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assistant. The hospitals on the estates should, if possible, be visited every other day. But this cannot be done by two medical men in a practice so considerable, particularly if the estates, &c. lie scattered over any great extent of country: indeed, at a sickly period, strict medical attention to all the patients under their care must become utterly impracticable. It would therefore be highly proper to limit or proportion the quantum of practice to the number of practitioners, even if those sons of Esculapius were to be compensated for this by raising their emoluments; though it must be confessed, they would have little cause to complain of the tardiness of fortune, without such remuneration for yielding to à necessary regulation; for, besides their fees of attendance (viz. a pistole for every visit, &c. on a white patient) they have a monstrous profit upon their drugs, which may be said to be charged ad libitum. It used to be observed, that many of the surgeons who were wont to emigrate to Jamaica, were not the most competent that could be desired, dispensing with the usual formality of college lectures, hospital practice, &c. and disdaining any other title to set up as a healer of disorders, than that of having served a few years' apprenticeship to an apothecary, and "perhaps a voyage or two on board of an African trader. It must however be confessed, that there are now many very able practitioners in the island;
though there are but few regular bred physicians, or doctors of medicine. Perhaps the old experienced surgeon, who, by a long residence and extensive practice in the country, has acquired a thorough knowledge of the diseases incident to the climate, and the most successful mode of treating them, is a more desirable medical attendant than the regular-bred young physician, : just emerged from the cloisters of a college, and fortified with Greek, Latin, and his diploma.
The tradesmen are usually employed on the estates at salaries of from an hundred and forty to two hundred pounds currency per annum. They do not perform much manual work themselves; their employment chiefly is the superintendance of the gangs of negro tradesmen. The jobber is one who having (chiefly as a planter) acquired a gang of forty, fifty, or more negroes, and a mountain settlement, retires from the planting profession, and devotes his attention partly to the improvement of his settlement, and partly to the improvement of his finances, by working, or jobbing out his slaves; that is, undertaking various kinds of work at certain regular prices.
A surveyor is a lucrative employment in Jamaica, being handsomely paid for his labours, and having always abundant employment; for there are few surveys (particularly of immense tracts of woodland) so accurately taken as not to leave room for still further precision in others: indeed, it would be unnatural, as well as un generous, in these gentlemen, to reduce their surveys and measurements to a mathematical certainty, as it would preclude their younger brethren of the theodolite from the same extensive field of employment: A surveyor should therefore endeavour to perpetuate the disagreement of diagrams and lines, as the lawyer exults in the glorious uncertainties of the law. It must, however, be acknowledged, that the Jamaica surveyor has an infinite deal of painful laborious work to go through. When traversing the deepest woods, he is compelled, at times, to lead the life of a Maroon for weeks together; hn has to clamber over rocks and precipices at the hazard of his life; he is exposed to the inclemencies of the weather, and is liable to sickness from the damps of the woods, and the vicissitudes of heat, cold, wet, and dry; he eats his solitary and unsavory meal on the barren inhospitable rock; and, at night, he reposes on the damp earth, annoyed by musquitoes, and in danger of receiving cold. He is, however, sometimes compensated for these. endurances, by discovering an unoccupied run of land, which he immediately possesses himself of by patent: but this does not so often happen at the present time as it did in former periods, inost of the land in the island that is worth possessing being already preoccupied. A surveyor, however, if he has enough of good employment,
may speedily realize a handsome fortune; by good employment is meant such as he is likely to get paid for; for in this country it is thought, by many, highly ung enteel to pay at all.
The professions most likely to make money here, next to attornies and the reverend clergy, are surgeons, surveyors, watch-inakers, coppersmiths, masons, taylors, &c. Tradesmen in general can never for a moment want employment; and, if they are skilful and industrious, their salaries are liberal. They have it much more in their power to make a speedy fortune than the planter-adventurer.
The rnerchant, by giving long credits to his customers, has an enormous profit upon his goods. But as this subject has already been touched upon, it may here only be added that the merchants of Jamaica trade either with Great Britain, or with America, and sometimes with both; and, if they possess a tolerable capital, they soon realize a fine fortune. Many of them are respecto. able and useful characters. The shop-keeper's are here called store-keepers ; they receive regular supplies of goods from Great Britain, for which they demand their own price, generally raising it to an unreasonable height according to the exigencies of the demand; so that the prices seldom remain long uniform and stationary, as in the mother country. Thirty shillings, for instance, has been known to have been demanded
for a pair of common export shoes (not always calculated for long wearing), for which, perhaps, the store-keeper paid six or seven shillings sterling; but the article was scarce, and must be had at any rate. But then they consider, that they must be somehow compensated for the hazard they run with bad customers. A store-keeper, who sets up with a tolerable fund, is supported and countenanced by an able friend, and has the good fortune to procure choice customers, cannot fail of succeeding; and, without these, it would be better for him to lay out his money at lawful interest, on good security, than hazard it on so precarious a bottom. Some, however, succeed astonishingly, with few or none of these advantages, by dealing chiefly or solely in negro goods, or such merchandize as is adapted for the use of the negroes, for which they receive cash alone. This is a mighty advantage to them, as with ready money they are enabled to renew their stock of goods at a very considerable discount, sometimes (at vendue sales, as they are called) even under prime cost. Specie is so scarce in the island, that extraordinary bargains may be made by a command of it at times. It is by no means unusual to see various kinds of property disposed of by public sale, for cash, at one third less than they would be sold for upon credit, and at a price, indeed, sometimes greatly under their intrinsic value. The Spaniards who trade to the island are gene