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the lungs, and taken from the atmo. approved of. It soon went through sphere received into them, and that five editions. It stamped instantly for in its circuit through the body it the author a reputation that never can became decomposed, liberating the be effaced. The plan of the work is caloric from the oxygene air, which liberal and comprehensive, the opibefore held it in a neutralized or in- nions profound, and the diction active itate." This question, from its throughout extremely elegant. No novelty, and being very ably defended, practitioner in medicine ihould be acquired him a very confiderable repuó without this work; and it will afford tation in the University.

even a source of agreeable entertainHaving itudied three years at Guy's ment to those who with to study me. Hospital, his mother dying, he went dicine merely as a science. upon his travels, and picked up what. Our Author, observing the fluctuever medical knowledge was to be ac. ating, state of politics, and probably quired in France, Holland, Germany, urged on by the wonderful' success and Ireland; and afterwards visited his Philosophy of Medicine had had, most of the watering-places in Eng. contrived, upon the same plan, a system land.

of Modern Politicks, which he pubEven when absent from England, lished, in three volumes, octavo, under he never loit fight of the discovery the title of “ The Philosophy of Polihe had before made relative to the ticks; or, Political Extracts, on the cause of animal heat; and upon his Nature of Governments, and their Adreturn, he wilhed to educe from it, ministration." If here he has not been if poflible, sume practical inferences. so successful, it is rather from the na. Dr. Beddoes, the learned Professor of ture of the subject than from the exeChemistry at Oxford, having gone to cution of the work: for it displays, as the Hot-Wells, Bristol, to make trial of did the Philosophy of Medicine, a valt the effects of hydrogene gas in con: erudition, and seems to have been fumption, Dr. Thornton followed the planned with the best designs posible, example, and set about experiments and without any party-bias. with the powers of oxygene and other We are glad to find him soon quitting factitious airs, in a variety of different the thorny and mazy paths of politics, diseases, of which Londýn afforded an for what seems more particularly adapted ample scope; and by combining with to his talents, the contemplation of the these a complete knowledge of me works of Nature, and however gratidicine, he effected a number of cures fied with his former productions, we in cases that had been given up by were more particularly pleared at bis the first physicians and surgeons in proposing to give to the world a new London and elsewhere, as incura- and complete system of Botany, under ble; and these successes were pub- the title of “ A New Illustration of the lished by Dr. Beddoes, in a periodical Sexual Syitem of Linnæus ;and in work, entitled, “ Considerations rela- issuing proposals, he declared it to be a tive to Factitious Airs."

work which, in point of design, paper, As much prejudice, as well as envy, and type, was to exceed every other was excited by this combined practice, work on the subject of Botany that had deemed by mary empyrical; and the hitherto appeared. For this purpose Brunonian system, from the obscure no expence was spared; and to use language of the inventor, being very the words of the Author of Literary ill understood by the public at large, Sketches, " Whatever ideas might have and even by many of the faculty, Dr. been excited when this work was first Thornton, adding to this fyftem all the announced, the mind of man was in. new discoveries in medicine which had adequate to conceive the splendour and been made lince Dr. Brown's time, pub- magnificence of the execution when lished this amended system, under the published. It was indeed a trophy of title of “ The Philosophy of Medicine; national taste, which the surrounding or, Medical Extracts on the Nature of nations may look upon with envy and Health and Disease, including the Laws astonishment." The late Dr. Darwin, of the Animal CEconomy, and the speaking of this work, declares, “ That Doctrines of Pneumatic Medicine,” the botanical picturesque plates of the in five volumes, octavo. Never was New Illustration excite astonishment in work more eagerly read, or generally every beholder, and have no equal."


The Professor of Botany at Cambridge, by the General and Field-oficers coma the Rev. Mr. Martyn, publicly recom- poting the army of the Honourable the mended this work to the students of Eait India Company on the Coait of that University, as did Profeflor Ru. Coromandel, as a public token of retherford at Édinburgh. They both spect, and of individual attachment. were agreed, that the New Illustration Whilst Dr. Thornton was Physician of the Sexual Syitem is not only the most to the St. Mary-le-bone Dispensary, he splendid botanical work extant, but a discovered a certain cure for the scarlet Itandard example, thewing to what a fever, a disease that carries off thousands heigbt one of the branches of the fine annually, in the virtues of the foxglove, arts has attained in England. Dr. and made his first experience in the Smith, President of the Linnæan So- cow-pock, which he inoculared gratis ciety, concurs in the fame approbation. to every one who would apply to the The warm reception this work has met Dispensary; an account of whicli, and with from the Public, evinces the gene- his subsequent practice, is given in an ral belief of its excellence. Sixteen num octavo book, entitled, “ Facis decitive bers, at twenty-five shillings each, are in favour of Vaccine Inoculation; now out. This last contains the Porn with a Statement of the Evidence delia trait of the celebrated Dr. Darwin, the vered before the Honourable the Comonly likeness that exilts of that emi- mittee of the Houle of Commons upon nent philosopher, poet, and physician, the Petition of Dr. Jenner, and their and for which he regularly fat but a Report, with Remarks on the fame.” week before his unexpected death, Dr. Thornton, we are informed, indeclaring to his friends, that his fea- dependent of the “ Differtation on tures in Dr. Thornton's work would Scarlet Fever," announced as in the pofle s immortality,

press, is engaged also in a translation As a practical physician, we must of the famous “ French Menagerie," of now say something of Dr. Thornton. Lacepede and Cuvier. of the Nacional Amid it all these multiplied labours, Inftiture, and has issued out propohe never has remitted any thing of the sals for publishing, in the following duties he owed to his profession, or month, “ The Plants of Great Britain, family. For four years he distinguished arranged after the reformed Sexual himlelf as Physician to the St. Mary. System, and illustrated by Six Hun. le-bone General Dispensary, a charity dred Original Dilections of the Frucwhich demanded a very laborious exer tification of British Plants, chiefly exetion; and when retiring from this post, cured for the late E:rl of Bute by at a general quarterly meeting of the Miller." As alío “ An Ea y Intro. Directors and Governors of that Cha- duction to the Science of Botany;" rity, it was unanimously resolved, that to form lix volumes, octavo, and ta a piece of plate thould be presented to be published in monthly numbers, at Dr. Thornton, bearing this vote.“ That half-a-crown a number. Dr. Thornton has uniformly acted for As a Lecturer at Guy's Hospital on ihe interest of this charitable Institu medical botany. Dr. Thornton liicceed. tion, serving the office of Physician ed Dr. Smith, President of the Linnæan gratuitoudly upwards of four years; Society, and without notes he elothat his attention to the fick has been quently delivers his Lectures to his great, his humanity conspicuous, and pupils ftanding up. Contidering his bis fuccess in curing disease remark- period of life, no Gentle:san has ever able; and that the chanks of the Dis done more to add to the stores of rectors and Governors be communi science; and we only wonder how he Cated accordingly by the Secretary to

could find time to have accennlithed la Dr. Thornton, and the same be ex, much. We must here coincinde, with pressed in all the public papers." It willing him a long lite to enjoy those is curious to remark, that nearly at the laurels he has la! orijully earned in his same time his uncle on his mother's you:ger days, and the completion of fde, Sir John Biathwaite, Bart. late his g.tat botanical views, which pro. Commander in Chief at Madias, upon mies to conter upon him and his counquitring the army there, was presented trva lasting monument of well-dekrved Frith a lerviçe of plate, value 39001, plante,


stpop. g.

Ε, Ευξένα πελάγει
φαιναν 'Αχιλεις
νασον: Θέτις δέ κρατία
Φθ.α: Νε πιόλεμος δ' 'Α-
πείρω διαπρυσία:
βουβόται τόθι αγώνες έξ-
οχοι κατάκεινται, ,
Δωδύναθεν αρχόμενοι, προς
'Ibnov zápor.
Παλίου δε παρ ποδι λα»
τρείαν 'Ιααλκον
πολεμία χαρί προστραπούν

Πηλεύς, παρέδωκεν 'Αιμόνεσσιν,
Achilles that bright ise controls,
Round which the Euxine ocean rolls,
Her sway o’er Phthia Thetis boasts;
Pyrrhus o'er all th' Epirot coaits :
Where those vast hills, by cattle fed,
Lift o'er the vales their verdant head;
Commencing from Dodona's Iteep,
They stretch beside th' lonian deep.
But Peleus with a warlike force
To Pelion's foot pursu'd his course :
Jolcus' town the victor took,
And bow'd the vanquilhid to his yokes
He then to Theftaly's domain
Annex'd the subjugated plain ;



A ",

I the liege of Turin, in 1706, the be of infinite detriment to the besieged ; Jargelt fubterranean galleries belonging cost him his life to hinder it, his mine to the Citadel, and the French engineer having no saucisson with which he might was rewarded with two hundred louis- spring it with lets danger. There was d'ors for discovering this passage. The no time for deliberation; he therefore French now concluded, that they should immediately formed this' brave resolumake their way to the Citadel, by means tion : To save his companions, he orof the secret passage, and accordingly dered them instantly to withdraw out ported two hundred grenadiers there. of the mine, and fire a mufquet as a One Micha, a Piedmontese peasant, who signal when they were in a place of had been compelled to serve as a pio. fafety; adding, that they thould go neer, and, by his good natural parts and acquaint his Majesty, that Micha and long practice, had acquired such a implored subsistence for his wife and skill in it, as to be made a corporai of children. Upon hearing the signal, he the pioneers, was then working at this immediately set fire to the mine, and place with about twenty men, in order thus facrificed his own life, and blew io complete a mine. Hearing the

up the two hundred French grenadiers French very busy over his head, in into the air. The King not only pro. securing themselves in the gallery, it vided for Micha's widow and children, immediately occurred to him that his but fettled a perpetual annuity of lix work now hecame useless, the enemy hundred livres upon his descendants. being pollessed of a place which would




Dublin, June 18, 1803. but as was reported to their superiors, In your Magazine for February lalt, with an intention to join them. He

you printed some letters that passed was in consequence fuperleded, and between Voltaire and Richard Rolt, obliged to give up all expectations which were both curious and interest from that quarter. 'Being also related ing. They vindicate the former from to the celebrated poet Ambrose Philips, being totally ignorant of the Englilla then resident in Ireland, he soon after language, as was asserted by Baretti, went over to him in Dublin. But in a publication of his in 1777, in Philips was then preparing to leave defence of Shakspeare, from some ob. Ireland, whence he removed to his jections of that French writer; and native country in 1748, and soon after they also rescue the memory of Rolt died; so that Rolt failed of procuring from the inju ious account with which any establishment in that country. it is degraded in the Biographia Dra. While he was in Ireland, he is charged matica 1782, 2 vols. 8vo. and by Bos. in the Biographia Dramatica, and by well, in his Life of Johnson. That Boswell, with having " published Dr. Rult, at the early age of twenty-five, Akenlide's Pleasures of the Imagination displayed considerable talents as as his own work, and under his own biltorian, we have the testimony of name." But the writer of this article, Voltaire in the letters above men who for many years has constantly tioned ; and that he was not devoid frequented the booksellers' Ihops in of genius for poetry, we may appeal Dublin, and examined the catalogues to his poem, entitled Cambria, which of auctions in that city; who hath also passed through three editions. Pollibiy enquired of every bookseller, and of all an account of this now almost forgoiten the literati that fell in his way, never Writer, from a person who knew him law, nor heard that any one had ever well, may not be unacceptable to your feen, a single copy of such publication. Teaders.

This itory may therefore be safely pro

nounced a downright falsehood*. RICHARD ROLT, who was born in Kolt had probably been bred to the 1724 or 1725, is believed to have been law, for he is charged in the Biographia a native of Shrewsbury, but descended Dramatica with having been an hackfrom a respectable family of that name ney writer to an Attorney. But he in Bedfordshire. A Lady of this family had early recommended himself to perbeing married to John' Orlebar, Eld. fons of distinction ; for his poem entit. one of the Commissioners of the Excise, led Cambria, which had originally this Gentleman, who was of a very culo been composed (in 1748) in five books, tivated taite, and had probably seen and was then intended for the patrona some early productions of young Rolt, age of Sir Watkins Williams Wynne, intended to provide for hiin in an ad: Bart. the popular patriot of Wales, to Vantageous tiruation in that depart- whom Rolt was well known, was after. ment. To qualify him for this, he was wards, when it had been corrected, placed under an officer of the excise in and reduced to three books, thewn to the North of England. This happened Frederick Prince of Wales, by General about the time the Pretender made his Oglethorpe and Lord Middlesex (who inroad into that country in the winter was himlelf an elegant Poet); and he of the year 1745; when Rolt, and one had permission to infcribe it to Prince or two young excisemen, quitted their George, his present Majesty, when it tations, and went to the rebel army, was printed in quarto in the spring of as they alledged, only out of curiosity, the year 1749. On the 25th of Sep

* The information appears to have come from Dr. Johnson, who was incapable of a wiliul fallehood, but who, perhaps, was not accurale, as no such edition has been feen. " Mr. Malone observes, that the truth probably is, not that an edition was published with Rolt's name in the title-page, but that the poem being then anonymous, Rolt acquielced in its being attributed to him in conversation.”-Boswell's Life of Johnson, 3d Edition, Vol. 1. p. 319.-EDITOR.

tember VOL, XLIV. JULY 1803.



tember of the same year, Sir Watkins of his wife, being in India, became Williams Wynne was killed by a fall acquainted with Captain John Northall, from his horse; and in the following of the royal regiment of artillery, the month Rolt published a poem to his second in command at the fiege of Surat, memory, which was highly admired, where he died of an apoplectic fit in the and very popular among his country- march to that city in February 1759;

This Gentleman having been stationed By the above-mentioned, and some at Minorca, had made an excursion, in other eminent persons, Rolt was en. 1753, to Italy, of which he completed couraged to undertake his History of an entire tour; and being a man of the general War which terminated in curiofity and talte, noted down in bis 1748. This was published in four suc- pocket-book all the fine pictures, ftacefiive volumes, octavo, and procured tues, &c. with such remarks as everyhim the Correspondence with Voltaire, where occurred to him. This pocket. part of which you have already printed. book fell into the hands of Mr. WoodHe was also engaged to write the Life of ington; who, at his return to England, John Earl of Crawford, an officer of gave it to Rolt, and he from this manudistinction. The above publications {cript journal, with the help of former do him no discredit; and he thewed printed travels, compiled a large octavo considerable ability in defending the volume, which he published under the Case of Clifford against the Dutch title of Travels through Italy; containing West India Company, and in a reply new and curious Observations on ibat to the Answers of the Dutch Civilians Country: with the most authentic Account in that Case; as also in a Series of yet published of capital Pieces in Painting, Letters concerning the Antigallican Sculpture, and Architecture, that are to be Privateer and Prize, which had been seen in Italy. By John Northall, Esq. &c. illegally seized and confiscated by the &c. &c. 1766. Spaniards.

But Rolt's chief supplies were by Being an Author by profession, he writing Cantatas, Songs, &c. for the was constantly employed by the bookTheatres, Vauxhall, Sadler's Wells, sellers in successive compilations, hifto- and other places of public resort. Of rical, commercial, &c. and in periodical these he composed above an hundred, publications, in which he was concerned supplying, at the thortest notice, the with SMART and others. In one of demands of musical composers for those these, The Universal Visitor, he and Smart diurnal entertainments during many are said to have been bound by a con- years. He also produced two dramatic tract to engage in no other under- pieces, viz: Eliza, an English Opera, taking, and that this contract was to in three Aets, 1754, and ALMENA, an remain in force “ for the term of ninety- English Opera, in ihree Hels, 1764. nine years." So absurd an engagement For the former of there the music we can only impute, with the Biogra was composed by Dr. Arne, and for phia Dramatica, to the dictates of rapa. the latter by his fon; and they were cious avarice and submissive poverty. both performed with good success at

Rolt, who had no other resources Drury-lane Theatre. In the Biogra. but from his pen, which muit bave phia Dramatica is ascribed to him anbeen liable to interruption by want of other Opera, THE ROYAL SHEPHERD, health or fpirits, while the demands of 1763; but as he omitted it in a list of his family had no intermission, was his works, which he drew up to ac. doubtless poor enough: but that he company proposals for a subscrip: was not so low a creature as the above tion in odtober 1769, it is doubted writers would insinuate, may be in- whether that omillion must be ascribed ferred not only from his writings, to his not being the author, or to its which are not devoid of merit, but having been ill received by the public, from his connections before mentioned. as is related in Biographia Dramatica.

Of the expedients to which the trade The proposals for printing, by subof book-making compels its professors fcription, his poetical works, was the to have recourse, we have a curious last attempt of Mr. Rolt, who died instance in one publication of Mr. March 2, 1770, aged 45; having had Rolt:- Mr. Woodington*, a relation two wives, by each of whom he left

• The father of the present Town-Major of Bombay,

a daughter.

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