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zt picks, which shews these words to be the same. Hence pick-axe.
Pity and piety. As our word pity, in the sense of charity and compassion, comes from the Latin pictas, this and piety must be the same. Charity is indeed an act of piety, and certain charitable funds abroad are actually termed mounts of piety. Pittance, again, which is a charitable addition to the convent's table, is pietancia in Latin,
Puny, puisney, poney. Puny is small or diminutive, from French puisné, a word retained in the same form when we write puisné judge. I am much mistaken if poney, by which we mean a small horse, be not a slight corruption of the same by changing the vowel,
Pilarean, i. e. Pelerin, and pilgrim. The first is the French term, the second the English.
Poison and potion As poison is the Latin potio, though we have gotten it more immediately from the French, poison and potion must be the same words. It is not uncommon for a general word to become specifical,
Powch and poke. Gloss. ad X. Scriptores, v. Powchius, and see Dike above.
Quell. Vide kill,
To quit, to relinquish; quiet, at rest. No difference here; to quit claim, is quietum clamare; and to acquit, acquietare, is to make a person quiet or at ease, in respect of any demand you may have upon him. .
Queen, Regina. Quean, a whore, a wheen-cat, a female cat, in the north. Mr. Ray, explaining the last word, observes, “ that queen was used by the Saxons to signify the female sex, appears in that queen fugol was used for a hen fowl." North country words, p. 53. Thus, as queen means a female, it has been abusively applied to a whore, as wench also has; for I make no doubt but queen and quean are the same words. Given, in British, the feminine of guynn, means fair or beautiful.
Quail, qualm, qualmish, squeamish. The last word appears only in the form of an adjective, and seems to be the same as qualmish, by a corrupt pronunciation: this plainly comes from qualm, as this probably derives from the verb to quail, for which see above in kill.
Rank and range. These, whether substantives or verbs, appear to be the same words, varied in speech and pronun. ciation. Vide links, above,
Ravish is ravage in the book of psalms. Rops, ropes. Rops are so called from their length and similitude to ropes, as is plain from our calling the guts of Woodcocks and Snipes ropes.
Robert, Rotbert, and Rupert, are the same Wood's Hist. and Ant. p. 81; Tanner's Bibl. p. 345 ; Thoresby, p. 350.
Rodolph, Radulph, Randolph, Ranulph, Ralph. These, I presume, are all the same.
In Wood, Hist. Ant. p. 72, Coleberg is called Rodolphus, and p. 85, Radulphus.
Rohais, in Lat. Rohesia; Hawise, in Lat. Hawisia; Avise' or Avice, in Lat. Avicia ; appear to be the same name, Hawise and Avise being only the latter syllable of the first name, used in the way of familiarity or endearment. Thus we now say Mun for Edmund, Than for Jonathan.
Ramp, romp, rawm. A lion is rampant when reared as if going to fight; and to romp, is to play rudely and boisterously. A wall is said to ramp, when it rises from the level, and is the French ramper, to climb or mount. Hence also to rawm, which a' dog is said to do when he either fawns upon you, or stretches himself to take victuals placed high on a shelf.
Rout and rut. In rutting time, bucks keep a continual routing or bellowing, whence it is obvious to imagine the two words to be the same.
Rout, road, rota, rut, Rout is road, and road is rout; so that these are plainly the same words. By rote means by course, in a direct road, as when a thing is gotten by heart, without knowing or understanding the meaning of it; and therefore seems to signify by road, or by rout. Rut, at first, I imagine, was cart-rut i. e. rout or track, and afterwards rut, per se, Roll and row; to roll and to row.
A roll is in fact a row, and is sometimes pronounced row, whence we have both rigmanroll and rigmanrow. As to roll, and to row; thel, and ll, is very commonly omitted in pronunciation in the north. See Glossary to Douglas's Virgil, v. Rowit, where, however, the author is mistaken in talking of w and Il being alike in the MS, as pronunciation is the sole cause.
Rattle and ruttle. Ruttle is that noise people make in the throat when they breathe with difficulty, especially when dying; and I take it to be the same word with ratile. In Birch's Life of Prince Henry, p. 355, it is called ratling.
Reeme and rime. The first signifies to weep in Cheshire; the second is the name of the white frost, in Kent, that ad.
heres to the trees (in Derbyshire called Ime); query, there fore, if not the same word.
A set of horses, china, &c. A suit of cloaths, armour, &c. I regard these as the same word, and both from French suite. This seems to be apparent from the orthography of the latter, and the former may be a corruption of it.
To split, to splint or splinter. These I conceive to be the same, since in the Life of the Duke of Newcastle, to splint means to split. Souce and sauce.
As the first is a kind of pickle, it may be thought a species of the latter.
A shed, a covered place. A shade, the same. The first seems to be only a short or quick pronunciation of the latter.
To swill; to swallow. As the first means to drink lustily, it appears to be a cant-word for swallow.
Set and sit. The first is a verb active, the second a verb neuter; but I esteem them the same originally, though I approve of the present mode of differencing them. In Rainance of St. Degaré, verse 679, sett means sat.
He sett hym down on the Deyse. Seek and beseech. Be is often an unmeaning prefix in our language, as it was in the Saxon. These words are otherwise the same, as is plain from the imperfect tenses sought and bescught. Ch and k are perpetually substituted one for another; and it is remarkable that seek, in Lancashire, is pronounced seech, Vide Dike above.
Sleight and slight. First is a substantive, the second an adjective, Harsnet against Darrell, p. 127, has sleight; in Dodsley's Plays, V. p. 223, to sleighten, is to despise; and Ephes. IV. 14. sleight is the translation of Kudeta, and consequently is used in the same sense as slight, when we say slight of hand; and po doubt, by whatever means the e has crept in, the words are the same, and are both derived from the verb sly.
Strait and Streight. Some make a difference between these, using strait for directus, and streight for arctus, for which, however, I think, there is no good foundation. Isaiah xl. 3, you have maké streight, and Matth. vii. 13, what is called straight is, v. 14, strait.
Stark and Starch. It is the property of starch to stiffen linen, and I suspect that to be stark or stiff after riding, or other exercise, is the same word with starch, or vice versa. V. dike, above. - Stink and știnch or stench. There can be no difference
between these but what arises from pronunciation. V, dike, above. Fairfax, x. 61, xviii. 84, has stinch ; in the first of these places the edit. of 1749 has stench, malè, stinch be: ing the old word for stench.
Son and sun. The former in Saxon is sunu, and the lat. ter was formerly often written sonna; so that there is no real difference between the words, though a diversity must needs be useful. The sun is termed son in Hearne, Cur. Disc. p. 184. and in Willis's Cathedrals ii. p. 9, the name of Monson is thus given.
Lunam cum Phæbo jungito, nomen habes. Vide omnino Baxteri Gloss. p. 36, 145.
See, sedes; sea, mare. Carleton, p. 58, 73, alibi, writes the first sea, as do Cavendish and Speed. In Ames, p. 8, sea is written see; as also in Hall, Skelton, and Sir Thomas More, and in the two latter we have se. The sea is in fact aquarum sedes, or place, as it is expressed Genes. i. 9.
Sup and soup. Bishop Wilkins, on the moon, p. 298, uses soop, for sup, whence it should seem that a soop, a lis quid to be supped, is the same as sup, both from French soup.
Spill and spoil. The first is used for the latter in Kent; hence " better one house fill'd than two spill'd :” Ray, p, 47. Spilling is now confined to liquids, but still what is shed is effectually spoiled.
Sound and swoon. Sound occurs for swoon in Skelton, and I think is the same word ; thus, to swoon, imperfect swooned, and, d inserted euphoniæ gratia, swooned; after which the present, swoond or sound, would soon be formed. Thus from drown, drowned, drownded, comes the northern word to drownd.
Suet and sweat. As what we copiously perspire passes under the name of sweat, and is of a greasy, unctuous nature, one has reason to think it the same word with suet, though this is a dissyllable,
Stew pan. V. Pound.
Scot, as Romescot, scot and lot. Shot, proportion of a payment. Sheet of lead, copper, &c. All these are the Saxon sceat.
Say and saw. As say is a substantive as well as a verb, it is obvious to i nagine that saw, in the sense of a saying or proverb, may be the same word.
Shell and scale. These appear to be the French ecaille.
Springe and spring. No difference probably here, since the springes for woodcocks (Pennant 2d. Tour, p. 32,) operate, I presume, by a spring,
Story and history differ only a little in sense.
In Latin quam. The distinction of these is doubtless extremely useful, as tending to facilitate the sense of an author to a reader. The disinction, however, is but of late, since in our older writers then is promiscuously used for than, which shews it to be originally the same word. I need not quote for this.
This and thus. This was formerly used for thus, as Skel. ton, p. 13, 115, alibi. Hall in Rich. III. f. 28, 29. Sir Tho. More, p. 3. Which shews, that though it may be useful that a distinction should be made between these words, yet originally they were the same.
Troth and truth both have place in our dictionaries, but seem to be the same, from Saxon, treoth, or treotha.
Trow and trough. A swine-trow is called in the north a swine-trough: the difference consists in pronunciation, gh, being sometimes quiescent, and sometimes having the power of f
Tend is the tail or final syllable of attend, and means the same; it is spoken tent in the north, where it signifies to hinder or prevent, by watching, and observing; so that it is the same word as tend, for which see Dr. Johnson. V. Vend. V. Band.
Task and tax. Task is an imposition as ta.r is. Rossus, p. 55, explains tallugium by task; whence they appear to be the same.
Tone and tune. Ton is French for tune; they are consequently the same words, Life of Lord Clarendon, p. 64,6 5.
Treacle and theriacal. From Anp a beast, or venomous beast, comes Bapsexoş and theriacal, a medicine to expel poison, which since has been corrupted into treacle. This at present generally signifies melasses, but in the apothecary's shop it still retains its primitive sense, as in Venice-treacle.
Unloose and loose. First has the sense of the second, Mark i. 7. Luke iii. 16. John i. 27. Some have questioned the propriety of this, the prefix un, seeining to carry an op posite sense to what the simple word bears, as in tijing and untying, drawing and undrawing, &c, but un in the present case is a meer pleonasm; on among the Saxons, to which un is here equivalent, being often used epitatively, or rather superfluously, and without any intention of altering the meaning of the word.
Vend and yent. Both are in Johnson, but are unquestionably the same. V. Tend.