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• Come up, O Elam! lay siege, O Media! • I have put an end to all her vexations.'

3 For this my loins are filled with acute pain ;

Pangs seize me, as the pangs of a woman in travail.
I am convulsed by what I hear,
I am astounded by what I see!


4 My thoughts? wander!

Fright distracts me!
The sweet season of my morning sleep he appoint-

ed to me for horror.5

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1 Literally, my heart:' but the heart, in the language of the sacred writers, signifies the whole inner man, the thoughts as well as the passions.


% “ Fright"- The word niya is a feminine singular, as appears by the form of the verb of which it is the subject.

3 The original seems to express the regular return of some distracting visions at this season appointed by Nature for a respite from every care. In the following verse the prophet seems to fall into one of these dreadful trances. The terror carried to the uta most height by the scene of the capture of the city, brings him to himself; and he awakes from the trance calling to the Babylonian chiefs, to apprise them of their danger.

5 The table deckt-the watch setmeat, drink"

Rise, princes! gripe the oiled shield.5

6 For thus hath the Lord said unto me, Come, let him that standeth on the watch-tower

report what he seeth.

7 And he seeth one-drawn-in-a-car (5) with a

pair of riders, Drawn by an ass, drawn by a camel. And he hearkeneth out with great diligence.

8 And he crieth, ' My Lord, I am a (very] lion;

• Standing on the watch continually all the day, • And fixed upon my station every night.'

* I have endeavoured to imitate the somnambular phraseology of the original.

s Literally, anoint the shield.' I suppose these shields were of leather, not overlaid with metal like the shields of Homer's heroes; and were oiled to preserve the toughness of the leather, which otherwise growing hard and brittle, would have been apt to split with the stroke of a dart, and to give a passage to the weapon. Compare 2 Sam. i, 21. Or they might be oiled, though covered with metal, to make the surface slippery, that the weapons of the enemy might slide upon them.

9 And behold, hither cometh

The man drawn in a car with a pair of riders : And thereupon [the watchman] proclaimeth • Babylon is fallen, is fallen! · And all the graven images of her gods are dashed

in pieces against the ground.'

my floor!

10 O my thrashing, and the corn of

What I have heard from Jehovah of hosts
The God of Israel, I have reported unto you.


I agree with Houbigant that the prophecy contained in the first fourteen verses of this chapter relates to the siege and capture of Jerusalem in the reign of Zedekiah. The infidelity and impenitence of the Jewish people mentioned in the 11th and 13th verses, and the utter ruin threatened in the 14th, suit not the times of Hezekiah, nor the event of Sennacherib's expedition. The measures of de



Literally, and he answereth, and saith.' But 6 he answereth,' often signifies only that the speaker speaks in reference to a certain subject, or upon a certain occasion, expressed, or to be collected at least, from the preceding discourse.

fence described in the 9th, 10th, and 11th verses, are such precautions as would naturally be used at any time when a siege was apprehended, and cannot be understood to mark the times of Hezekiah in particular, notwithstanding what the sacred history records of his preparations for a siege.

Verse 3. _" they are bound by the archers are bound.” For 990%, in both places, read, with Hou

, , _" they are fled from the bow—are fled.” Bishop Lowth.

Verse 5. --" breaking down the walls, and of cry. ing to the mountain.” Mr Parkhurst's translation of this passage deserves attention: _" of confused justling, or hurly-burly, and of shouting on the mountain.” See his Lexicon, 77p, 1. and pop.

Verse 6. _" with chariots of men and horsemen.” For 7x, read, with Houbigant and Bishop Lowth,

,הסרו ,bigant and Bishop Lowth


And Elam takes up the quiver ;
On chariots with riders [comes] the Syrian,

The Cyræan uncovers the shield.
Verse 8. “ And he discovered the covering of
Judah ;" rather,

" And the veil of Judah shall be (or was] taken off.” See Parkhurst, 7o.

Verse 14. Notwithstanding the difficulty which Bishop Lowth finds in this passage, it seems to me very similar to 1 Sam. ii, 27, and iii, 21; and I am persuaded no emendation is necessary. as Jehovah is revealed;" that is, the purpose of Jehovah is revealed.

Verse 16. _" as he that heweth, &c.—a rock." Literally, “ hewings on high are his sepulchre, cuttings in the rock his habitation.” That is, his sepulchre is hewn out on high, his habitation is cut out in the rock.

Verse 17. _" will carry thee away with a mighty captivity, and will surely cover thee." The expres.

. sions in the original are of very doubtful interpretation.

Verse 18. “ He will surely violently turn and toss thee like a ball.” Castalio has rendered the original with more exactness, I think, than any other interpreter : _“ Convolutum tanquam pilam versando rotabit." 17, 18. Upon considering the separate senses of

, ,

by or 503, to cast forth, to project;' w or mby, to hurry away, to toss away;' 193, to cause to spin like a ball in the air,' I suspect that the verses should be thus divided :


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,namely ,צנף and ,עטה or עט ,נטל or טל the roots

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