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I owe an apology to the scientific reader for not, in every instance, giving the authorities from which I have drawn many of the facts and arguments used in the course of my work. It was impossible ; my library is too small. Confined to my room during the whole time I have been engaged in my work, in an agricultural district very scantily supplied with scientific books; too much indisposed, for two-thirds of the time, to read or write, I found it to be impossible, without delay, trouble, and expense, to procure the necessary authors. I have, therefore, freely quoted the authors in my possession, and was obliged to depend on memory for others, which I did not quote, lest I might misrepresent them.

The scarcity of books has been a serious grievance to me, in the progress of my labor. The great variety, and immense importance of the topics to be discussed in the Natural History of Man, according to my view of it, required a very large and select, instead of a very small, though select, family library. It may be, however, that the scarcity of books has been the reason that so many new views have been presented on the subjects discussed; which might have been withheld if I had had an opportunity to refresh my memory by a re-perusal of the authors. The public may be benefited by having a number of new ideas furnished to the intellectual stock on hand; while the author may suffer by not having placed them in a proper light for his own credit and advantage. Wants, however, are not always disadvantages, though they must be inconveniences. They throw a man upon his resources, if he has any ; and have produced the most powerful exertions of human nature, both for good and evil. How they have operated on the author, the intelligent reader must decide.

I have ventured to differ from authorities, in several important instances, which have generally been regarded as standards. I offer no apology for it. If I have contradicted them without sufficient reasons to justify me, I am well aware that I cannot expect, nor do I hope, to be sustained ; and, if my reasons are sufficient, no name can stand so high, in the republic of letters, as to carry away the judgment of the public against truth.

It will be observed that, throughout my work, I have avoided the use of technical terms, wherever they could be avoided without prejudice to the sense of the subject. In this I have consulted the taste of the general more than of the scientific reader. It must

be admitted that all the works hitherto published on the Natural History of Man, have been sealed books to the general reader, arising as well from the method of treating the subject, as from abounding in technicalities, which the initiated only could understand, and which the general reader would not be at the labor of deciphering. The subject is too deeply interesting to be made so exclusive. The best interests of mankind are involved in its details ; and, if properly treated, cannot fail to interest every man, either from a desire for knowledge, or from motives of curiosity, or benevolence. I do not pretend to have so treated it; but I hope I may be excused for believing that I have clothed the subject in a more appropriate, and therefore a more pleasing garb, than have my predecessors.

ANALYTICAL CONTENTS.

The investigation of the subject not forbidden by Scripture. . .

46

The Church of Rome usurped authority over the consciences and intellects

of Men. Her day is passed. Public opinion and Conscience supply her place.
Philosophers and Theologians. Scepticism of philosophers not dangerous:
Corrected by the progress of Science. Many sciences corroborate Scripture.
Bible not given for scientific instruction. Philosophy not legitimately employ-
ed in opposing Scripture. Motives influencing authors in writing the History
of Man. President Smith, his motive. Danger of a false issue. Moses estab-
lishes a diversity of species. Scripture addressed to the understanding as well
as to faith. Rule for expounding Scripture. Moses' history short but compre-
hensive. Parts not easily reconcilable. Adam and Eve, whether the first and
only pair. The only human beings in Eden. Cain and Abel. Dr. Good on
the theory of Peyrere. Moses does not record two creations. The ante-diluvi.
ans not more prolific than the post-deluvians. If there were human beings before
Adam and Eve, why create them? Reply. Objections to this construction.
Days of Creation. Facts remain the same whatever may be thought of them.
Creation of Adam and Eve a remedial measure. Found nothing on this theory.
Introduced to show the latitude of inquiry. We admit all the human family
sprang from Adam through Noah. The sons of Noah had different destinies,
and required to be specifically distinct to accomplish them. Less than a physi-
cal change insufficient. Geographical separation, alone, insufficient. God

could modify by his word as well as create. Another view of the subject.
Zoology is not interested in the origin of animals, beyond the permanence of
generation. Conclusion,

THE Classification of Man, and the proper names of the Species.

67

Cuvier's nomenclature. Blumenbach's. Dr. Prichard's. Division of the

Class Mammalia. Zoological character of Man. Reasons for new nomencla-
ture. Harmony with kindred sciences. Josephus' distribution of patriarchs
opposed to our nomenclature. His reasons for locating patriarchs investigated.
Historical facts against Josephus. Influence of religion, law, and literature on
language. Examples from history. Acknowledged errors of Josephus. Jews
behind their age in geographic knowledge. “ The Isles of the Gentiles” do not
necessarily signify those of the Mediterranean. Natural for the Jews to sup-
pose the Mediterranean to contain "the Isles.” But the meaning must be look-
ed for at the time of the dispersion, 900 years before the Jews were a nation.
When dispersed, the inhabitants of Shinar knew nothing more of the Mediter-
ranean than of the Southern Ocean. Migrations not voluntary, but impulsive.
Not left to chance nor human desire. Earliest history proves migratory ar-
rangement by species in masses,“ after their families, after their tongues, after
their countries, and in their nations.". All the yellow people in Eastern Asia;
the Red in Central Asia; the Black in Africa and Asiatic Ethiopia ; and the
White in Western Asia and Europe. Species did not mingle in migrations.
Proofs. History our guide, not Josephus. Analogy of names his only au-
thority. Different patriarchs named children alike. Examples. The Hebrew
language of Josephus not the language of the patriarchs. Arabian geography
against Josephus. Grecian history. Pelasgians not originally savages. How
the name Ionia came to be applied to Greece. Not from Japheth, but from
Ion, the son of Xuthus, a Pelasgian. The first name of Greece was Pelasgia,
not Ionia. These views strengthened by circumstances. All nations around
Babylon stationary in civilization. Western migrations were only progressive.
Might have avoided this dispute, but preferred to encounter it, and why.

CHAPTER IV.

The distribution of Vegetables and Animals over the Earth is not analogous to

the distribution of the human species, and therefore such distribution will

not assist our investigations in relation to Man.

. 120

The importance of Vegetables. Habitats of Vegetables and Animals. Causes

which influence them. Vegetables possess the power of chemical assimila-

tion, which animals do not. Theories of distribution. One Centre. Several

Centres. Spontaneous productions. Plants in Europe, Asia, Africa, New

Holland, and America. America contains nearly one half of the phaneroga-

mous plants of the world. Of the two last theories unimportant to our sub-

ject which is adopted. The earth arrayed at once in perfection and beauty.

The agencies of vegetable distribution. Example in Buenos Ayres. Potato.

Canada thistle. Geographic distribution of Animals marked by strong lines.

Identity of species rare in different Continents. Examples. Field's descrip-

tion of New Holland. Peculiar Fauna which distinguish Asia, Africa, New

Holland, Europe, and America. Swainson on the Birds of Europe. Peculiar

physical arrangement of America. No Deserts. Magnificent display of Crea-

tive power. Humming Bird. Mocking Bird. Quadrupeds. Remarks. Disa

tribution of Man from one Centre. Proofs. Vegetables and Animals are not

analogues of Man. Constitutional adaptation of Man for migration, different

from vegetables and animals. Omnivorous, naked, ingenious, courageous, and

migratory, Man alone accommodates himself to all circumstances. Extract from

Dr. Good. Conclusion.

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