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LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

From the observations made by Pro- higher than the far-famed summit of fessor Jameson, it would appear, that Mont Blanc. augite, hitherto considered a rare mineral, A monstrous birth is stated to have is very generally and abundantly distri. taken place in the city of Jyopre : the wife buted throughout Scotland.

of a Bramin, named Kishun Ram, had It is much to be regretted that we pos- been brought to bed of a girl with four sess no mineralogical map of Scotland. faces and four legs.

When this ominous Mr Smith, an industrious and intelligent circumstance was related to the Rajah, surveyor, has published a mineralogical he instantly ordered a charitable donation map of England and Wales, which, al. to be made to the poor, to avert the calathough incomplete, is a creditable work mity which such an occurrence was supfor a single individual. The public anx- posed to threaten.-Ceylon Gaz. iously expect the promised map of Eng. Mr Stanley Griswold, in the New York land, from the active and intelligent pre- Medical Repository, informs us, that sident of the Geological Society of Lon- earthquakes, extending for more than an don, Mr Greenough. Professor Jameson hundred miles, are occasionally produchas been for several years collecting ma- ed by the combustion of beds of coal in terials for a general mineralogical map of marshy places. Scotland; and it is expected, that he will New Barometer. We understand that soon communicate the result of his la. an instrument has lately been invented bours to the public.

by our very ingenious townsman, Mr The celebrated traveller, Baron Von Alexander Adie, optician, which answers Buch, is now printing, in London, a all the purposes of the common baromeMineralogical Account of the Canary Is- ter, and has the advantage of being much lands, which, it is confidently expected, more portable, and much less liable to will prove a classical work on the natural accident. In this instrument the movehistory of volcanoes.

In the same work, able column is oil, enclosing in a tube a he will treat particularly on the geo. portion of nitrogen, which changes its graphical and physical 'distribution of bulk according to the density of the at. these nearly-tropical isles in which in mosphere. Mr Adie has given it the vestigation he will be materially assisted name of sympiesometer (or measure of by the observations of the companion in compression). One of these new instruhis voyage, the late excellent but unfor. ments was taken to India in the Buckingtunate Dr Smith of Christiana, who per- hamshire of Greenock, and by the direcished in the calamitous expedition up tions of Captain Christian, corresponding the Congo.

observations were made on it, and on the Mr Bouë of Hamburgh, an active and common marine barometer, every three intelligent disciple of the Edinburgh school hours during the voyage. The result, of Natural History, is about to publish a we are informed, was entirely satisfacTract of the Physical and Geographical tory—the new instrument remaining unDistribution of the plants of Scotland. affected by the most violent motion of the

We ought to have noticed, in a former • ship. We may add, that the sympiesoNumber, the Map of the County of meter may be made of dimensions so Edinburgh, by Mr Knox. It is on four small as to be easily carried in the pocket, sheets, well engraven, and exhibits in a so that it is likely to become a valuable lucid and accurate manner, the Physiog- acquisition to the geologist. nomy of that portion of Scotland. We The Glasgow Astronomical Society has would recommend it to the attention of lately procured a solar microscope from those who are interested in geographical Dolland, the largest that celebrated opti. and geological researches, and the more cian has ever constructed. It is exhibit so, as we understand that it is to be ed to most advantage betwixt eleven and illustrated by a Memoir from the Pro- two o'clock, during which hours the sun fessor of Natural History in the Univer- is in the best position for observing it. sity of Edinburgh.

The first trial of this superb instrument Mont Blanc, hitherto considered as the disclosed some wonderful phenomena; highest mountain in the old world, is hundreds of insects were discovered denow far eclipsed by the lofty ranges of vouring the body of a gnat. These ani. the Himmalah, which rise 27,000 feet malcula were magnified so as to appear above the sea. Even the Elbrus, a nine inches long, their actual size being European mountain, measured by Wis- somewhat less than the fourteen hun. nievsky, is said to be 2,500 French feet dredth part of an inch. The mineral kingdom afforded another display of brile extraordinary case of a soldier who surliant objects; their crystalization, and vived forty-nine hours after receiving a the splendour of their colouring, exceed bayonet-wound of the heart; but a gun. any thing the most lively imagination shot wound of the heart affords a still can conceive.

more striking example of the great exMr E. Donovan, the ingenious author tent to which this vital organ may sustain of a serịes of interesting works illustra- an injury from external violence, without tive of the Natural History of Britain, its functions being immediately destroyed, and proprietor of the museum of Natural or even permanently impaired. History in Fleet street, has announced Fusion of Wood Tin.--Dr Clarke of his intention of selling that collection by Cambridge has made a curious addition public auction in the beginning of next to our knowledge respecting wood tin. year, unless it shall have been previously When exposed to the action of his

power. disposed of. He states that it has cost ful oxygen and hydrogen blow-pipe, it him the labour of thirty years, and an fuses completely, acquires a colour nearexpense of more than £15,000.

ly similar to that of plumbago, with a Sir Edward Home has submitted to very strong metallic lustre. Dr Clarke the Royal Society a paper on the nature was so obliging as to give me some speand effects of an infusion of colchicum cimens of wood tin thus fused.

It was autumnale and eau medicinale on the hu- very hard; as far as I could judge, nearman constitution in cases of gout. He ly as much so as common tin-stone. It found from experiments, that the sedi. was brittle, and easily reducible to a fine ment of the latter is excessively drastic powder. I found it not in the least actand severe, while that of the infusion of ed on by nitric acid, muriatic acid, and colchicum possesses about half the strength nitro-muriatic acid, even when assisted of the former; and that the clear tinc- by heat. Hence, it must still continue ture of both is equally efficacious in cur- in the state of an oxide. ing gout without being so dreadfully de- The circumstance, that wood tin (and structive to the constitution. The result probably tin stone also (acquires a metherefore of these experiments is, that tallic lustre when fused, seems to decide the clear fluid, either of the vinous infu. a subject which has been agitated in this sion of colchicum or of the eau medicinale, country with much keenness.

It was may be taken with equal advantage to asserted by Dr Hutton, and is still mainthe health, and much less injury to the tained by his followers, that all granite body; but that of the former is much the has been in a state of igneous fusion. milder of the two.

From Dr Clarke's experiment, it may be Mr John Davy has detailed, in a letter inferred, with considerable confidence, to his brother, Sir Humphry Davy, many that the granite in which the ores of new and curious experiments and obser- tin occur has never been in a state of vations on the temperature and specific fusion.--Thomson's Annals, No 55. gravity of the sea, made during a voyage to Ceylon. From these it appears, that the specific gravity of the sea is nearly Theories of the Earth. Many of the the same every where ; that the temper. fanciful theories of our globe, founded ature is generally highest about noon; upon false conclusions, drawn from the that it is higher during a storm, but that repeated discovery of fresh water shells in this case the period of the highest tem- and marine shells being found together perature is somewhat later. He has in the same strata, are likely to be set at found that shallow water is colder than nought by an experiment of M. Bendant deep; so that by this difference seamen of Marseilles, from whence it results, may discover, at night, when they ap- that fresh water or marine molluscæ will proach either shoals, banks, or the shore. live in either medium, if habituated to On approaching the coast the water was it gradually ; but with some few excepalways found to be two degrees colder tions. than when in the open sea.

The Society for Elementary Instruction In August last, a buck that was re- in France lately held a public meeting markably fat and healthy in condition, at the Hotel de Ville of Paris. From was killed in Bradby park, and, on open- the reports read by the secretaries it aping him, it was discovered that, at some pears, that during the past year the new distant tiine, he had been shot in the method of instruction has made great heart ; for a ball was contained in a cyst progress both in Paris and the provinces, in the substance of that viscus, about and there is every reason to hope that it two inches from the apex, weighing will soon become general. In the capital 292 grains, and beaten quite flat. In there are 15 schools in full activity; one the second volume of the Medico-Chi. of them has 333 scholars. · The Prefect rurgical Transactions, is published an of the department of the Seine has ef.

FRANCE.

fected the establishment of two normal presented to the Society a vase of platischools, one for training masters, and the num, purified according to the process other mistresses. The country towns of M. Breant, assayer to the mint, which want nothing but teachers to found in- is formed of one single lcaf without sol. stitutions similar to those of Paris : and dering; contains 160 litres, and weighs in several places, societies numbering 154 kilogrammes (31 lbs.). The cost is more than 700 subscribers have been 18 francs per ounce. The vase is intendformed. The methods of Bell and Lan. ed to be employed in the concentration caster have been combined, and improved of sulphuric acid. It is but just, the Rein various respects. In the garrison port adds, to observe that Janety the towns a beginning has been made to ap- younger was the first to fabricate vases ply the new method to the education of of platinum of a large size, but not withsoldiers' children. The minister of the out soldering. This artist furnishes the interior has sent out teachers to the Isle metal at present at 14 francs the ounce, of Bourbon, Senegal, and Corsica. Swiss, either in plate or wire. Spaniards, Italians, and Russians, have The most remarkable of the new income to Paris to learn the new method; ventions which have been submitted to so that we may fairly presume, that the the Society, is one of a portable anemo. benefits of this system, which originated meter, constructed by M. Regnier. The in England, will soon be diffused over all idea of it was suggested to the inventor Europe. The Society of Paris speaks in by M. Buffon. It has been applied in a high terms of the encouragement and the very ingenious manner to make a hall assurances of friendship that it has recei. clock indicate not only the force and di. ved from the Society of London, with rection of the wind, but even the maxi. which it keeps up a correspondence. mum of action which it has exerted dur.

At a general meeting of the Society for ing the absence of the observer. the Encouragement of Industry in France, held on the 9th April 1817, the secretary, Baron de Gorando, read a report of the The illustrious anatomist Sömmering labours of the Society during the prece. has just published the description of a ding year.

GERMANY

new species of the fossil genus of animal, In the department of experiments and named ornithocephalus, under the name observations, notice is taken of a siphon brevirostris. Of the ornithocephalus anpresented to the Society by M. Landren, tiquus or longirostris, a figure and descripwhich has two branches that convey at tion has been given to the public, by Prothe same time both water and air, and is fessor Jameson, in the third edition of supposed by the inventor to be capable of Cuvier's Theory of the Earth. renewing the air in mines. The com- Dr Spix of Munich, well known to mittee of the Society, to whom it was re. naturalists by his history of Zoology, mitted, had not been able to form a and a splendid work on the Crania of judgment of this instrument, but from Animals, is now preparing for publicavery imperfect models, and from reports, tion an uncommonly interesting work, the results of which they have not been entitled “ Zoologia et Phytographia Baable to verify. Similar in some respect varia Subterranea.” to the tinman's pump of Seville, and the The celebrated comparative anatomist horns of the Catalonian forges, it can in. Tiedmann, along with Oppel, is employtroduce air into furnaces and mines at ed on an extensive work on the Anatomy all times, when there is an opportunity of the Amphibia. It is promised to comof carrying off the water employed or pare the structure of the present tribes deposited ; but in the one case the humid of amphibious animals with those fossil air unavoidable by this method must, in species found in limestone and other the opinion of the committee, be injurious rocks, and thus to connect together, in to the fusion of the metals ; and in the an interesting manner, the views of the other case the chance, they think, is great. zoologist with those of the comparative er, of the noxious gases common to mines anatomist. being aspired than of their being displaced Mr Secretary Von Schreiber has brought by the introduction of new air.

to Vienna a series of specimens of the Among new improvements of existing diamond imbedded in a venigenous mass, processes, the attention of the Society not an amygdaloidal rock, as maintained was particularly directed to the perfec- by some mineralogists. tion to which the preparation of plati. Count Dunin Borkowsky, a distin. num had been brought. Not only is the guished pupil of Werner, has discovermode of purifying it most complete ; but ed amber imbedded in sand-stone, a fact little ductile as it seems, it is now reduc. of great interest to geologists. ed into leaves as fine as those of gold. Blesson has just published a treatise MM. Guog and Contourier of Paris, have on the Magnetism and Polarity of Rocks.

There has been lately published at The eccentric Dr John of Berlin, the Berlin, by P. E. Miller, a curious col. celebrated chemist, has published a curilection of the Sagen, or Stories of Ancient ous work on the natural history of am. Scandinavia.

ber. Ebeling has published the seventh vo- Fr. Adelung has published, at Peters. lume of his History of the United States burgh, a work on the merit of the Empress of America. It is dedicated to the geo. Catharine, as a philologist. graphy and statistics of Virginia.

Schwaegrichen of Leipsic has publish. William Von Humboldt, brother to the ed a posthumous work of Hedwig on celebrated traveller, has published an ad. Mosses. mirable metrical translation of the Aga. Jürgen has published two decades of memnon of Æschylus.

à curious work, entitled, Algæ aquaticæ C. J. M. Langenbeck has published a quas et in littora maris Dynastiam Jevevaluable work, entitled “ Commentarius ranum et Frisiam orientalem alluentis de structura pertonæi, testiculorum tuni. rejectis et in parum terrarum aquis habicis, eorumque ex abdomine in scrotum tantas. descensu, ad illustrandam, herniarum in. The celebrated Swedish botanist, Thundolem. Annexæ sunt xxiv. Tabulæ an. berg, has just published a Flora of the cæ. Text 128 pages large 8vo, plates in Cape of Good Hope, under the following folio.

title, “ Flora capensis sistens plantarum The celebrated Professor Eschenberg Promontorii Boni Spei Africæ, secundum has just published the sixth edition of his systema sexuale emendatum redacta ad Manual of Classical Literature, which is classes, ordines, genera, et species; 2 particularly valuable on account of the vols. Upsalæ. full and accurate enumeration it contains A Greek Atheneum, or College for mo. of all the newest and best editions of the dern Greeks, has been founded on a libe. Roman and Grecian classics.

ral plan at Munich, by Professor Thursch. Professor Brandes of Breslau, well This conspires with many other circum. known by his astronoinical writings, is stances to raise the character and prosnow engaged in a work on Meteorology, pects of the Greeks. on the same plan with his popular Trea. The ancient library of Heidelberg has tise on Astronomy. He also proposes been restored in great splendour, and now the publication of a periodical Meteoro- contains some of the most curious manu. logical Journal.

scripts in Europe. Tiedmann has lately published a folio An Academy, in some measure simi. work, with plates, on the anatomy of the lar to our Society for the encouragement Asterias, Holothura, and Echinus. of Arts, has been recently established at

The first part of the second volume of Vienna ; it is endowed by the Fmperor Meckel's Classical Work, Pathological with his grand collection of Natural His. Anatomy, has just appeared.

tory, and likewise possesses an extensive H. de Martuis has published, at Leipsic, chemical and philosophical laboratory, a curious tract De Lepra Taurica.

together with models and specimens of The celebrated philosopher, Tenneman, machinery, &c. The Austrians hope by has published a second edition of his ex. its means to improve their manufactures, cellent work, entitled, Elements of His. and to become independent of foreign in. tory and Philosophy, for the use of Aca. dustry. The design is patriotic, and we demies.

wish them success; but of this we are Sprengel has just published the 6th certain, that as foreign nations become volume of his Institutiones Medicæ. It rich by means of manufacture, so will a treats of Therapia Generalis.

new class start up for the purchase of There has just appeared at Leipsic, a

British manufactures. A country, merely work on Western Africa, in 4 volumes, agricultural, is never a very good cus. with 44 plates and maps.

tomer. The missionary scheme meets with A German paper states, that Professor much support in Germany. Most of the Goerres, who is now at Coblentz, has de. proceedings of the Missionary Society clined the situation of Secretary to the are reported in Germany-their works Academy of Fine Arts at Stuttgard, in translated and commented on. The tra- order to accept the more advantageous vels of Campbell in Africa have just been offers made to him by the Prussian Go. translated.

vernment, from which he has obtained N. Furst, at the last Leipsic fair, pub. permission to resume the publication of lished an interesting series of letters on his Rhenish Mercury. the Literature of Denmark.

Goëthe has resigned the management Scheller has just published the 2d vol. of the Weimar theatre, which owes its ume of his Manual of German Literature, reputation to himself and Schiller, be. from Lessing to the present time. cause he would not assent to the appear. VOL. I.

3 H

ITALY

ance of a quadruped performer on that Brocchi, a distinguished Italian naturstage in the Dog of Montargis. He is alist, has discovered, in the neighbourproceeding the more assiduously with his hood of Veletri, columnar basalt, resting own Biography, which he has entitled upon a bed of pumice, which contains Fiction and Truth ; and of which the bones of quadrupeds. 5th volume, containing his residence in General Count Camillo Borgia has late. Italy, is now published. In the second ly returned to Naples from Africa, after number of his View of the Arts in the having been engaged in antiquarian re. Countries bordering on the Main, and searches for nearly two years in the Rhine, he strongly censures the puerile neighbourhood of Tunis. He established imitation of the style of antique art, so such an interest with the Bey and his universally affected by modern painters ministers, as to obtain an unqualified and amateurs.

permission to examine the antiquities of The most important dramatic pheno. that country.

He caused considerable menon is King Yngurd, a romantic tra. excavations in various places ; especially gedy, by Adolf Mullner, who resides at on the site of the ancient Carthage, and Weissenfels on the Saale, and who, though at Utica ; and the general result of his 45 years of age before he produced his labours has been, that, along the coast first tragedy, entitled Der Schuld (Guilt), and in the interior, he has examined the is now justly considered as the first dra- ruins of more than 200 cities and towns, matic writer of his nation.

His new

and made copies and drawings of 400 piece, the scene of which is laid in Nor- ancient inscriptions and remains, hitherway, might in many of its situations sus. to unpublished and unknown. Among tain a comparison with Shakspeare him. the inscriptions are some which appear self. It has just been published with to be in the ancient Punic language. six engravings by Göschen of Leipzig. The most important of the public build.

ings which have been discovered, is a

Temple at Utica, containing 80 columns It is a general opinion, that the atmos. of oriental granite, and a statue of the phere of Italy is clearer than that of goddess Flora. He is at present emFrance or England, and therefore much ployed in arranging his materials, and better fitted for astronomical observations. preparing the result of his discoveries But this opinion, in regard to the so cale for the press. led garden of Europe, the soi-disant terrestial paradise is false. Pond, the Astronomer royal, says, that it is not a Alpine Districts. Extensive researchcountry for practical astronomy, and that es into the mineralogy of those regions the climate of England is much more ad- have recently been made by the indefativantageous, and has more clear days. gable M. Brochant, who, after repeated The prevailing wind in Italy is the examinations, and most laborious investi. south, which brings rain in winter, and gations, has ascertained that the lofty fog in summer. Even Naples does not summits of the Alpine hills, through the possess an astronomical climate. In the whole range from St Gothard to Mount winter season, rains like those of the Cenis, do not consist of an absolute tropical regions deluge the country for granite, as has generally been supposed, ten or twelve weeks; and in summer, This applies more especially to Mont the air exhibits all the silvery and pearly Blanc, which, in common with the ohues known to the painter. If we look thers, is of a species of granite parti. at the landscapes of the Italian school, cularly chrystaline, abounding in talcous we at once obtain a conception of the at- and feldsparic rock, and containing in mosphere of Italy. Florence has been many instances, beds of metallic mine. celebrated for its fine climate and clear rals. M. Brochant, however, is of desky. Those who have made this obser- cided opinion, that the southern border vation, probably never heard of the pro- of the Alpine chain consists of real verb, “Qu'on ne comprend pas qu'on y granite; he therefore takes analogy for peut vivre en été et n'y pas mourir er the basis of his reasoning; and supposhiver." Even Genoa, the climate of ing it most probable, that the granitic which is so much admired, is named the stratum supports the talcous, he infers Urinale dell'Italia. Astronomical in. that the higher summits of the chain, struments suffer there from 'moisture, relatively considered, are not the most more in a few months than in France in ancient part of those mountains. as many years.

SWITZERLAND.

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