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already Alumina anticlinal Athens county barrels beds Berea grit Berea shale black shale blue bottom burned Carbonate of lime Carbonate of magnesia cement cent clay Clinton limestone composition Creek cubic feet Cuyahoga shale depth Devonian dolomite Drift drilled driller facts farm feet above tide feet below tide feet per day feet thick field Findlay follows formation gas-rock gas-wells Helderberg Helderberg limestone horizon Hudson River inches kilns Lima lime located Lower Helderberg Macksburg magnesia manufacture measured Medina Meigs county miles Morgan county natural gas Niagara limestone northern Ohio Ohio Geological Ohio Geological Survey Ohio shale oil and gas outcrops petroleum pipe Pitot tube Pomeroy pounds pressure production quantity quarries record reported rock roof coal salt salt-water sand sandstone Silurian slate soapstone stone strata stratum struck supply surface temperature tion town township Trenton limestone tube upper limestones Utica Utica shale Waterlime
Page 65 - With such sources ready formed in the earth's crust, it seems to me, to say the least, unphilosophical to search elsewhere for the origin of petroleum, and to suppose it to be derived by some unexplained process from rocks which are destitute of this substance.
Page 92 - ... had been bored in the synclines on either side furnished little or no gas, but in many cases large quantities of salt water. Further observation showed that the gas wells were confined to a narrow belt, only one.fourth to one mile wide, along the crests of the anticlinal folds. These facts seemed to connect gas territory unmistakably with the disturbance in the rocks caused by their upheaval into arches, but the crucial test was yet to be made in the actual location of good gas territory on this...
Page 92 - ... gas territory on this theory. During the last two years, I have submitted it to all manner of tests, both in locating and condemning gas territory, and the general result has been to confirm the anticlinal theory beyond a reasonable doubt.
Page 92 - In a theory of this kind, the limitations become quite as important as, or even more so than the theory itself ; and hence I have given considerable thought to this side of the question, having formulated them into three or four general rules (which include practically all the limitations known to me, up to the present time, that should be placed on the statement that large...
Page 92 - Probably very few or none of the grand arches along the mountain ranges will be found holding gas in large quantity, since in such cases the disturbance of the stratification has been so profound that all the natural gas generated in the past would long ago have escaped into the air through fissures that traverse all the beds. (d) Another limitation might possibly be added, which would confine the areas where great gas flows may be obtained to those underlain by a considerable thickness of bituminous...
Page 98 - In other words, the term rock-pressure is considered to be descriptive of a cause as well as of a fact. That a column of rock, 1,000 or 1,500 feet deep, has great weight, is obvious. It is assumed that this weight, whatever it is, is available in driving accumulations of gas out of rocks that contain them, whenever communication is opened between the deeplyburied reservoir and the surface.
Page 98 - Solid or liquid materials in the reservoir are supposed to be converted into gas as water is converted into steam. The resulting gas occupies many times more space than the bodies from which it was derived, and in seeking to obtain the space demanded by the change through which it has passed, it exerts the pressure which we note.
Page 68 - Huron shale from New York to Tennessee. The rock itself is frequently found saturated with petroleum, and the overlying strata, if porous, are sure to be more or less impregnated with it. "Third. The wells on Oil Creek penetrate the strata immediately overlying the Huron shale, and the oil is obtained from the fissured and porous sheets of sandstone of the Portage and Chemung groups, which lie just above the Huron, and offer convenient reservoirs for the oil it furnishes.
Page 82 - A large percentage of natural gas is light carburetted hydrogen, one of the simplest and most stable products of decomposition. Petroleum readily gives rise to marsh gas when subjected to destructive agencies, but we have no known experience in which the higher compound results from synthesis of the lower. It seems, therefore, safe to count petroleum first in the order of nature.
Page 73 - ... by the facts that our experience affords. Any other way of reaching an answer is assumption, pure and simple. "In the third place, this theory would seem to necessitate a coke or carbonized residue in the rocks which give rise to the petroleum. Inability to point out such a residue seems to have been one of the reasons that led our author to locate the source of the oil-distilling heat at such great depth. He counts a carbon residue a necessity, but he buries the rock from which the petroleum...