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that those streaks of lightning are seen, and as thunder, is generally pictured in the hand of Jupiter. And any one with such wavey glass, may very easily make the like experiment.
Now it is evident that the clouds are generally distinct collections of vapours like fleeces, and therefore that the rays of light through them, must pass through very different densities, and accordingly suffer very great refractions, as great at least as could be caused by one thin plate of glass, which, notwithstanding, will very fully produce the same phenomenon. From thence, therefore, undoubtedly that appearance must arise; for it is most highly absurd to imagine that fire darted with such a rapidity, can from any assignable cause deviate in fact from a right line in the manner it appears to us; and this, if duly considered, may probably be found a plenary solution.
V. A surprising Accident which happened to a woman at Cesena.
THIS woman was 62 years of age, and had been used to wash and rub herself every day with spirit of camphire, to prevent colds and coughs. On the 14th of March, 1791, in the evening, she went up to her room without any unusual symptom, only that she seemed somewhat melancholy. In the morning she was found near her bed burnt to ashes, all but her shin-bones and feet, and three fingers of one hand: the ashes were clammy, and stunk intolerably. The walls of the room, the bed and other furniture, were covered with a fine but moist dust, which had penetrated into the chamber above it. The cieling was almost covered with a sort of moisture of a dark yellow colour, which gave a very oflensive smell. Those parts of the body that remained were of a blackish hue; nothing else in the room was consumed; only the tallow of two candles quite melted, but the wick not burnt: the blackish hue of the remains of the body, the consumption of the other parts, and their reduction to ashes, were evident proofs of a fire: yet common fire can hardly reduce so large a body to ashes; for it has often appeared, that in great conflagrations, the bodies have been dried, scorched, and somewhat burnt in the external paris, but not entirely consumed. It is likewise certain, that common fire would have taken hold of the bel, the chamber, and even the whole house: besides, there was neither fire 'nor light in the chamber; and the serenity of the air left no room to suspect, that there was any lightning that could produce such an accident; because there was not the least hole found in the sides of the chamber. It is therefore not unreasonable to conclude, that this poor woman was consumed by a fire that kindled within her own body, proceeding from the oily particles of the mentioned spirits, excited by chafing and the heat of her constitution. These are the thoughts of Signior Maffei and Father Bellivaga; which are corroborated by the examples of powder magazines; for the exhalations from the powder, being put into a violent motion by some external cause, have sometimes blown
the magazine, without the help of any apparent fire. A human body hath likewise in it some oleous and saline particles, capable of producing a fire: we even find, that the sweat of some people, smells like brimstone. Phosphoruses are made of urine, which partly kindle of themselves: therefore, if to these particles of the body, brandy and camphire be added, the two ingredients which compose the spirit of camphire, their particles, especially by the means of chafing, cannot but cause a violent motion in the mentioned particles of the blood and other juices, which will produce a vehement attrition or rubbing against each other: such attrition is capable of producing fire even in cold bodies, as appears by the striking of a piece of steel upon a flint, and the rubbing of two sticks against each other: the sun draws every day from bodies, not the most combustible, vapours which produce fire, when pent up in a narrow compass. cause a quantity of camphire to evaporate in a close chain. ber till it is filled with the vapour, and then enter it with a lighted torch, the vapour takes fire at once, and causes a flash like that of lightning: besides all this, the fermentation, of the juices in the woman's body, may have contributed something to the effect; for a flame is often produced by the mixture and fermentation of certain liquors. The reason why the shinbones and the feet were not burnt, may be this, that she did not chafe those parts with the mentioned spirits, or at least not so much as the other parts of the body; and possibly, she never used the three fingers that remained unconsumed in chafing. The oiliness of the ashes, it is likely, proceeded from the fat of the body: as the fire was kindled at once in the veins and most minute vessels of the body,
conclude, that it consumed it in a moment; which sudden effects could not have been produced by other fires, t..at vere not so inelosed in the body. Scme effect of this
fire was found in the upper rooms, because such a sudden heat flies chiefly upward; which was likewise the cause that the floor of her chamber escaped being burnt; and that none of the furniture was touched: for a piece of paper may be drawn suddenly through the greatest flame without being set on fire.
VI. Account of Margaret Cutting, of Wickham Märket, in Suffolk, who spoke readily and intelligibly, though
she had lost her tongue. MR. BODDINGTON, Turkey merchant, at Ipswich, communicated this extraordinary fact to the Royal Society, July 1, 1742, who thought it worthy of an exact inquiry, which was made by Mr. Boddington, the Rev. Mr. Norcutt, and Mr. Hammond, a skilful Anatomist, who attested the following circumstances.
April 9, 1742, We saw Margaret Cutting, who informed us she was about 24 years old : that when she was but 4 years of age a cancer appeared on the upper part of her tongue, which soon eat its way to the root. Mr. Scotchmore, surgeon, at Saxmundham, used the best means he dould for her relief, but pronounced the case incurable. One day when he was injecting some medicine into her mouth, her tongue dropped out; the girl immediately say, ing, to their great surprise, Don't be frighted Mammal 'twill grow again. In a quarter of a year afterwards she was quite cured. In examining her inouth we found not the least
appearance of any tongue remain ng, nor any uvula; but we observed a fleshy excrescence under the left jaw, extending itself almost to the place where the uvula should be, about a finger broad. This did not appear till some years after the cure: it is pot moveable. The passage to the throat, where the uvula should be, is circular, and will admit a small nutmeg. She performed the swallowing of solids and liquids as well as we could: she discoursed as well as other persons do, but with a little tone through the nose: letters and syllables she pronounced very articulately, and vowels perfectly; as also those consonants that require most the help of the tongue, d, 1, t, r, n. She read to us in a book very distinctly,
sung very prettily. What is still more wonderful, notwithstanding her loss of this organ, she distinguishes all tastes very nicely. To this certificate may be added the attesta
tion of Mr. Dennis, tobacconist, in Aldersgate street, who has known her many years, and upon frequent inspections had found the case, before recited, true, Some few instances of the like nature have occurred, particularly one related by Tulpius, of a man he himself examined, who having had his tongue cut out by the Turks, after 3 years could speak disa tinctly.
To the Author of the Ipswich Journal.
Harwich, March 9, 1742, I HAVE seen in your paper of the 15th of January, the surprising account of Margaret Cutting, of Wyckham Market in Suffolk, who, though she entirely lost her tongue, when she was but four years of age, by a cancer, yet retained her speech; which has likewise been set forth in a letter to the Royal Society, who have given so much credit to it, as to publish it among their Philosophical Transactions.
This extraordinary account excited my curiosity to see Margaret Cutting, and upon examining her mouth, I found part of a tongue, about an inch and half in length, and in breadth about half an inch. It is seemingly confined by a small part of the Frænum; the fore part of the tongue is very thin, but gradually thickens towards the Oesophagus; it lies in an oblique manner, covering part of the Sulival Glands on the left side; those on the right, for want of the common pressure of the tongue, appear large and buibous. Upon opening the mouth wide, the tongue may be plainly observed to move backward, and as she shuts her mouth, to come forward; and upon introducing my finger into her mouth near to the Oesophagus, I could move it either way easily. Her speech is very intelligible, but her voice low, and she speaks a little through the nose, which is owing to the want of the Uvula to help the articulation,
I have had frequent opportunities of inspecting the mouths of several persons, who were taken prisoners by the Algerines and Turks, who had their tongues cut out by those barbarous people. One of them, aged 33 years, whom I saw some months since, wrote a good hand, and by that means answered my questions. He informed me that he could not pronounce a syllable, nor make any articulate sound; though he had often observed, that those who suffered that treatment when they were very young, were some years after able to speak, and that their tongues inight be observed to grow in proportion to the other parts of the body; but
that, if they were adults, or full-grown persons, at the time of the operation, they were never able to utter a syllable. The truth of his observation was confirmed to me by the two following cases. Patrick Strainer and his son-in-law came to Harwich, in their way to Holland, the third of this month. I made it my business to see, and examine them; the father told me, he had his tongue cut out by the Algerines, when he was seven years of age, and that some time after he was able to pronounce many syllables, and can now speak most words tolerably well, and said, bis tongue was grown at least half an inch. The son-in-law, who is about thirty years of age, was taken by the Turks, who cut out his tongue; he cannot pronounce a syllable, nor is bis tongue grown at all since the operation, which was more than five years ago.
I need not enlarge upon the reason of the difference of these cases, which will be easily understood by the skilful anatomist, and such who are acquainted with the nature of accretion and nutrition.
Yours, &c. 1743, Jan. and March.
VII. Surprising Instances of the Effects of Music in acute Fevers,
and for the cure of the bite of the Tarantula.
SIR, As the effects of music in the cure of several disorders are worthy the curiosity of the public, and may on some occasions be of great use to mankind; it will not be unentertaining to your readers to see some well attested instances of this kind upon which the learned may comment at their leisure, and give us some explanation of the Phenomena, that must unavoidably surprise those who are less acquainted with the laws of nature.
The first of these instances is attested by M. Dodart*, whose skill is too well known to be imposed upon, and whose testimony is otherwise unquestionable. It is as follows. A famous master of music, an eminent composer, was taken ill of a fever which daily increased, till the seventh day, when he fell into an high delirium almost without any
* Hist. de l'Academie Royale des Sciences. An. 1707, p. &.