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1847.—“When Mr. Davies took long tours of preaching, which he usually did in the course of the year, he was commonly accompanied by a pious young man, not merely as a companion, but as a pioneer to ride on before, and find a place of lodging; for many people were unwilling to receive a "Newlightpreacher into their houses, in those days. In this service young John Morton (father of Major Morton) was sometimes employed, for having been converted under Mr. Davies's ministry he was delighted to have the opportunity of enjoying his company and pious conversation. The writer has often heard old Mrs. Morton, of Little Roanoke Bridge, called the mother in Israel, relate the circumstance of Mr. Davies's first visit to that place. Young John Morton, who was a relative, came, one day to know, whether Mr. Davies, the New-light preacher, could be lodged there that night. Her husband, called, by way of distinction, Little Joe Morton, not being at the house, she could not answer. But when he was sent for, from the field, and the question was proposed to him, after a few moments consideration, he answered in the affirmative; and Mr. Morton went back to the inn, and brought Mr. Davies to the house. And with him Christ and salvation came to that house. Both of the heads of the family, under the influence of the gospel, as heard from Mr. Davies, became truly and eminently pious. And their conversion was the foundation of the Briery Congregation, of which Little Joe Morton was the first elder, and before they had a regular minister, was more like a pastor than a ruling elder; for every Sabbath he would convene the people, and read to them an evangelical sermon; and regularly catechise the children out of the Shorter Catechism. The writer never saw this excellent man; but he can truly say

he never knew any layman to leave behind him a sweeter savour of piety. None was ever heard to speak of him after his decease, otherwise than with respect bordering on veneration. And all the children of this pious pair became members of the Presbyterian Church; and if all their children and grandchildren were collected together, who are members of the church, they would form a large congregation; and among them would be found several preachers of the gospel."

In these circuits for preaching, it was the habit of Mr. Davies either to preach at the places where he lodged, or to give a lecture to the family and servants, at evening worship. These services were pre-eminently blessed; many neighbourhoods have traditions of their usefulness. Every visit enlarged his circuit and increased the number of places that asked for Presbyterian preaching.

In the year 1752 the Synod of New York met at Newark, on the 29th of September, the day after the Commencement of


New Jersey College, located in that place. On the second day of the sessions, in the afternoon—"Mr. Davies is come to the Synod; his not coming in the beginning of this session occasioned by mistaking the time of meeting.” The Rev. Jonathan Edwards, on a visit to his son-in-law, Mr. Burr, the President, being present at the meeting of Synod, was enrolled a corresponding member. Mr. Edwards preached before the Synod from James ii. 19- Thou believest there is one God; thou doest well; the devils also believe and tremble.” “The Synod agreed to desire the Rev. Mr. Edwards to publish his sermon preached before them.” The sermon was printed under the title, “True Grace distinguished from the Experience of Devils."

Upon a representation of the destitute circumstances of Virginia, the Synod appoint Mr. Greenman and Mr. Robert Henry, to go there sometime betwixt this and the next synod. Mr. Edwards, under date of November 24th, 1752, writes to a gentleman in Scotland, “When I was lately in New Jersey, in the time of the Synod there, I was informed of some small movings and revivals in some places, on Long Island, and in New Jersey. I then had the comfort of a short interview with Mr. Davies of Virginia, and was much pleased with him and his conversation. He appears to be a man of very solid understanding, discreet in his behaviour, and polished and gentlemanly in his manners, as well as fervent and zealous in religion. He gave an account of the probability of the settlement of Mr. Todd, a young man of good learning and of a pious disposition, in a part of Virginia near to him. Mr. Davies represented before the Synod the great necessities of the people, in the back parts of Virginia, where multitudes were remarkably awakened and reformed several years ago, and ever since have been thirsting after the ordinances of God. The people are chiefly from Ireland of Scotch extraction. The Synod appointed two men to go down and preach among these people; viz. Mr. Henry, a Scotchman, who has lately taken a degree at New Jersey College, and Mr. Greenman, the young man who was educated at the charge of Mr. David Brainerd. This opinion of Edwards was formed of Davies in an assemblage of great men, assembled on a great occasion, the Commencement of their College, and the meeting of their Synod.

Mr. Todd, referred to in the above extracts, was finally settled in Virginia. He was installed Nov. 12th, 1762. The sermon preached by Mr. Davies, on the occasion, was publishlished. From the dedication, the following fine extracts show the disposition and ministerial course of the two men. It is addressed “To the Rev. Clergy of the Established Church of Virginia.

" In the following sermon, and appendix, gentlemen, you may be informed of our sentiments concerning the nature and design and various duties of the ministerial office. The following sermon will also inform you, gentlemen, what is the substance of the doctrines we generally preach; whether they are the rigid peculiarities of Presbyterianism, or the generous truths of catholic Christianity; whether they are the raw innovations of New Lights,' or the good old doctrines of the Church of England, of the Reformation, and to say all in a word, of the Bible. If you would know, revered sirs, what has been that strange charm that has enchanted people in these parts to leave the stated communion of the established church, and to profess themselves dissenters; we can solemnly assure you, and our hearers of every denomination are our witnesses, that it has not been any public or private artifice of ours to expose the liturgy and clergy of the Church of England; but the plain, peaceable preaching of such doctrines as are mentioned in the following sermon, in weakness, and in fear, and in much trembling. And if we may believe the united testimony of our adherents, it was an eager thirst after these doctrines, rather than a dissatisfaction with the peculiar modes of worship in that church, which first induced them to dissent.”

In the same dedication, he gives an extract from a letter he had previously sent to the Commissary, Dr. Dawson—"for whose memory”-he says—“I have a sincere veneration, written at his motion, to give him, and the other gentlemen of the Council, to whom he promised to communicate it, an impartial account of the dissenters here; and what he was pleased to request, I may, I hope, inoffensively present to you. I am not fond, sir, of disseminating sedition and schism; I have no ambition to Presbyterianize the colony. But I may declare without suspicion of ostentation, or wilful falsification, that I have a sincere zeal, however languid and impotent, to propagate the catholic religion of Jesus in its life and power; though I feel but little anxiety about the denomination its genuine members assume. The profession of Christianity is universal in this colony; but alas, sir, if the religion of the Bible be the test of men's characters, and the standard of their final doom, multitudes, multitudes, are in a perishing condition. Their ignorance, their negligence, their wrong notions of vital Christianity, their habitual neglect of its known duties, their vicious practice proclaim it aloud ; and he that can persuade himself of the contrary, in spite of evidence, is possessed of a charity under no rational or scriptural regulations. For my part, sir, should I believe that religion is in a flourishing state in this colony, I must renounce the Bible, disbelieve my eyes, and my ears, and rush into universal scepticism. Could I indulge the pleasing dream, my life below the skies would be an anticipation of heaven. I do not conclude religion is in so lamentable a state because I see the generality pray by form, receive the sacrament kneeling,—or in word, because they conform to the debated peculiarities of the established church ;—no sir, I freely grant that these things are not the test of men's characters; these may be so far from hindering, that for what I know, they may promote living religion, in such as have no scruples about them ;-but the unwelcome evidences that force the conclusion upon me, are, the general neglect, and stupid unconcernedness about religion, the habitual omission of its duties, and the vicious practices that glare upon me around, and which are utterly inconsistent with true religion in any denomination. I pretend to no superior sanctity above the established clergy, who are piously aiming at the great end of their office, --and I allow myself the pleasure of hoping there are such in Virginia. I pretend to no Apostolic powers and privileges, immediate revelations and impulses, but renounce the claim as presumptuous and enthusiastical, I am as mean and insignificant a creature as you can well conceive me to be. But I dare

profess, sir, that even a heart so insensible as mine, is at times dissolved into compassion and racked with agonies of zeal, when so dismal a scene opens around me; I dare profess, I cannot stand an unconcerned inactive spectator of the ruin of my fellow sinners, but would very gladly spend and be spent for them, though the more abundantly I love them, the less I should be loved. I am bold to avow so much pious humanity, as that I would exert myself to the utmost, in my little sphere, for their recovery; and since I am disabled by some conscientious scruples, to attempt it in the communion of the established church, I humbly conceive, I am warranted to attempt it in a separate communion. This, sir, is my only design, and, as I told you in conversation, I think it would be no great stretch of charity to suppose, that even a dissenter may be more distressed to see multitudes rushing on, in a thoughtless career to ruin, than to see them conform to the Church of England; and more zealous to convert them from sin to holiness, than from party to party.

He thus concludes his dedication to the established clergy, in the following manner. “ This account of my conduct and designs, gentlemen, I have seen no reason to retract, and my procedure since it was written, which was about a year ago (1752) has not been inconsistent with it. And till my practice be proven inconsistent with it, these unreserved declarations of my designs must be deemed sincere, and worthy to be credited: unless mortals can produce authentic credentials to warrant their assuming the prerogative of Omniscience, and judging the secrets of men. My sole design is to give you an impartial account of the doctrines with which we entertain our hearers:


you may judge how far we deserve to be censured and opposed as 'innovators, disturbers of the peace of the church, sowers of heresies and sedition.' And if the following sermon answer this end, the design of its publication with respect to you, is fully obtained. But if I should be so unhappy as to be disappointed in this, I must support myself by reflecting upon the inoffensiveness and integrity of my intentions; and as Chrysostome observes, in the quotation from him in the title page-it is a sufficient relief under all his labours, and more than equivalent for them all, when one can be conscious to himself, that he regulates his doctrine to the approbation of the Deity. And to translate my first motto from Clemens of Alexandria, he is in reality a presbyter of the Church, and a true minister of the will of God, who teaches the doctrines of the Lord Jesus, and practices accordingly; and though he be not honoured with the first seat upon earth, he shall be enthroned in heaven. To that state of perfect uniformity in sentiment, and everlasting friendship, may you be conducted, when you have served your generation according to the will of God! And then may divine grace afford some humble place, among the myriads of glorified immortals, to the unworthy mortal who is, and therefore desires to be esteemed-Reverend sirs, your affectionate brother, hearty well wisher, and humble servant,

SAMUEL DAVIES." Hanover, January 9th, 1753.

About a month before the installation of Mr. Todd, Mr. Davies preached before the Presbytery of New Castle, October 11th, 1752, from these words,-“For Zion's sake I will not hold my peace, and for Jerusalem's sake I will not rest, until the righteousness thereof go forth as brightness, and the salvation thereof as a lamp that burneth.” By the desire of Presbytery and the congregation it was published, being printed at the office of B. Franklin and D. Hall, in Market street, Philadelphia, 1753,—with a preface by Rev. Samuel Finley. This sermon is given nearly complete in the 9th vol. of the Literary and Evangelical Magazine, by J. H. Rice, D.D. The design of the sermon is, “I. Mention some measures which the ministers of the gospel should pursue for the advancement of religion in the world. II. Offer some important considerations to engage us to use such measures with unwearied diligence and zeal.” A sermon that would well have a place in his printed volumes.

Another extract from Dwight's Life of Edwards, found on page 498, will throw some light on the history of these times. In writing to the Rev. John Erskine of Scotland, he expresses himself thus—“What you write of the appointment of a gentleman, to the office of Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, who is a

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