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stream of any kind. The Vulgate seems to have understood it as exactly equivalent to the Latin os, which properly denotes not what in the English language is meant by the mouth of a river, the place where it empties itself into the sea, which in Latin is properly expressed by ostium, but the source from whence a river takes its rise. For thus the Vulgate renders the whole clause; -“nudabitur alveus rivi à fonte suo.'

- shall wither, be driven away, and be no more.” The general sense of this clause I take to be well expressed in the version of the LXX: -NOI TOV TO σπειρομενον δια του ποταμου ξηρανθησεσαι ανεμοφθορον. The idea is, that all vegetation even close to the river's side shall be so perfectly withered, as to be scattered in the shape of powder by the wind.

Verse 9. “ Moreover they that work in fine flax,” &c. Interpreters differ greatly in the sense of the words nopein ons, and none have given a satisfactory exposition. The word opnu is rendered by the LXX in Gen. xlix, 11, as if it peculiarly signified the tendrils of the vine; and from its affinity in sound to the words 770 and 110, it is not unreason. able to suppose that it may signify any thing pliant, and apt to twist and twine. Hence it may signify and then the passage ,אורגים I would read ,וארגים

,I take ,אגמי ,The last .אגמי and ,שכר ,שתתיה ,viz

the fibres under the bark of the plant from which flax is

spun, and perhaps the threads made of those fibres. Taking this sense of the word mpyv, for

, I , may be thus rendered ;

The manufacturers in flax shall be confounded,
They that weave the fibres into meshes,
Verse 10. “ And they shall be broken,” &c.

Three words occur in this verse of difficult expo. sition, which produce a great obscurity of the whole;

, . , I , with Kimchi, to be equivalent to pay, in which sense it is used in the Chaldaic and Arabic dialects.

I , the dams made to confine the water in artificial pools, or wicker pottles made for catching some particular sorts of fish, which last is the sense that seems best connected with the context. Leaving then the word minu as yet unexpounded, the verse will run thus;

And opinnw shall be broken to pieces,

All the makers of fish-pottles shall be sorrowful in soul, Now for the word na: the root mw seems to contain in its primary meaning the two ideas of stability and arrangement. It signifies to set firm,

and to signify either ,סכר I take to be used for שכר

and · in order. Hence the nouns nu and nav by their etymology may signify any substantial works of the carpenter or mason, or any other firm orderly arrangements. In Psalm xi, 3, the plural minun signifies either the principal stones or the main timbers of a building. In the Chaldee dialect, the noun Nora signifies a square oblong beam, plank, or block. In Hebrew, the noun nw signifies the warp of woven cloth, as distinguished from the woof. In Chaldee, inrnuo is the piece woven. In Syriac, the verb NUX is 'he wove;' the noun NW, the operation of weaving ; NJIn09, the weaver's beam; and insur, either the operation of weaving, or the shuttle. In the text under consideration, we have not only

, but to expound the suffix 67. Now this feminine suffix, as Houbigant observes, hath no antecedent. Some get over this difficulty by expounding the pronoun of Egypt. But the last mention of Egypt is so far back as in the 3d verse, in a sentence which has no connection with this. It seems therefore a certain conclusion, that this feminine suffix singular, for which no antecedent can be found, must be a corruption; and this corruption might easily take place by removing the final in the masculine suf.

,שתתים to determine the sense of the plural noun

fix plural from the end of this word to the begin. ning of the next. For '970 munu therefore, I

as the דכאים taking ,שתחיהם דכאים would read

,דכא may be a fit subject of the verb

participle Paoul in Kal, or Benoni in Pual. If this alteration, which in part is Houbigant's, be adopted, the person rehearsed by the masculine suffix plural can be no other than the manufacturers of flax, who weave the fibres into meshes,' mentioned in the last verse, and the noun Dinnu must denote something which belongs to them. Hence we are led to seek the sense of this noun among the materials, the implements, or the effects of the weaver's trade; and among these we must choose somewhat that a

We must therefore reject the materials and the effect, the warp and the finished web. For the verbs 77, 197, $57, express contusion, not tearing; and hard things only are the proper subjects of these verbs in their literal meaning. The implements therefore remain; the shuttles, or the beams or frames. I rather think the latter are intended in this place. Thus the true rendering of the whole verse will be to this effect :

And their frames shall be broken to pieces; All the makers of dams (or of fish-pottles) shall be dispirited. Vitringa thinks that, under the image of fishermen and their subordinate artificers, the priests of the idolatrous religions of Egypt and their inferior ministers are described.

Verse 14. — and they have caused Egypt to err in every work thereof."

huyn by. The suffix is masculine. But in the clause immediately preceding, and in the latter

clause of the preceding verse, Egypt is rehearsed by · the feminine suffix. It is true, that in different parts of this chapter Egypt is rehearsed by the masculine and feminine suffix indifferently. But it is hardly to be supposed that the same word should be rehearsed by pronouns of different genders in the very same sentence. [This may easily be supposed in the prophetic style.] I am persuaded that the masculine pronoun suffixed to wyra rehearses Jehovah, and I render the whole


thus ;


And the pillars of her tribes have caused Egypt to err. 14 Jehovah hath scattered in the midst of her a spirit of giddi.

ness ;

And they have caused Egypt to err with respect to all his

As a drunkard staggereth in his vomit.

The rulers of the Egyptians misled the people by


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