton Gordon, P.C., 7th Earl of (creat. 1682), was b. 1847, and succeeded his brother 1870. He was H.M. High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland (1881). He sits in the House of Lords as Visct. Gordon of Aberdeen (creat. 1814). Appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1886), by the new Gladstone administration. The 4th Earl was Prime Minister of England (1852-55).

in

Abergavenny, Wm. Nevill, 1st Marquis of (creat. 1876); son of the 4th Earl (creat. 1784), was b. 1826, and succeeded his father the earldom 1868. Sir Edward Nevill, who m. the heiress to the feudal barony of Abergavenny, was summoned to parliament in 1450; since which period the title has descended in the male line,

Abingdon, Montague Arthur Bertie, 7th Earl of (creat. 1682), was b. 1876, and succeeded his father 1884. The first Baron was raised to the peerage by Queen Elizabeth in recognition of his services as ambassador at the Court of France.

Abinger, Wm. Fredk. Scarlett, 3rd Baron (creat. 1835), was b. 1826, and succeeded his father 1861. He entered the army (1846); served through the Eastern campaign of 1854-55, including the battles of Alma, Inkermann, and Balaklava, siege of Sebastopol, and sortie of 26th October. The 1st peer (Sir James Scarlett) was a distinguished lawyer, who became Chief Baron of the Exchequer. About, Edmond François Valentin, b. at Dieuze, Meurthe, 1828. Entered the Lycée Charlemagne, and in 1848 won the prix d'honneur. Passed in 1851 to the French college at Athens, where he devoted himself to archæological studies, making his debut as an author in " La Grèce Contemporaine" in 1855. The same year he published a novel entitled "Tolla," which led to a bitter controversy and charges of plagiarism against M. About. In 1856 he wrote Les Mariages de Paris," and in 1857 "Germaine"; but the work with which his name is specially associated, and which excited at the time the most vivid sensation, being supposed to have received its inspirations from the Emperor Louis Napoleon, was "La Question Romaine," in which he advocated, on the ground of the general welfare of Italy, as well as of public policy of the highest order, the extinction of the temporal power of the Papacy. In 1860 two other political pamphlets followed, entitled "The New Map of Europe," and "Prussia in 1860." He continued to write several novels, along with some theatrical works. He was attached to the Constitutionnel (French journal) in 1861). Later on he undertook the office of making weekly reports to the emperor as to the state of public opinion; but he abandoned this, and attaching himself to L'Opinion Nationale, took up a position of dynastic opposition to the emperor, which drew upon him an "avertissement,' or governmental warning. He nevertheless continued on good terms with the court, and received the Cross of the Legion of Honour in 1867. When the war broke out in 1870 he was in Alsace, as collaborateur of the Soir. After the fall of the empire, he appears to have lent his advocacy to the Orleans princes; but he finally took the editorship of the XIXe Siècle (19th Century) and declared for the republic, to which he continued attached. In September 1872, at Saverne, in Alsace, he was arrested by the German authorities and imprisoned at Strasbourg, on the ground of an article he had written in the Soir, claiming for France the right to the restoration of Alsace and Lorraine. He was, however, afterwards released. In a work entitled "Alsace" he has entered into all the details of this matter, adding observations as to the condition of the country, feelings of the people, etc. M. About was for some years the Paris contributor to the pages of the Athenæum. He died Feb. 17th, 1885.

Abraham, Mr. W., M.P., at the present time a miner's agent and Deputy Chairman of the Sliding Scale Committee of South Wales, was in early life a working collier. Returned in the Liberal interest as member for Rhondda Division, Glamorgan (1885).

[blocks in formation]

says

Absentees. Name applied to Irish landlords who draw rents from Ireland without living in or even visiting the country. Absentees have been denounced in the literature of the Irish Land Question for successive generations; and proposals made to abate the evil. They are mentioned with great severity by Swift in his seventh "Drapier's Letter," and in his "Short View of the State of Ireland"; and in the latter it is stated that one-third of the rents of Ireland were spent in England. Bishop Berkeley also denounces them in his "Querist." In 1730 a list of absentees was published in Dublin and London, and the money annually spent abroad is estimated at £621,499 3s. 1d. In 1769 a list published in Dublin fixes this sum at £1,208,982 14s. 6d. The author of "Commercial Restraints that between 1768 and 1773 the sum transmitted in rents from Ireland to England was £1,100,000 yearly. In 1773 the Viceroy, Lord Harcourt, had a bill introduced in the Irish parliament fixing a tax of 2s. in the £ on absentees; and it was only rejected by 122 votes to 102. In 1783 Mr. Molyneux proposed an absentee tax, but the motion was rejected by 184 votes to 22. Several proposals have since been made, and in 1878 a bill was introduced into the Imperial Parliament, but never printed. Two returns have been made-one in 1872 and the second in 1876. In the latter the absentees are divided into two classes--those "resident usually out of Ireland, but occasionally on property," and those "rarely or never resident in Ireland." The following is the number, acreage and valuation of the two classes:

[blocks in formation]

Dembea, or Tsana, 60 miles by 25. Surface table-lands, 6,000 to 9,000 feet, broken by deep ravines, summits rising to 15,200 feet. Three distinct zones of elevation, roughly to be described as tropical, temperate, and highland. Temperate zone chief scene of industry and habitation. People a mixed race: Semitic or Arabic type most prevalent; colour yellowbrown to black; religion a curious Judaised form of Christianity. There are Mohammedans, and Jews called Falashas. The last profess descent direct from the patriarchs, are exclusive, more moral than the rest of the population, number about 250,000, and are the principal agriculturists and manufacturers of Abyssinia. There is a despised aboriginal race called Waito dwelling round Dembea. The country has possessed some civilisation from ancient times, but has retrograded. The families of Mohammed and his partisans took refuge here after the Hegira, and were hospitably received. In the sixteenth century Portuguese colonists obtained a footing, introducing some arts, but not remaining. The fine castellated palace of Gondar, the capital, now a ruin, was built by them. In 1866 the tyrant Lij Kasa, or Theodorus, gained power over the entire country. He imprisoned Englishmen, and a force under Lord Napier was sent to chastise him. It reached the fortress of Magdala, where a decisive battle was fought (1868), resulting in Theodore's defeat and death. The country is made up of many semi-independent small states, belonging to three great divisions: Tigre in the north, Amhara central, Shoa in the south. After Theodore's death, Prince Kasa of Tigre obtained British assistance, and now, as Johannes II. (q.v.), rules over Tigre and Amhara. Shoa has become independent, under King Menelek, who has entered into some relations with European governments. A French embassy and Italian explorers have been warmly received by him. During the Soudan campaign, Admiral Hewitt and others visited King Johannes, and an understanding between him and the British Government was arrived at. He sent an army under General Ras Aloula to the relief of Kassala. A battle was fought at Kufeit, September 23rd, 1885, when Osman Digna's army was broken up by the Abyssinian forces. Manufactures limited to coarse cotton and woollen cloths, leather, pottery, and some iron, steel, and other metal articles. Exports are ivory, gold dust, musk, coffee, and some other productions. Imports are arms, Persian carpets and silks, French velvet and broadcloth, Venetian beads, etc. The language of court and commerce is Amharic. The capital of Shoa is Ankobar, and its outlet the Gulf of Tajurah. Abyssinian trade passes through Adowa, capital of Tigre, to the port of Massowah, now occupied by Italy. (Consult De Cosson's "Abyssinia.")

"Academy." A weekly review of literature, science, and art (3d.); estab. 1869. Its chief characteristic is that the articles are signed by the writers, and it has always devoted a large proportion of its space to branches of unremunerative learning, especially philology and oriental studies. Its founder and first editor was Dr. C. E. Appleton (d. 1879). Its present editor is Mr. J. S. Cotton (q.v.) Accommodation, London School Board. See SCHOOL BOARD FOR LONDON.

"Accumulators." See ELECTRICITY. Acland, Mr. Arthur Herbert Dyke, M.P.,

son of Rt. Hon. Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, of Killerton, Exeter, was b. 1847. Educated at Rugby and Ch. Ch., Oxford. He is Steward of Christ Church, and Senior Bursar of Balliol College, Oxford. Returned in the Liberal interest as member for Rotherham Division, West Riding South, Yorkshire (1885). Acland, Mr. Charles Thomas Dyke, M.A., M.P., eldest son of Sir T. Acland, M.P., was b. in London 1842. Graduated M.A. at Oxford, and was called to the bar at the Inner Temple (1869). He is a J.P. for Devon and Somerset, a Deputy Lieutenant for Somerset, and captain 1st Devon Yeomanry Cavalry. Returned as member for East Cornwall in the Liberal interest (1882-85), NorthEast Cornwall (1885). Is Secretary to the Board of Trade (1886).

Acland, Sir Thomas Dyke, P.C., M.P., was b. 1809. Educated at Harrow and Christ Church, Oxford. Elected a Fellow of All Souls' Coll. He is major 1st Devon Yeomanry Cavalry, lieut.colonel 1st Devon Rifle Volunteers, and J.P. for Devon and Somerset. Has held the post of School Inquiry Commissioner and a second Church Estates Commissioner. Returned in the Liberal interest as member for West Somersetshire (1837-47); North Devon (1865-85); West Somerset (1885).

Actinozoa. See ZOOLOGY.

Act of Union with Ireland. See HOUSE OF COMMONS.

Acton, John Emerich Edward DalbergActon, 1st Baron (creat. 1869), was b. at Naples 1834, and educated at Oscott. M.P. for Carlow Borough (1859-65), when he was returned for Bridgenorth, but unseated on petition.

Addison, Mr. John, Q.C., M.P., Recorder of Preston, was b. 1838. Educated at Preston Gram. Sch., and Trin. Coll., Dublin. Called to the bar at Inner Temple (1862); Q.C. (1880); Bencher of his Inn (1883). Returned in the Conservative interest as member for Ashtonunder-Lyne (1885).

Addresses to the Crown are from either the parliament or the people. Both houses regularly move addresses to the crown in answer to the royal speech at the commencement of the session; and the debate on this address has grown into being the formal occasion for expressing approval of or dissatisfaction with the ministerial policy put forward in the royal speech. Addresses from individuals (usually petitions for pardons or for redress of grievances), have been tendered to the monarch from the earliest times, though there seems to have been no precedent for addresses on political points until 1640 (Charles I.). This right, limited by an Act of 1662 against tumultuous petitioning, was confirmed by the House of Commons in 1710, when it was voted that petitions to the king from any subject were admissible, "for the calling, sitting, and dissolving parliaments, and for the redressing of grievances." It is still in force.

"Adeler, Max." See NOMS DE PLUME. Aden. See BRITISH COALING STATIONS. Administrations and Ministers of Great Britain, 1868 to 1886. See APPENDIX.

Admiralty Courts. The Court of Admiralty was erected by Edward I. for the trial of maritime causes, and had jurisdiction to try and determine all maritime causes, causes arising wholly upon the sea and not within the boundaries of any county, as well as to decide From the sentence upon prizes made at sea.

« PreviousContinue »