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Popular in All Sections of the Country.

HESE BOOKS will be supplied to Schools and Academies upon fair and liberal terms and at popular prices. They have no superiors. They are owned and controlled by an old-established firm, whose experience of over fifty years enables it to publish the best books, and to sell them as cheap as it is possible to sell properly prepared and substantially manufactured school books.

Special attention is called to Phelan's School History of Tennessee, (a book which should be studied by every child in the State;) to Bingham's Latin Series, revised by Prof. W. Gordon McCabe, of Petersburg Va., which is entitled to a place in every Southern institution of learning

and to



and other approved school books. The public are also



reminded that Goodrich's Histories (by Peter Parley) and Smith's Grammar, although not new, have never been surpassed as text books. Correspondence solicited and samples furnished upon proper application,


General Southern Agent, Knoxville, Tenn.


Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa.


Of Standard Excellence, in Print, Binding and Finish, of Superior Merit in Originality, Arrangement, Impartiality and Fullness of Treatment of Matters pertaining to the history of the Southern States.

Hansell's School


of the

United States.

A condensed work for Primary and Common School Classes. 250 pages; more than 100 Illustrations and portraits.

Hansell's Higher History

A Complete Class Manual for Schools and Academies. 466 pages; 80 Illustrations; 134 Portraits. 27 Maps, 43 River and Topical Outlines, Blackboard forms, Reference Readings, Search Questions, Memory Aids, etc., etc.

of the

United States.




That it is better arranged; that it gives more historical information; that it is more original in treatment; that it is of great assistance to the teacher; that it gives more for the price; that it clothes the subject with more fascinating interest; that it is fuller in detail concerning Southern historical matters; that it is brought more fully up to date; that it is better adapted in every way to the requirements of the Southern chool-room than any similar work published.


One or both of the Hansell Histories are in use, either in public schools or leading private institutions of the following: New Orleans (fiftytwo public and more than twenty private schools); Nashville, Tenn.; Vicksburg, Meridian, Miss; Birmingham, Ala ; Texarkana, Ark.; Houston, Tex. and Raleigh, N. C., public schools; Greenville, Columbus, Jackson, Natchez, Magnolia, Summit, Holly Springs, Miss.; Montgomery, Mobile, Auburn, Florence, Troy, Anniston, Athens, Ala.; Charlotte, Wilson, Lincolnton, Globe, N. C.; Camden, Searcy, Des Arc, Ark.; Memphis, Tenn.; Marshall, Coleman, Crockett, Tex.; Pensacola, Lake City, Fla., and numberless country and district schools in every part of the South F. F. HANSELL & BRO.. Publishers. New Orleans. La.

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Texas Liquid Slating, Quarts, $1 50; OneHalf Gallons, 2.75; Gallons. $5.00 Net. Makes 20 sq. yds. of 3-coat Board to gallon. ALL GOODS FIRST-CLASS. Samples Free.


MUNN & CO., of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, continue to act as Solicitors for Patents, Caveats, Trude Marks, Copyrights, for the United States, Canada, England, France, Germany, etc. Hand Book about Parents sent free. Thirty-seven years' experience. Patents obtained through MUNN & CO. are noticed In the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, the largest, best, and most widely circulated scientific paper. $3.20 a year. Weekly. Splendid engravings and interesting information. Specimen copy of the Scientific American sent free. Address MUNN & CO., SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Office, 261 Broadway, New York


Historical Atlas of American Progress.


The Territorial, Industrial and Political Development and Resources of the United States.

By means of ingeniously devised Maps, Charts and Diagrams in colors, combining extreme simplicity and clearness of design with wonderful completeness and accuracy of detail, a vast amount of information is made available for younger as well as older pupils.

In separate maps and charts are illustrated in the most graphic and complete manner, the Topography, Temperature, Rainfall, Drainage Systems, Distribution of Forests, Climate, the Agricultural and Mining Resources, and the Manufacturing Industries of the country.

The history of the Territorial growth of the United States, including the various acquisitions by treaty and by purchase from other nations, and the still more instructive history of the Progress of Settlement from the Atlantic Coast westward, are traced in a series of maps, which show the steps of advance decade by decade

In still another series of maps and charts, a complete resume of the Political History of the United States is given in a way easily mastered by any grade of pupils, with a separate map for every Presidential Election, showing by various colors the political complexion of every State, and (for the last three Presidential Elections) of every County in the United States. Still other maps and charts present the Financial and Commercial Development of the Nation, including a very complete history of the Tariff and Revenue Systems, with a graphic showing of the gradual extension of Railways throughout the country.

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For Beginners in Colleges, Academies, and High Schools.



KEETEL'S FRENCH COURSE has, among hundreds of other places, been wholly or partly introduced into the following Representative Educational Institutions :

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2 Daily Trains From


And Only Line with no 'Bus Transfers.

TRAINS LEAVING MEMPHIS (via L. R. & M. Ry.), 7:00 a. m. daily, has through coach to Waco, Texas, without change, and makes direct connection at Texarkana and Texas and Pacific Ry. for all points on Main Line.

TRAINS LEAVING MEMPHIS (via L. R. & M. Ry.), 5:30 p. m. daily, consists of Pullman Buffet Sleeper, Day Coach and Baggage Car, and the entire train runs solid to Fort Worth; no change of cars of ANY CLASS, making direct connection at Texarkana with trains on Main Line and Trans-Continental Division of Texas & Pacific Ry.

For rates, tickets, and further information, apply to any Coupon Ticket Agent, or to H. W. MORRISON,

General Agent, Memphis, Tenn.


S. E. Pass. Trav. Agent, Memphis Tenn. W. G. ADAMS,

Passenger Agent, Nashville, Tenn.

Southwestern Journal of Education.



Southwestern Journal of Education. poned for one year,

Subscription, $1 Per Annum; Single Copy, 10 Cents.

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DISCONTINUANCES.--Any subscriber wishing to stop his paper must notify the Publishers, and pay up all arrears; otherwise he is responsible for payment as long as the paper is sent.

HOW TO REMIT-To secure safety, it is important that remittances should be made by checks, drafts, post-office orders, express money orders, or registered letters, made payable to the Publishers.

MISSING NUMBERS.-Should a number of the JOURNAL fail to reach a subscriber, he will confer a favor upon the Publishers by notifying them of the fact, upon receipt of which notice the missing numbers will be sent.

CHANGE OF ADDRESS.-When a change of address is desired, both the old and the new address of the subscriber should be given.

ALL LETTERS pertaining to the Editorial Department, and all communications for the pages of the JOURNAL, should be addressed to the Editors. All letters pertaining to the business management of the JOURNAL, should be addressed to the Publishers. WHEELER PUBLISHING COMPANY,


With this number the JOURNAL begins its ninth volume.

Do not forget that the meeting of the National Educational Association will be at Toronto, and that every teacher from the South must go if it is possible for him to get away. Let no small matter detain you. Make your plans now.

"Georgia is to have a State Teachers' Association," is an editorial mention in the Journal of Education. Bless you, they have one, and it is a live one, too. Last summer they had a rousing meeting, and Supt. N. C. Dougherty and Dr. E. E. White were there, and delivered addresses. W. R. Thigpen is the President, and Euler B. Smith is the Secretary, and they intend to do even better this summer than last.

A recent census bulletin shows that "The relation of men to women among teachers appears to vary from a minimum of 10 men to 92 women in Massachusetts to maximum of 100 men to 10 women in South Carolina. If the colored teachers of South Carolina are taken separately there appear to be 100 men to 58 women. The other New England States shown in this table approach the relation shown in Massachusetts, while Ohio shows a higher ratio of men than any other Northern State, or 100 men to 113 women, closely followed by Arizona and Pennsylvania."

A CODE of ethics for the profession has been often talked of but never actually formulated. Last year the Wisconsin Teachers' Association appointed a committee for this purpose.

No. I.

At the last meeting a report was made but action was postAs a whole the report is an admirable one. The principles enunciated, if followed, would go far toward making the world feel that teaching is a profession. There are five articles, and the topics treated are: "The Teacher and His Vocation," "Duties of Teachers Toward Each Other," "The Teacher and the School Board," "The Teacher and the Pupils," "The Teacher and the Public." All are important, but especially so is that section which treats of the duty of teachers toward each other, and we give it in full.



Every teacher should entertain a due respect for the wisdom and judgement of his seniors. In turn, teachers of experience and standing should extend every courtesy and render every assistance possible to young teachers just entering the work. In general every teacher is under obligation to aid and encourage his fellow teachers by a friendly recognition and appreciation of their work.

2. For a teacher to apply for a position before a decision has been reached in regard to the incumbent, to send out applications at random, or to underbid other applicants in matter of wages, shows a wanton disregard for the rights of others.


For a superintendent or principal, without the consent of the proper authorities, to make tempting offers to teachers in other schools, or to recommend the appointment of any teacher to a position, the acceptance of which offers or position will necessitate the breaking of a previous contract, is inconsistent with the principles of ethics.

4. It is unbecoming to the dignity of the teacher to criticise a predecessor. It is the part of the true teacher to adjust himself to the conditions as he finds them, and to plan his work according to the needs of the situation.

5. It is the duty of a retiring teacher to make all conditions as favorable as possible for his successor, and to hold himself in readiness to give him necessary aid and encouragement. For a teacher, however, to claim any proprietary right in his former school, to manifest undue interest by frequent visits, or to assume a dictatorial manner towards the new management, is prejudicial to the interests of the school and embarassing to the new teacher.

6. Every teacher is entitled to testimonials containg fair and truthful statements of facts. Lack of discrimination and candor on the part of persons giving testimonials, or recommendations, is to be condemned. No superintendent, principal, or person in authority, is justified in recommending for a position any teacher whom he would not recommend, under similar conditions, for a position in his own school.

7. It is derogatory to the dignity of the vocation to gossip about the failures and faults of other teachers. The very act

of tale bearing and detraction is vicious. To slander a fellow teacher is not only a violation of a teacher's code of ethics, but is dishonorable and base

NO BODY has been made a more complete success than the Tennessee Press Association. This work has been done in the list four years. In that time, from being composed of a body of men assembled for junketing purposes, with the responsible men of each paper, to a large degree absent, it has become an organization that considers the important problems that confront every newspiper manager. The good can be seen already and the Association is beginning to have the force and effect that a well organized body will always have. To a very great degree these results are due to the earnest efforts of the Secretary, Pitkin C Wright of Memphis. He has given reely of his time and money and every member of the Association acknowledges the debt due him. The procer dings of the last meeting of the Association, now on our table, is only another instance of his work and interest. It is a well edited pimphlet of 65 piges and contains a full account of what was done at the meeting of 1890. The JOURNAL is a member of the Association and acknowledges with pleasure the value of this well arranged presentation of its work.


The most successful meeting of the department ever held has just closed at Philadelphia. Superintendent Draper, the President, has shown that he can wake to interest the superintendents of the country as successfully as he can those of his own State of New York The papers were remarkable for their excellence and the discussions were full of vigor and interest. There was no lagging; the President called time promptly and all obeyed. A delightful feature was the offhand discussion of the papers read. The subjects discussed and those leading were:

"The Compulsory School Legislation of Illinois and Wisconsin," N. C. Dougherty, Peoria, Ill; "Compulsory Education in Massachusetts," George H. Martin. Agent Massa churetts State Board of Edncation; "The National Educational Association, its Organization and Functions," William T. Harris, U. S. Commissioner of Education; "The Highest Office of Drawing," Frank Aborn, Teacher of drawing, Public Schools, Cleveland, O.; "Qualification and Supply of Teachers for City Public Schools," William E. Anderson, Superintendent of Schools, Milwaukee, Wis; "Art Education in the Public Schools," James McAlister, President of Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pa;" "The Public School and Civil Service Reform," George William Curtis, Chancellor of the University of the State of New York; “Universities and Schools," Oscar H. Cooper, Superintendent of Schools, Galveston, Tex is; What Present Means are available for the Preparation of Teachers for Their Work," Henry Sabin, State Superintent of Iowa.


Recent developments seem to show that the publication of text books by the State is a craze that has had its day. It never had in it any real vitality, if considered calmly and

fairly. It has just had sɔ ne hard blows from those who are capable of forming a fair judgment upon its merits. One is an opinion from the Ohio Supervisor of Printing, whose report we publish elsewhere. And now ex State Supt. Hoitt, of California, and the present Superintendent, J. W. Anderson, have given their views on the subject. It must be re membered that California is the State that has given the mat ter a fair trial, and invested immense sums of money, believ. ing that in this way the problem of cheap text books could be solved. Both letters will be convincing, and States now thinking of publishing their own text books will no doubt take the lesson to heart. Ex Supt. Hoitt says in part:

While our State Board has been zealous and done the best it could in making a State series, I regret that its efforts have not met the requirements of the schools or the expectations of our leading educators, as shown by the following resolution adopted at the Biennial Convention of California School Superintendents, held December 2 and 3, 1890:

Resolved, That while certain of the State text books, notably the Primary Language Lessons" and the "Elementary Geography, have met the approval of the public school teach ers of the State, we desire to record our severe criticism and

disapproval of others of the State series, and express our judgment that their thorough revision by competent authors, so as to adapt them to the wants of the schools, is imperative, and should be entered upon at once.

In the light of our experience, after four years of trial, I am therefore compelled, with persoal reluctance, to acknowledge to the comparative want of success in our California experiment in making and publishing school books.

Taking into consideration the large appropriations made, and the constant further outlays for revisions, new plates, etc., the same number of books can be purchased in the open market at wholesale prices for less than it costs the State to manufacture them.

I am therefore constrained to admit that I would not advise any other State to enter upon the publication of school books.

Supt. J. W. Anderson writes:

"For the perid of four years California has given her plan of State publication of text books a very fair and impartial trial. The office has rendered to the plan every assistance that was in our power, and the State official, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, complied cheerfully with the provisions of the law. My predecessor, the Hon. Ira C. Hoitt, began his term four years ago with his predilections He closed his term satisfied greatly in favor of the plan.

that, after his careful and fait ful observation and experience, he could not advise any State to embark on the venture of State publication. The principal argument, and, in my opinion, the only argument of any force that can be urged in favor of this plan, is the fact that it favors uniformity. But State uniformity may, and can be secured, without the adoption of

this means.

"The cost has been tremendous--even $400,000 for an edition of 50,000 of each of the ten pooks published. The cost of the books, it is true, has been reduced; i. e., the private book publishers have been compelled to reduce the cost of their books. But now the cost of books, as published by

the State, is more than superior books could be purchased for in the open market, even without discount. The books are inferior in matter. adaptability and execution. The Superinintendents of the State, at their biennial convention, held in this city on the 2d and 3d days of Deoember, 1890, passed a strong resolution of condemnation upon all of the ten now published, except two.

"While, as a State officer, it is my duty to see the law fully and faithfully carried out-the best way to make an objectionable law dious-honesty demands that, in view of the vast appropriations required, the interest on the appropriations,

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