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Moorish language Ceuta." Purchas mind glowed with projects of future also, in his most esteemed collection discovery, might suggéit the firit idea of voyages *, has this memorable re of contructing his romantic town of mark: " thus, both at home and Sagres on the Promontoriim Sacrum of abroad, were the Portugals indebted to the Romans. Here, removed from the the English; but in nothing more than hurry of a court, from the fatigue or for that Englith lady before mentioned, indolence of a military life, the Prince whole third son, Don Henry, was the indulged that genius for mathematics true foundation of the greatness, not of and navigation, which he had hitherto Portugal alone, hut of the whole Chrif been obliged to neglect. At Sagres tian world, in marine affairs; especi: his arsenals and dock-yards were built; ally of these heroic endeavours of the whilst the industry and skill of the English (whole fleth and blood he was), thipwrights were improved by the which this ensuing history thall preient presence of their royal matter. Skilful to you."

mariners from all countries found en. The dangers of this formidable ex couragement to settle under the aupedition against the Moors, in which spices of such a Prince. A public King John and his three sons em school and observatory were opened barked, thook the tender health of by the Prince. Thus encouraged and their affectionate mother Queen Phi- improved, the Portuguese, by order of lippa, who beheld (in imagination) the the Prince, undertook another voyage lives of her children, with that of their of discovery. About the year 1418, father, exposed at once to the relent two naval Officers of his houseliold less (cymetars of the Moors. Unable volunteered their lives, in an attempt to support the dreadful uncertainty of to furmount the perils of Bojadore; this eventful voyage, or to snake the about fix leagues from this tremendous resolution of her ambitious offspring, cape they were driven by a sudden the lunk amidit the painful contlict of storm out to sea, and when in danger her mind. As a reward for the con of perishing, they found themselves quest of Ceuta, Don Pedro, the illuftri- approaching an island, situated about ous brother of Henry, was created an hundred leagues to the south-west Duke of Coimbra, at the same time that of Africa. When the first transport Don Henry received the title and of joy permitted them to make any dukedom of Visco. These two bro. obfervation, they beheld its coait exthers were famed all over Europe for tending about twenty miles in length. their military talen's and elegant ac

-Gratitude to Providence for their complishments. To defeat the at escape immediately luggelted a name tempts of the Moors to recover Ceura, for the new discovery; and Puerto the King of Portugal augmented the Sarta, or the Holy Haven, the smallest garrison with six hundred foot and i wo of the Madeiras, being only two miles thousand five hundred horse, the whole in breadth, accords this memorable of which was placed under the com epocha, when the Portuguese firit abanmand of the Duke de Vilco, the Go. doned the coating voyages of the vernor, whole continuince in Africa ancients for the bylder enterprize of tended to mature the glorious projetis an improved and more intrepid age. he had conceived. At lengill, “ with But by other authentic documents a judgment matured by the converse of it appears, that the island of Madeira various scientific men, whom his p2 had been discovered by an Englishtronage had attracted in Africa, and man; and though the exact date is not with a mind enlarged by the peru til to be traced, it is probable that this of every work wbich illustrated the event happened about fifty years before discoveries he had in view, the con the discovery of Puerto Santo by the queror of Ceuta returned to Portugal. Portuguese. The high land of Cape St. Vincent, as The interesting and affecting narrahe approached the coait, displayed the tive is inserted in Hakluyt's Voyages, extensive command of an ocean hi- who took it from Antonio Galvano, a therto unexplored ; and probably a Purtuguele biltorian : our Author, view of its cliffs, at a time when his however, has preferred the account

* A copy of this scarce work, in five volens, folio (three volumes of which were firit published about the year 1624), told this month, at a jublic auciior, for twenty

fisa guineas.

given by Francisco Alcaforado, who was thick grey haze was dispersed by the Equerry to the Duke de Visco. riting lun, and a general burit of joy

“ It was in the glorious reign of welcomed the certainty of land. A Edward III. that Robert a Macbin, or luxuriancy of trees was soon visible, Macham, an English Gentleman of the to whose appearance they were utter; fecond degree of nobility, beheld and strangers; and the beautiful plumage loved the beautiful Anna D'Arfet (or, of unknown birds, who came in flocks as some historians write it, Dorjet); from the island, gave, at first, the semtheir attachment was mutual ; but the blance of a dream to their astonishing pride of the illustrious family of Dorset deliverance. The boat being hoisted was insensible to the happiness of their out to examine the coalt, returned with daughter; they preferred the indul. a favourable account. Macbam and his gence of ambition to the voice of duty friends accompanied their trembling and love. The feudal tyranny of the charge on fhore, leaving the crew to age was friendly to their cruel design; fecure the vessel. The wilderness of and a warrant from the King seemed to the adjacent country pofseffed addijustify the vanity of a parent. The tional charms to men escaped from consolation of an ingenuous mind lup- destruction; and an opening in the exported Macham in confinement, nor tensive woods, which was encircled did it yield to despondency, when, on with laurels and flowering shrubs, prebeing released from prison, he found sented a delightful retreat: a venerable that the innocent cause of his perse- tree, the growth of ages, offered, on an cution had been forced to marry a adjacent eminence, its welcome thade; Nobleman, who had carried her to his and the first moments of liberty were cattle near Brilol. The friends of employed in forming a romantic habi. Macham made his misfortune their tation, with the abundant materials own; and one of them had the address supplied by nature. to get introduced, disguised in the “ A curiofity to explore their new capacity of a groom, to the service of discovery was increased by the novelty the amicted Anna. The prospect of of every object they beheld: this varied the sea, which in their rides extended occupation continued for three days, before them, luggested the pian of until the survey was interrupted by an escape; and the probability of a fecure alarming hurricane, which came on asylum was oppoled to the dangers of a during the night, and rendered them paflage to France. Under the pretence painfully anxious for their companions of deriving benefit from sea air, the on board. The ensuing morning de. victim of parental ambition was en. Itroyed every prospect of happiness : abled to elude suspicion, while Ma- they in vain fought for the vessel, cham, in the successful completion of which had drove from her moorings, his anxious design, was equally in- and was wrecked on the coatt of Mo. sensible to the particular seaton of elie rocco, where all on board were imme. year, or the portentous appearance of diately seized as Naves, and sent to the weather, which in calmer moments prison. The afflicted Mactam found he would have duly observed. On this last trial too severe for his terrified their passage, a tempest and the dark- and disconsolate mittreis: her tender gress of the night' occasioned their mind was overcome by the scenes the milling, or being unable to reach, the had endured-from the moment it was coast of France. Their vessel drove at reported that the vellel could not be the mercy of the wind; and in the found, the becanie dumb with grief, morning ihey found themselves in the expired after a few days of filent de midit of an unknown ocean, without fpair, and was soon followed by her the skill that could determine their inconsolable lover.” Such is the brief situation, or the experience that might abitract of the melancholy adventures have directed their course. The dawn of these fugitives from their native of twelve mornings returned without land, recorded more at large, with exthe light of land; when at length, after planatory notes, by our indefatigable a night of increased anxiety, as they historian. eagerly watched the earliest streaks of John de Morales, a Spanish pilot, day, an object loomed on the horizon: who had been taken by the Moors, continual disappointment produced a and thrown into the same prison with querulous despondency: whilit they the unbappy English leamen, was met alternately believed and doubted, the at lea, in a cartel which had been fent


by the King of Spain to redeem Chrif. considerable quantity of gold-duft, was tian flaves, by Gonzales Zarco, who was offered and accepted for two captive Sent by the Duke de Visco on a second prisoners; and the light of this preexpedition of discovery in 1420; Zarco cious metal encouraged the Portuguese took him into his service, and hearing to fail in quest of other acquisitions, from him the account of the discovery The Duke de Visco subdued the islands of Madeira, as related to him by his of Canaria, Palma, Gratiofa, Inferno, fellow-prisoners, he returned with his Alegrazze, Santa Chiara, Rocca, and new companion to Puerto Santo, where Lobos. The inhabitants of Lagos, in the he was cordially received by Trisan kingdom of Algarve, now a province of Vaz Texeira, to whom he communicated Portugal, were the first to project a his design; and in a fhort time they chartered Company on the discoveries failed, in company with Morales as of their countrymen, and preparations their guide, in search of the island' were made to lay the foundation of described to him by the English sea. that commerce which gradually exmen: the account of its frelh disco- tended from the Rio del Đuro (the gold very, of taking possession of all Ma- river,) to the distant feas both of India deira, in the names of King John the and China; and this event our Author First of Portugal and his illustrious byles, “the origin of the East India Son Henry Duke of Visco, and of the Company:" it bears date about the year Portuguese settlement there in the 1444. Two years after this institution, year 1421, contains many curious and Denis Fernandez, a Gentleman of Lif entertaining particulars, well meriting bon, who had belonged to the housethe attention of men of letters and of hold of King John, discovered Cape modern navigators. The power of the Verde Illands; and in 1447, he failed a Sovereign Pontiff was at this time second time, further to the southward, obliged to be called in aid of the Por- till he reached the mouth of the river tuguese increasing zeal for maritime Gambia. discoveries, the influence of religion The discovery of the nine islands, by alone being able to ftifle the murmurs, geographers soinetimes called Tercerás and check the oppogtion of the people or Western, but more generally the to the expensive enterprizes of the Azores, commenced in 1432; but they Duke of Visco. For this purpose, Pope were not completely settled by the Martin the Fifth granted an exclusive Portuguese, who still retain them, till right to the Portuguese nation of the the year 1450 : but the Flemings lay ilands they already possessed, and also claim to one of them, because John Van. to whatever countries their persever- denberg, a Flemith merchant, first exance might hereafter explore : con plored Fayal, which is still inhabited ceflions which were afterwards con- by Flemings under the protection of firmed and enlarged by Eugenius the a Portuguese garrison. As the clute to Fourth, Nicholas the Fiftb, and Sextus the the discoveries of the Duke of Visco, Fourth. Thus supported, the Duke of our Author subjoins the first and second Virco proceeded with resolution; but voyages of Cada Mojio, a noble Venehis energy was again depressed by the tian, in which considerable information death of bis illustrious father John the is given of the discoveries made along First, who died at Lilbon in 1433. the coast of Africa, and in the interior

The thort reign of his successor Ed- part of that country. The Duke died ward I. who died of the plague in about the year 1463; and it was then 1438, opened the door to new voyages, left to King Alphon!o the Fifth to as Don Pedro, who seconded all the continue the maritime power and spirit views of his brother Henry, was ap- of enterprise which had rendered 'hin pointed regent of the kingdom during so famous.. A further progress was the minority of his nephew Alplonso the made by this Monarch in discoveries First. The first act of the Regent was to on the Western coast of Africa, from renew a treaty of friend thip and com Cape Verga to Cape Catherine; and be merce with England. The disposition concluded a commercial treaty in 1479, of the two brothers being equally in- with Ferdinand of Cartile, by which clined to favour the progress of mari- the trade to Guinea and the navigation time discovery, a succellion of voyages of its coat was guaranteed to Portugal, took place; the gold-coast of Africa and the Canary Islands to Spain: this was discovered, " ten negroes from was the last public act of the long different parts of that country, with a reign of Alphonso, who was leized

with the plague at Cintra in the year ridian {plendour.-This great event 1481, and died in the forty-ninth year adorned the clofe of the reign of John of his age, and the forty-third of his the Second, whose decided supremacy reign, universally regretted.

on the seas may be collected from the John the Second, his worthy succef- following anecdote: -A Portuguese sor, obtained, and justly merited, the vessel being taken by a French prititle of Great ; "the whole energy of vateer, he laid an embargo on all the his mind was directed to promote the French ships in the ports

of his kingmaritime glory of his kingdom, and dom, and directed Vasco de Gama to to extend the progress of discovery by make reprisais. The French Monarch an uniform and liberal support. His ordered instant reftitution ; but when first care was to secure the valuable the thip was restored, a Parsquet be commerce with Guinea, and more par- longing to one of the crew was ticularly the importation of gold from miiling. John refused to give up the the port of Mina; for this purpose, he French fhips until the bird was conordered a strong fort to be erected, and veyed to Lisbon: all remonftrance was a church for Christian worship: it was ineffe&tual : “ I would have it known," in vain for the spirit of opposition to said he, “that the Flag of Portugal represent the dangers of the navigation, can protect even a Paroquet."-Such and the insalubrity of the climate; the was the Monarch who expired on the pious King replied that if one African 25th of October 1495, in the fortieth was thus converted to the Faith, the year of his age, and the fourteenth threatening obstacles would easily be fur- of his reign, when, says a distinguished mounted. The fort received the naine French Author, "'The Portuguese of St. George, was converted into a name had filled all' Europe, and had city by suitable buildings in 1486, and eifaced the glory which the Phæni. a folemn mass was perforined in the cians, the Carthaginians, and the Rochurch, to consecrate the memory of mans, had acquired in the art of Navi. the illustrious Henry Duke de Visco, gation.". But his great object was the which was ordered to be an annual East Indies, on which he was lo intent, service. A beautiful engraved view of that it disturbed even his fcep -and St. George de Mina decorates the pages this accounts for his negleat of the containing the account of this settie- offers of Chrißopher Gulumbus respecting ment. The discovery of the territory the discovery of America, noticed by of Congo followed; an Ambassador our Author. Hydrographical remarks from its African King was sent to the relative to the Atlantic Ocean Court of Portugal, who, together with minate Chapter II. his retinue, being converted to 'Chril Chapter 111. contains a retrospect of tianity, were baptized with consider- Indian History from the Macedonian able pomp; John himself accompanied discoveries to the close of the fifteenth the devout African to the altar, at century, in Section 1. The Portuguese terded by another sponsor, and the annals are continued in Section 11. : Queen as god-mother.

Einmanuel, the succesor of John the We now arrive at the grand era, Second, in opposition to the advice of which accomplimed the first great ob. his counsellors, pursued his plan of ject that the Duke de Visco had incited maritime discoveries; and Vasco de his countrymen to pursue from the Gama vas lent on an expedition to year 1412, “the discovery of the Cape India, furnished with letters from the of Good Hope, by Bartholomew Diviz, King to the Princes of the Country. an officer of the King's household at The fleet arrived on the coast on the Lisbon, in the year 1487." From the 20th of May 1498, and Gama was conheavy gales this navigator had expe ducted by some fishermen to Calicut, rienced, he called the high table-land a city on the coast of Malabar. of the great promontory, Il Cabo des Here ends Book I. adorned with a Tormentos; but the high expectations vignette of a ship under fail, as seen at the King of Portugal entertained of four leagues' distance from Cape Vercle. the commercial benefits he Mould de In the pleating expectation of seeing rive from the discovery, suggested the the Second Volume announced, we take more appropriate name he gave to it, our leave, reserving a list of appendixés and which it ftill retains..

for insertion when the work is comThe maritime power and glory of pleted. Portugal had now a:tained their me




Leopold; or, The Bastard. In Two Volumes. 12mo. this Novel, which abounds with growth, determines his parents to sepa

incidents ingenioully imagined, rate hin from his brother. He is acand characters in high and low life well cordingly placed with a Clergyman, delineated, and properly contrasted, we from whore house be runs away after have only room to give the following several years' retidence; and in his ramoutline:

bles is cheated by a Jew, tricked by a The Earl of Dormer, a disipated gipsey, robbed by a pickpocket, and ysung Nobleman, betrays the trust re near perishing for want. In this tituaposed in him, by reducing the wife of tion he is met and relieved by Ferdihis absent friend, who is likewise a nand Marchmont, a youth of his own near relation. The probability of this age, who takes him home with him, friend's return to England determines and introduces him to his parents by the guilty pair to avoid his presence by the name of Leopold Howorth. Here fight. Eimund Greville the husband, he is treated like a fon; and the young who had gone to pass a short time in a men go abroad, and return from their retired village in Switzerland, receives, travels together. New characters are while there, information of his cousin's now brought forward, in the persons of elopement, and thortly after of his a Mrs. Westbrook, her son and daugh. having taken up his relidence in the ter, which give birth to some very same village with himself. Concluding ludicrous scenes, and end in the dethat his relation bad formed fome fool- parture of the visitants, and the dir. ith or imprudent attachment, he deter- appointment of Mr. Marchmont's longmines to see and prevail with him to formed plan of uniting their families. reitore his indiscreet companion to her The dicovery of Miis Marchmont's friends, and accordingly proceeds to attachment to Leopold occations the his lodgings; but finding his friend removal of the latter, who is received from home, he is thewn by the woman in the capacity of Private Secretary by of the house to the apartment of the a Gentleman of the name of Mountjoy, Lady, when, in the person of the supthrough whose means he becomes an pored wantun, he discovers his own inmate in the family of Lord Grimwife in the act of luckling an infant, stone, and is enamoured of Lady Carowhich the length of his absence from line, the Earl's daughter. He returns her would not permit him to consider in despair to his patron, from having as his. Unable to support this shock, discovered that his brother Lord Dela he falls senseless at her feet, and is field, with wliom he had a momentary conveyed home. On his recovery he meeting, is the destined husband of the fends a challenge to the dettroyer of idol of his affections. Mr. Mountjoy,

peace; which heing declined by who has conceived a warm attachment the Earl, Mr. Greville repairs to Eng- to this youth, attempts to caim his land, and obtains a divorce, which is sorrows by a detail of those which he followed by the marriage of the cri. had himself furported; when, to the minal parties, who, after a few years, amazement and horror of Leopold, he return to their native country, bring. Ditcovers that Mr. Mountjoy and the ing with them their two sons, Leopold, deeply.injured Edmund Greville are the hero of the tale, and Lord Delfield, the fame. Resolved to fly forever from born fince their marriage.

the man to whom his birth has been With the return of these boys from baneful, hie quits his house, informing fchool the book opens. Leopold, to him by letter of the discovery that he the dismay of both his parents, asks, has made. After leaving this Gentle. why he is not a Lord as well as his man, he receives two letters from his younger brother? declaring his diilike early protector, Mr. Marchmont, and to be called a bastard, and begging to his beloved friend Ferdinand; the first know what a bastard means. He is charging him with robbing him of his filenced, but not satisfied ; accident, daughter, the second upbraiding him however, shortly after furnishes the with depriving him of his mitrels. knowledge that he fought; in conse- Otthe first charge he feels himlelf inno. quence of which he grows sullen and cent; but of the second he finds it will morofe, which, with his increased not be so easy to be acquitted. Anxious

and VOL. XLIV. JULY 1803.



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