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6. Explain the lines, “then no planets strike,

No fairy takes, nor witch hath power to charm,
So hallow'd and so gracious is the time.”

[cious”? What circumstance made the time “so hallow'd and so gra

7. “But look, the morn, in russet mantle clad,

Walks o'er the dew of yon high eastern hill.”
Turn these lines into plain prose.
Quote a similar description of “morn” from Shakespear

himself, or from Milton.
8. Explain

“As needful in our loves, fitting our duty.” 9. Give a correct paraphrase of the following passage, substi

tuting, in every instance, common expressions for those

which are figurative.
“ So, oft it chances in particular men,

That for some vicious mode of nature in them,
As, in their birth (wherein they are not guilty
Since nature cannot choose his origin),
By the o’ergrowth of some complexion,
Oft breaking down the pales and forts of reason ;
Or by some habit, that too much o’erleavens
The form of plausive manners; that these men,
Carrying, I say, the stamp of one defect ;
Being nature's livery, or fortune's star,
Their virtues else (be they as pure as grace,
As infinite as man may undergo),
Shall in the general censure take corruption
From that particular fault.”

BACON'S NOVUM ORGANUM.

Afternoon Paper. APHORISM 59.

“ But none are so troublesome as the idols of the market, which insinuate themselves into the mind from the association of words and terms. For thougb men believe that their reason governs words, it also happens that words retort, and reflect their force upon the understanding ; whence philosophy and the sciences have been rendered sophistical and unactive. Words are generally imposed according to vulgar conceptions, and divide things by lines that are most apparent to the understanding of the multitude: and when a more acute understanding, or a more careful observation, would remove these lines, to place them according to nature, words cry out and forbid it. And hence it happens that great and serious disputes of learned men frequently terminate about words and terms, which it were better to begin with, according to the prudent method of the Mathematicians and reduce them to order by definitions. But in natural and material things, even these definitions cannot remedy the evil; because definitions themselves consist of words, and words generate words.” APHORISM 73.

“ But of all the signs of philosophies, none are more certain and noble than those taken from their fruits ; for fruits, and the discoveries of works, are as the vouchers and securities for the truth of philosophies.

“And, therefore, as it is a caution in religion that faith be manifested by works; an admirable rule may be hence derived into philosophy that it be judged by its fruit, and held as vain if it prove barren; and this the more, if, instead of grapes and olives, it produce the thistles and thorns of disputes and altercations."

1. “ For though men believe that their reason governs words, it also happens that words retort and reflect their force upon the understanding.”

Explain this sentence, and point out the concealed figure in the latter part of it.

2. “Words are generally imposed according to vulgar conceptions, and divide things by lines that are most apparent to the understanding of the multitude.” Explain this, and shew that the opinion is correct. What is the meaning of “ words cry out?”

3. Does not the objection that “ definitions consist of words, and words generate words,” apply to the terms used in mathematics as well as to those which denote “ natural and material things?” Or is there any fundamental difference between the two subjects, which makes the objection apply to one of them but not to the other ?

4. “ For fruits and the discoveries of works are as the vouchers and securities for the truth of philosophies.” Give some examples in illustration of this truth.

5. What things are meant by the figurative expressions " grapes and olives” and “ thistles and thorns" ? Give examples from History of systems of philosophy which, instead of “ grapes and olives” have produced “ the thistles and thorns of disputes and altercations."

6. In one place Bacon says, “ The sovereignty of man lieth hid in knowledge; wherein many things are reserved which kings with their treasure cannot buy, nor with their force command; their spials and intelligencers can give no news of them, their seamen and discoverers cannot sail where they grow.” Explain this passage. .

7. What, according to Bacon, is the true "end" or object of the sciences ? What other end or object has been proposed by some other writers ? Shew that that other object did not escape Bacon's observation, and that he purposely kept it in the back ground.

8. Mention some of the leading principles of the first book of the Novum Organum.

Fourth Class.

GRAY'S POEMS.

Ode To ADVERSITY.

Morning Paper.
“Thy form benign, oh goddess! wear,

Thy milder influence impart,
Thy philosophic train be there
To soften, not to wound my heart.
The generous spark extinct revive,
Teach me to love and to forgive,
Exact my own defects to scan,
What others are to feel, and know myself a man."

ELEGY.

“ Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid,

Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire ;
Hands, that the rod of empire might have sway'd,

Or wak’d to ecstacy the living lyre :
“ But knowledge to their eyes her ample page

Rich with the spoils of time did ne'er unroll ;
Chill penury repressed their noble rage,
And froze the genial current of the soul.”

The Bard. “Girt with many a baron bold

Sublime their starry fronts they rear;
And gorgeous dames, and statesmen old
In bearded majesty, appear.
In the midst a form divine !
Her eye proclaims her of the Briton line ;
Her lion-port, her awe-commanding face,
Attemper’d sweet to virgin-grace.
What strings symphonious tremble in the air,
What strains of vocal transport round her play!
Hear from the grave, great Taliessin, hear ;
They breathe a soul to animate thy clay.
Bright Rapture calls, and soaring as she sings,
Waves in the eye of heaven her many-coloured wings.
“ The verse adorn again

Fierce war, and faithful love,
And truth severe, by fairy fiction drest.
In buskin’d measures move
Pale grief, and pleasing pain,
With horror, tyrant of the throbbing breast.
A voice, as of the cherub choir,
Gales from blooming Eden bear ;
And distant warblings lessen on my ear,

That lost in long futurity expire.” 1. “ Thy milder influence impart.”

What two things are compared ? “ Thy philosophic train be there.”

[losophic train ?” What are those fruits of adversity which the Poet calls “ her phi2. “ Teach me to love and to forgive”

Give the full meaning of this line.

Explain clearly and concisely the two following lines. “Exact my own defects to scan,

What others are to feel, and know myself a man.” 3. What is the meaning of " celestial fire”?

Explain the line
“Or wak’d to ecstacy the living lyre.”

4. “ Rich with the spoils of time.”

What are “ the spoils of time” which enrich the “ ample page” of

knowledge? Shew that the word “ ample” is well chosen.

5. “ For who, to dumb forgetfulness a prey,

This pleasing anxious being e'er resign’d,
Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day,
Nor cast one longing, lingering look behind ?

“ On some fond breast the parting soul relies,

Some pious drops the closing eye requires ;
Even from the tomb the voice of nature cries,
Even in our ashes live their wonted fires.
Explain the two lines in italics. What is the meaning of “this

pleasing anxious being"?

6. “ In the midst a form divine !

Her eye proclaims her of the Briton line."
What celebrated Queen of England is alluded to ? Was she of

“the Briton line,” and why does the Bard refer with satisfac-
tion to this circumstance ?

7. “ What strings symphonious tremble in the air,

What strain of vocal transport round her play!”
To what circumstance in the reign of this Queen does the Poet

allude ? Point out any beauties of expression in these lines.

8. “ The verse adorn again

Fierce war, and faithful love,
And truth severe in fairy fiction drest.
In buskin'd measures move
Pale grief, and pleasing pain,
With horror, tyrant of the throbbing breast.”
What Poets are alluded to? Point out the words which most

clearly mark what particular Poets are meant.

9. “ A voice, as of the cherub choir,

Gales from blooming Eden bear.”
Explain these two lines, and point out the application of " cherub

choir” and “ Gales from blooming Eden” to the particular Poet
referred to.

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