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41. Forest sample plot studies. To determine the part taken by insects in the development of a stand of balsam under various conditions.

Permanent sample plots were laid out in 1918 at two stations in the Laurentians, and others are being established this summer in young balsam stands in different watersheds in Quebec Province and in New Brunswick. Trees numbered and described. Publication: Agricultural Gazette of Canada, Vol. 5, No. 9, p. 860, 1919. (See also under Dominion Commission of Conservation, Forest sample plot studies.)

Trees to be examined each season for insect injuries. It is planned to make these sample plots an important branch of the work, covering eventually all Canadian timber trees under different local conditions. Each group of sample plots will be a forest insect field station, in operation part or all of each summer.

Assigned to M. B. Dunn and other officers, in cooperation with the Commission of Conservation and the lumber companies on whose lands the plots are located.

42. Larvae of wood-boring beetles.

Studies have been undertaken in cooperation with biologic studies of wood-boring species.


Assigned to R. N. Chrystal.

43. Studies with the genus Chermes (spruce gall aphides).

Investigation of biology and control of these important enemies of spruce shade trees was in progress during 1914 and 1915, and is being continued this season.


Assigned to R. N. Chrystal.

44. Borers in shade trees.

Detailed studies of the biology and control of such important shade tree enemies as the bronze birch borer, the locust borer, and the carpenter worms of the genus Prionoxystus have been in progress for two seasons. Continuing.

Assigned to C. B. Hutchings.

45. Relation of weather phenomena to activities of forest insects. Under way.


C. B. Hutchings in cooperation with officer in charge of Natural Control Investigations.

46. Life histories of forest insects.

A field laboratory is maintained during the summer near Fort Coulonge, P. Q., for the study of forest insect biology. Special attention is paid to the families Cerambycidae and Buprestidae.


All officers of the Division; Laboratory in charge of J. I. Beaulne.

47. Shade tree insect investigations.

Attention is paid to the more important insect injuries to shade trees as they develop.


Officers of the Division.



M. A. GRAINGER, Chief Forester, Victoria

48. Combating insect damage to western yellow pine.

The danger of the total destruction of the stands of western yellow pine in the interior of the Province by Dendroctonus beetles has attracted attention for some years. Lately it has resulted in an active campaign of remedial measures.

The campaign of cutting the infected timber and destroying the broods is to be continued.

Assigned to Major Andrews and the local forestry officials in cooperation with Mr. Hopping of the Department of Agriculture, Division of Forest Insects, in charge of control measures.

49. Reproduction studies.

In 1914 in cooperation with the Commission of Conservation a study was made by Dr. C. D. Howe, and a report entitled "The Reproduction of Commercial Species in the Southern Coastal Forest of British Columbia" was published.

It is planned to make studies on timber sale areas to determine whether or not reproduction is adequate and of the right species, and if not, why not; and the best way to correct the defect. Brush disposal methods in their relation to reproduction will be studied. Permanent sample plots are also to be established.

Assigned to F. McVickar.

50. Volume tables.

Work was started on the coast in 1913 and 1914, and tables made for fir, hemlock, and cedar. In the interior work was carried on from

time to time as circumstances permitted.

Existing data are being checked over, with a view to securing measurements for species in the regions where not already sufficient.

Assigned to F. McVickar.

51. Range of British Columbia trees.

In 1913 and 1914 maps were made showing the range of each tree species in British Columbia.

These maps will be sent out to the Forest Districts for revision by the men in the field.

Assigned to Field Staff.

52. Grazing.

The Grazing Commissioner, after a good deal of study and discussion with the ranchers, has divided the country into grazing districts, and has drawn up a series of grazing regulations.

Studies to be continued. Regulated grazing and cooperation with the Forest Branch in grazing matters to be further developed.

Assigned to T. P. McKenzie, Grazing Commissioner, and Grazing Assistant Copley.

53. Timber testing.

Last year a small forest products laboratory was established at the University of British Columbia. It is the purpose of this laboratory to attend to local problems in timber physics and wood utilization. The work just begun is to be continued and extended.

Assigned to Forest Products Laboratory, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

54. Forest resources of British Columbia.

The Commission of Conservation has been in cooperation with the Forest Branch in an investigation of British Columbia's resources. The results have been published in "Forests of British Columbia," by H. N. Whitford, Ph.D., and Roland D. Craig, F.E., Commission of Conservation, Ottawa, Canada, 1918.

This subject will be kept constantly in mind, and from time to time more accurate details will come up so that it is hoped in future to have a more extensive and accurate knowledge of this subject.

Assigned to The Staff.

55. Study of the growth of timber and preparation of yield tables as a basis for sustained yield management of Crown timber lands.

A certain amount of growth studies have been made from time to time; but have not been intensive enough to serve as a basis for working plans.

Intensive growth studies to be made and yield tables prepared, on certain areas of land unsuited to agriculture but well suited for timber crops.

Assigned to Staff of Assistants under direction of Major Andrews.


Abitibi Power and Paper Company, Limited, Iroquois Falls, Ontario

H. G. SCHANCHE, JR., Chief Forester

56. Regeneration survey. Carried on upon virgin and cut-over areas on the Company's holdings to secure data on the reproduction, its composition, amount, rate of growth, effect of logging methods in vogue. Field work commenced May 15, 1919. Season's field work completed on September 20, 1919. Computation and working up of field data in progress January, 1920. (See also under Dominion Commission of Conservation, Forest regeneration survey.)

Field work to be continued during summer of 1920 in vicinity of Lake Abitibi.

Past work carried on jointly by Commission of Conservation and Forestry Department of the A. P. & P. Co. Work under direction of C. D. Howe, Ph.D., Forestry Faculty, University of Toronto. Same cooperative methods to be employed in 1920.

57. Growth studies. Complete tree analyses of 500 trees each of white spruce, black spruce, and balsam, of all diameter classes occurring in vicinity of Lake Abitibi, to ascertain rates of growth of the three species in specified regions and secure foundational data for compilation of volume tables.

Field work commenced Nov. 18, 1919, and was suspended Dec. 20, Compilation of data secured in the field in progress January,


Field work to be continued in fall of 1920.

Assigned to Forestry Department of the A. P. & P. Co., in conjunction with Forester of Commission of Conservation Staff.

58. Nursery experiments. A large quantity of coniferous species exotic to northeastern Canada will be introduced in the nursery operations

to ascertain which species may thrive and develop under local conditions; comparisons will be drawn between progress in development under local conditions, and progress made within the natural range.

Experiments to commence with the beginning of nursery operations in the spring of 1920.

Experiments to be carried on until definite conclusions shall have been reached.

Assigned to Superintendent of Nursery, Forestry Department A. P. & P. Co.

Laurentide Company, Limited, Grand' Mère, Quebec

ELLWOOD WILSON, Manager Forestry Division

59. Brush disposal. Methods and cost to determine best way from standpoint of reproduction and fire risk.

Work begun in 1913. Toplopping done in that year and examination since to determine time of rotting of lopped and unlopped tops. In 1917 began burning brush. Costs kept and work continued until present.

Examination of areas lopped and burnt will be continued and each operation will have brush burned.

Assigned to Forester in charge and local force.

60. Thinning. Effect of different degrees of thinning on planted spruce and pine.

Work begun in 1913 and continued to date. Plantations made under poplar and birch and also under hardwood. Acre plots laid out and

permanently marked.

Work to be continued and number of plots increased.
Assigned to Forester in charge and local force.

61. Nursery practice and planting. Experiments in new technique in planting, cultivating, and transplanting. Fall and spring seeding and planting. Amounts of water and shade. Comparisons between trees dominant and suppressed from seed in nurseries and in field planting. Sample plots laid out where such dominants and suppressed trees are planted side by side on different slopes and aspects. Experiments with different fertilizers and soils.

Nursery started in 1909. Now contains 42 acres.

Work will be continued as outlined.

Assigned to Forester in charge and local force.

62. Fire protection. Use of seaplanes for fire protection.

Two seaplanes with 400 H. P. Liberty engines began work June 28, 1919.

Planes will fly every day when there is no rain or fog, to locate, report, and if possible extinguish forest fires.

Assigned to Pilot in charge and personnel.

63. Mapping. Test of aerial photography for mapping forest areas. Mosaic maps to be made from photographs at different altitudes. Cost data to be compiled. Will map 3000 square miles, 1920. Make progress maps of river drives.

Two seaplanes working.

Assigned to Pilot in charge and personnel.

64. Lumbering studies. To get lumbering costs under different conditions and to try to improve methods and machinery.

Work commenced in 1908 and continued. Work since 1917 on clearing lands for planting, marketing firewood, ties, telephone poles, fence posts, and lumber.

Work will be continued.

Assigned to Forester in charge and local force.

65. Utilization. To make ground wood pulp from hardwoods; birch, maple, beech, ash, and poplar.

1918: 60 cords of hardwood peeled by hand and ground. Very successful. 1919 70 cords barked in tumbling barrels and made into ground wood pulp and then into paper; no difficulties. barking also tried. Not successful.


Work will be continued and experiments made in floating, holding over for a season in water barking and transportation. Assigned to Forester in charge and mill.


Commercial Organizations, Canada

Anglo-Newfoundland Development Company, Limited, Grand Falls, Newfoundland Logging Department, J. D. GILMOUR, General Logging Supt.

66. Forest survey.

Started before the war, and has been recommenced. (For statement of Company's policy and local conditions see "Forestry Progress in Newfoundland; How Lord Northcliffe's Company Aims to Maintain Its Forests as a Permanent Crop," by J. D. Gilmour, in Canadian Forestry Journal, Vol. 15, No. 6, June, 1919.)

Will eventually give a complete topographic and forest survey of the entire limits, nearly 2,500,000 acres, which, in accordance with the Company's policy, will be handled for permanency.

Assigned to J. D. Gilmour.

67. Measurement.

Volume tables for computing strip surveys have been made locally. Growth tables, showing increment in volume, diameter breasthigh, and height, for different species and types have been made, although in some cases they require strengthening by further data. These so far are based on complete stem analyses.

Assigned to J. D. Gilmour.

68. Regeneration.

Regeneration studies to determine what new growth has followed clear cuttings, partial cuttings, and old burns have been made. Assigned to J. D. Gilmour.

69. Management. To determine commercial feasibility in the pulp business of any logging system which will give a better second crop. In 1918 five sample plots (acres) for logging to various diameter limits were laid off for annual observation.

Annual observation of plots established. Establishment of new plots proposed. Plots expected to yield valuable data in four or five years with reference to windfall among trees left behind, and in a longer period, with regard to increased rate of growth, if any, among the same trees. Assigned to J. D. Gilmour.

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