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2d. Witch. I'll give thee a wind.
And the very points they blow,
Though his bark cannot be lost
Act. I. Sc. 3. The fourth verse is an heroic of ten syllables, as appears from the three preceding ones; wherefore it ought to be reformed,
Her husband's to Aleppo, master o' the Tyger. T Aleppo is the same as to Aleppo gone, and somebody that did not relish the ellipsis, hath wrongfully inserted gone. Thus, above, you have the like ellipsis, for the sake of the metre, give me, for give me some; but what is most material in this case, the verb of motion is very often omitted in such phrases.
Malc. I'll to England.
Macb. II. 5.
Come, we'll to sleep.
Macb. III. 5.
Henry VIII. 1. see also King Lear, I. II. III. In short, the brevity of dialogue and conversation, has produced a thousand examples of this ellipsis, not only in this, but others also of our stage authors. "It is very common in other writers likewise.
The three next verses consist of eight syllables, and therefore we should read
I'll down and I'll do and I'll do.
As to the sequel, it was ports once, instead of points; Mr. Pope, I think, first altered it, and Mr. Theobald followed him, but upon what authority I know not; but if this emendation be not warranted by any old edition, I should be for retaining ports, it being very good English to say, the wind blows such or such a port. Besides, as quarters follows, the word points seems to me to make a meer tautology, for I know no difference in respect of winds between quarters and points; I am sure we make none in common discourse, it being the same thing for us to say, the wind's in such a quarter, or in such a point. But one can make no very good sense of this passage as it now stands, with either of these readings ; wherefore I suspect the rhymes have been transposed in copying, and that the whole ought to be restored ;
I myself have all the other,
She has the other winds, she says, and what is more knows the several ports they blow to and all the quarters they blow from.
But to return now to what we were upon, viz. the dealings of magicians and enchanters with winds: “The Laplanders," says Scheffer," have a cord tied with knots for the raising of wind; they, as Ziegler relates it, tie their magical knots in this cord; when they untie the first there blows a favourable gale of wind; when the second, a brisker; when the third, the sea and wind grow mighty stormy and tempestuous. This that we have reported concerning the Laplanders, is by Olaus Magnus, and justly related of the Finlanders, who border on the sea, and sell winds to those merchants that traffic with them, when they are at any time detained by a contrary one."
Scheffer thinks that what Ziegler relates of the Laplanders, does not, in fact, ' belong to them, but to the Finlanders of Norway, because no other writers mention it, and because the Laplanders live in an inland country. However, the method of selling winds is this : “They deliver a
* An attempt has been made to change very into various, but there is no occasion for it. The sense is, my knowledge is so perfect and exact in this matter, that I know the very ports which the several winds blow. This is both very good sense, and very good English.
small rope with three knots upon it, with this caution, that when they loose the first, 'they shall have a good wind; if the second, a stronger; if the third, such a storm will arise that they can neither see how to direct the ship and avoid rocks, or so much as stand upon the decks, or handle the tackling.” He notes also another particular, not less extraordinary than their selling of winds. “ Those,” says he, " that are skilled in this art, have command chiefly over the winds that blow at their birth, so that this wind obeys principally one man, that another, as if they obtained this
power when they first received their birth.” Something of this, of one person's having power over one wind, and another over another, is evidently alluded to in the conversation of the witches in Macbeth quoted above. These northern wizards pretended also to a power of stopping the course of ships; this, it seems, was attributed both to the Finlanders of Norway and the Laplanders, who, according to the different affection they have for merchants, make the sea either calmer or more tempestuous*
But, Sir, I shall now shew you, that these notions and practices were not confined to these northern parts only, but likewise extended to the more southern ones. Thus Pomponius Mela, who wrote in the reign of the Emperor Claudius, delivers, concerning a set of priestesses in the island of Sena, or the isle des Saints, on the coast of Gaul, “ Sena in Britannico mari Osisınicis adversa littoribus, Gallici numinis t oraculo insignis est : cujus antistites, perpetua virginitate sanctæ, numero novem esse traduntur: Barrigenas vocant, putantque ingentis singularibus præditas, niaria ac Fentos concitare carminibus, seque in quæ velint animalia vertere, sanare quæ apud alios insanabilia sunt, scire ventura et prædicare: sed non nisi deditas navigantibus, et in id tantum ut se consulerent profectis;" which may be translated thus: “ The island of Sena, which lies in the British sea, opposite to the coast of the Osismici, is famous for an oracle of a Gaulish deity. The priestesses, who profess perpetual virginity, are said to be in number nine : they call them Barrigena, and esteem them to be endowed with very extraordinary qualities; such as troubling the sea, and
* Scheffer's Hist. of Lapland, p. 58. + It is uncertain whether this means the Gallic deity, xat' toxin only e Gallic deity. I understood it in the latter sense, and shall intimate in a fu. ture letter, that he was probably the God whom the Gauls worshipped under the idea, and with the attributes of Bacchus.
raising the winds by their enchantments ; transforming them. selves into whatever animals they please; curing disorders incurable by every body else, and knowing and foretelling things future. However, they are subservient only to seafaring people, and only to such of them as come on purpose to consult them."
It is remarkable, that they were thought not only able to disturb the sea, and raise the wind, as the Laplanders, or rather Finlanders, above, are supposed to be; but moreover, to be employed, as they were, chiefly in the service of navigators, which makes the resemblance more striking. A learned man thinks, and another great scholar assents to it, that the French word baragouin comes from the mumblings and gibberish of these sorcerers who were called Barrigene. But this shall be considered in another paper.
But there is an instance still more apposite than this: Ranulph Higden tells us in the Polychronicon, p. 195, that the witches in the Isle of Man, anciently sold winds to mariners, and delivered them in knots tied upon a thread, exactly as the Laplanders did. “In illa insula vigent sortilegia, superstitiones, atque præstigia, nam mulieres ibidem navigaturis ventum vendunt, quasi sub tribus fili nodis inclusum, ita ut sicut plus de vento habere voluerint plures nodos evolvant."
This notion of confining and bestowing winds, is as ancient as it was extensive, for thus it is said of Æolus in the Odyssey,
The king with mighty gifts my suit approvid
Eustatius says, they who practised the art of incantation, or charms, made use of the skin of a dolphin, and pretended, by certain ceremonies, to bind or loose the winds as they pleased. However, Ulysses's companions were so foolishi afterwards as to set these adverse winds at liberty. But there is some difference between this case and those above-mentioned; Æolus, being king of the winds, was a proper power to dispose of them; and moreover, they were the adverse, or unfriendly winds that were in prisoned, whilst the favourable ones were at liberty. Calypso, in other places of the Odyssey, is supposed to be able to confer favourable winds*. This approaches nearer to the cases of Lapland, and the Isle of Man, only it is not said that her winds were confined, as those of the witches and sorcerers of the north are supposed to be.
* Pope's Odyss. Lib. x. 18. seq.
+ See the notes on Pope's Odyss.
Our sailors, I am told, at this very day, I meari the vulgar sort of them, have a strange opinion of the devil's power and agency in stirring up winds, and that this is the reason they so seldom whistle on ship-board, esteeming that to be a mocking, and consequently an enraging of the devil. And it appears now, that even Zoroaster himself imagined there was an evil spirit called Vato, that could excite violent storms of winds. But notwithstanding all this, God is said to bring the winds out of his treasures; it is also written, that at his word the stormy wind ariseth; so that the devil was formerly endeavouring to ape the divine omnipotency; in this particular as well as so many others. He is, indeed, called in scripture, the prince of the power of the airt, and it is wonderful to reflect how far and how wide, and how generally, he has propagated the false persuasion, that he and his instruments, witches and wizards, had it in their power to raise or abate, to change, to communicate, to sell and transfer, a wind.
Yours, &c. 1763, Jan.
XXXVI. A Passage in P. Mela considered.
MR. URBAN, THE Gauls, in Cæsar's time, were extremely addicted to superstition of all kinds, as he tells us, Lib. vi. de Bello Gall.
“ Natio est omnis Gallorum, admodum dedita religionibus.” And so it seems they continued. The passage which I lately cited from Pomp. Mela iii. c. 6. being a Magrant instance of it; “Sena in Britannico mari Osismicis adversa litoribus, Gallici nuininis oraculo insignis est: cujus Antistites, perpetua viginitate sanctæ, nutnero novem esse traduntur : Barrigenas vocant, putantque ingeniis singularibus præditus, maria ac ventos concitare carminibus, seque
+ Ephes. ii. 2.
* See Lib. V. 216, 341, and Lib. VII. 35%.