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Plots accurately mapped showing exact position and size of trees thinned out and of remaining trees.

To be continued and extended to other types.

Assigned to Head Office Staff, Ottawa.

3. Reproduction studies.

Work begun in 1918. Reproduction on old and recent burns studied on sample plots. Permanent sample plots also laid out to study reproduction of coniferous species in stands of Betula alba papyrifera. Reproduction studies in hardwood stands.

To be continued and extended, and forest conversion experiments to be undertaken.

Assigned to Head Office Staff, Ottawa.

4. Yield tables.

Work begun in 1918. Sample plots laid out for the study of yield in pure white pine, pure jack pine, and pure red pine stands.

To be continued and extended to other types.

Assigned to Head Office Staff, Ottawa.

5. Stemform and taper of trees.

Work begun in 1918. A study of stemform of white pine and red pine, using Prof. Tor Jonson's absolute form quotient as an expression of form or taper to verify or otherwise the application of this form quotient as a true expression of form or taper. The evidence is not sufficient in quantity to finally establish the applicability of Jonson's theories on white and red pine, but so far as it has been gone into, it all points to the conclusion that the absolute form quotient is an excellent expression of form and that if the absolute form quotient is known the taper of the tree in all other parts can be determined. Preliminary report submitted. The 1919 researches show that Jonson's theories are applicable.

This study is to be continued, and it is hoped that it will lead to the preparation of universal volume and taper tables based on diameter, total height, and form class.

Assigned to Head Office Staff, Ottawa.

TREE PLANTING DIVISION, Indian Head, Saskatchewan

Nursery practice

6. Propagation of box elder as 1-year seedlings; caragana as 1-year seedlings; green ash as 2-year seedlings.

Methods of sowing and cultivation well established. Can hardly be called research work now.

7. Propagation of willow and poplars from cutting stock.

8. Propagation from seed and transplanting of Scotch pine, jack pine, and white spruce.

Methods well established.

Artificial reproduction on forest reserves

9. To determine varieties best suited to different conditions of soil and different localities.

10. Investigating by experiment on fairly large scale method of direct sowing of pine and spruce on sandy soils.

11. Planting out of seedlings and transplants of pine and spruce to determine best methods of planting under different conditions of soil and soil cover and best ages of plants.

Trials on the nursery station

12. In connection with hardiness; several varieties are under test at present.

13. Rates of growth of varieties under cultivation, on the ordinary upland prairie soils, under conditions similar to those obtaining in average farm shelter belts and plantations. Species under investigation: box-elder, green ash, American elm, white birch, cottonwood, Russian poplars, willows, Scotch pine, jack pine, lodgepole pine, white spruce, Colorado spruce, Norway spruce, tamarack, European larch, Siberian larch.

Examinations of farmers' plantations

14. To study comparison of growths in different locations and districts. 15. Effect of original preparations of soil on subsequent development. 16. Effects of cultivation on later developments of plantations.

17. Effects of spacing.

18. Extent to which grass and weeds influence the growth.

19. Behavior of different varieties in different mixtures.

20. Comparison of hardiness of same varieties in different districts.

FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORIES OF CANADA, Montreal, Quebec 21. Mechanical, physical, and structural properties of woods grown in the Dominion of Canada, based on tests of small clear specimens.

(a) Three shipments of Douglas fir tested. Results of tests published as Canadian Forestry Branch Bulletin 60. (b) One shipment each of black spruce, white spruce, Sitka spruce, white pine, and red pine tested, also two other shipments of Sitka spruce. (c) Work in progress on three shipments of western hemlock, two of yellow birch, two of sugar maple, and one shipment each of red spruce and eastern hemlock.

Work to be continued on other eastern and western Canadian species. Assigned to Division of Timber Tests (Montreal) and Vancouver Branch Laboratory, Vancouver, B. C.

22. Strength functions and physical properties of Nova Scotia mine timbers.

(a) Tests completed on full-sized pit timbers of five different species. Both green and air-dried timbers tested in compression and bending. Results not yet published in printed form. (b) A species not previously used for mine timbers in Nova Scotia has been shown by the tests to be suitable for this purpose and has been successfully substituted for standard species by at least one company.

Bulletin to be prepared formally presenting the results of this investigation.

Assigned to Division of Timber Tests.

23. Utilization of waste sulphite liquor (bibliography).

Literature of the world reviewed. Publication issued as Canadian Forestry Branch Bulletin 66, in May, 1919.

Appendix to be added every two or three years.

Assigned to Division of Pulp and Paper.

24. The beating of paper pulp.

Preliminary work on motor tests and control apparatus partially completed.

Investigations to be continued when facilities are available.

Assigned to Division of Pulp and Paper.

25. Chemistry of wood.

(a) Study of methods of analysis; (b) analysis

of wood; (c) study of resins.

Study of methods of determination of cellulose completed and published. Analyses of five native species partially completed. Study of resins in same five species partially completed.

Analyses of wood and of resins to be continued.
Assigned to Division of Pulp and Paper.

26. Australian woods for pulp-Eucalyptus rubida.

Chemical and physical analysis of wood completed and submitted as Progress Report No. 1.

Project to be completed when facilities are available.
Assigned to Division of Pulp and Paper.

27. Relative durability of Canadian commercial woods.

Series of fungus bed tests, undertaken to test suitability of this method, completed.

Work on methods to be continued.

Assigned to Division of Timber Physics.

28. Fiber measurements of Canadian woods. Work completed on eight species of conifers.

Results on one species

published; those on other seven being prepared for publication.

Investigation to be extended to other species.
Assigned to Division of Timber Physics.

29. Preparation of reference collection of wood section slides of Canadian and other woods and study of anatomy of these woods.

Slides prepared for a number of species. Study of anatomical features proceeding. Photomicrographs at different magnifications prepared. Preparation of slides and study of various features of anatomy to be continued.

Assigned to Division of Timber Physics.

30. Railway ties Section 1. Experimental treatment of jack pine

and hemlock ties.

(a) Study of creosote treatment of jack pine and hemlock ties completed. Results reported in Canadian Forestry Branch Bulletin 67, "Creosote Treatment of Jack Pine and Eastern Hemlock for Cross Ties." Patents on process developed in the course of this work pending. (b) Seasoning study and creosote treatment of jack pine and hemlock ties for service tests have been undertaken.

Work on No. 2 to be completed.

Assigned to Division of Wood Preservation.

31. Paving blocks. Experimental investigation of some important factors in the creosote treatment of red pine paving blocks.

Effects of different preservatives and treatments on swelling and bleeding of the blocks are being investigated.

Work on bleeding and swelling tests to be continued.
Assigned to Division of Wood Preservation."

32. Fence posts-Section 1.
1. Experimental creosote
Russian poplar posts for service tests.

treatment of

Posts have been treated and installed and yearly inspections are being made.

Reports of yearly inspections to be compiled and conclusions drawn. Assigned to Division of Wood Preservation.

33. Field survey of railroad ties.

Study of Canadian conditions and ties in track proceeding.

Study to be completed and results compiled-to serve as a basis for research.

Assigned to Division of Wood Preservation.

34. Field survey of timber exposed to influences favorable to its decay. Study of the following is proceeding: (a) decay of timber in buildings and structures; (b) decay of pulpwood in storage piles; (c) deterioration of stored groundwood pulp. Several articles bearing on (a) have been published in trade or technical journals.

To be continued and further matter to be prepared for publication. Assigned to Pathologist, Division of Timber Physics.


CLYDE LEAVITT, Chief Forester

35. Forest regeneration survey. To determine the nature and amount of regeneration on cut-over pulpwood lands; the rate of growth of the commercial species on such lands. General reconnaissance, strip surveys, growth studies.

Begun in 1917 in cooperation with the Laurentide Company, Grand'Mère, Quebec. Cooperation with the Riordon Pulp and Paper Company, Montreal, 1918, and with the Abitibi Power and Paper Co., Montreal, 1919 (limits in Ontario); collaboration with the New Brunswick Forest Service, 1918 and 1919.

Continuance with the present cooperators and extension to others as opportunity offers. Application of the same kind of investigation to burned-over lands.

Assigned to Dr. C. D. Howe in charge (Commission of Conservation of Canada). Field work in Quebec, Ontario and New Brunswick. 36. Forest sample plot studies. To make a detailed record of changing conditions through a series of years on permanent sample plots; to ascertain the influence of insect and fungus diseases in determining the composition of the forest and their influence upon the decay of slash; to study the factors which influence the regeneration and the rate of growth of the commercial species.

Three one-acre plots established on limits of the Laurentide Company and one on the limits of the Riordon Pulp and Paper Company in 1918. In 1919 there were established thirteen one-acre permanent sample plots on limits of the Laurentide Company, in addition to 160 acres of experimental cuttings; six one-acre sample plots on Riordon Company limits (Quebec); and 250 acres of experimental cuttings on Bathurst Lumber Company limits (New Brunswick); these are in cooperation

with the respective companies and with the New Brunswick Forest Service, as to work in that Province.*

To be continued with present cooperators and extended to others as opportunity offers.

Dr. C. D. Howe, forestry, Dr. W. H. Rankin, fungi (Commission of Conservation of Canada). Dr. J. M. Swaine, insects (Dominion Entomological Branch, Department of Agriculture, Canada).


Division of Forest Insects

Entomological Branch

J. M. SWAINE, Chief of Division

37. Bark-beetle injuries in British Columbia. Injuries to the yellow pine, with emphasis on control of present serious infestation.

Investigations of these beetles, their habits and effective control measures, have been carried on since 1913; results summarized in several publications, chiefly in Bulletins 7 and 14 of the Dominion Entomological Branch.

Further work to include organization and supervision of control measures. Modified logging operations to be employed where feasible. Special effort to be made to check spread of present serious infestation. Further investigations to be made of important bark-beetle outbreaks in other western conifers, with organization of control measures where feasible.

Assigned to J. M. Swaine and Ralph Hopping, in charge of forest insect investigations in British Columbia.

38. Biology of Canadian bark-beetles.

A detailed study of the life history and habits of bark-beetles has been in progress since 1912, leading to development of methods of control, where needed.


Assigned to J. M. Swaine and Ralph Hopping.

39. Classification of North American bark-beetles.

Under way since 1912. Part of the results published in articles in the "Canadian Entomologist" and in Bulletins 7 and 14 of the Dominion Entomological Branch. Studies of immature forms in progress. Extensive collections from Europe and northern Asia have been obtained. It is planned to continue this study, extending its scope to cover the fauna of Europe and northern Asia.

Assigned to J. M. Swaine.

40. The balsam injury of eastern Canada.

Has been carefully studied for several years. Studies of the injury and the factors involved are in progress in parts of Quebec and New Brunswick. Results point to slash burning as a necessary practice in eastern Canada. Publication: Agricultural Gazette of Canada, Vol. 6, No. 3, March, 1919.

Further studies planned for next season.

Assigned to J. M. Swaine, S. A. Graham, M. B. Dunn, in cooperation with J. D. Tothill in New Brunswick.

* (See also under Dominion Department of Agriculture, Entomological Branch, Forest sample plot studies.)

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