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Chap. I. Introduction-Scope or End of the Inquiry—begins from the Arrange-

ment of simple, or single Terms—Character of these Terms—Nature and

Multitude of the Objects which they represent

- 247

Chap. II. A Method of Arrangement proposed - rejected, and why-another

Method proposed-adopted, and why-General Remarks—Plan of the Whole 255

CHAP. III. Concerning Substance natural—how continued, or carried on-Principles

of this Continuation, two-increased to three-reduced again to two-these

last two, Form and a Subject, or rather, Form and Matter

- 259

CAAP. IV. Concerning Matter-an imperfect Description of it-its Nature, and

the Necessity of its Existence, traced out and proved—first by Abstraction

then by Analogy-Illustrations from Mythology

- 267

CHAP. V. Concerning Form-An imperfect Description of it-Primary Forms,

united with Matter, make Body-Body Mathematical-Body Physical-how

they differ—Essential Forms—Transition to Forms of a Character superior to

the passive and elementary

- 273

CHAP. VI. Concerning Form, considered as an Efficient Animating Principle-Har-

mony in Nature between the living and the lifeless-Ovid, a philosophical

Poet-Further Description of the Animating Principle from its Operations,

Energies, and Effects-- Virgil—The Active Principle and the Passive Principle

run throngh the Universe--Mind, Region of Forms—Corporeal Connections,

where necessary, where obstructive-Means and Ends—their different Pre-

cedence according to different Systems—Empedocles, Lucretius, Prior, Galen,

Cicero, Aristotle, &c.—Providence

- 276

CHAP. VII. Concerning the Properties of Substance, attributed to it in the Peripa-

tetic Logic

- 288

CHAP. VIII. Concerning Qualities corporeal and incorporeal-natural and ac-

quired—of Capacity and Completion-Transitions immediate, and through a

medium-Dispositions Habits—Genius–Primary and imperfect Capacity-

Secondary and perfect--where it is that no Capacities exist–Qualities, pene

trating and superficial - Essential Form-Figure an important Quality-

Figures intellectual

, natural, artificial, fantastic-Colour, Roughness, Smooth-

ness, &c. - Persons of Quality Properties of Quality-Some rejected, one

admitted, and why -

• 291

CHAP. IX. Concerning Quantity_its two Species—their Characters—Time and

Place—their Characters—Property of Quantity, what-Quantities relative

Figure and Number, their Effect upon Quantity-Importance of this Effect-

Sciences Mathematical appertain to it—their Use, according to Plato—How

other Beings partake of Quantity-Analogy, found in Mind-Common Sense

and Genius, how distinguished— Amazing efficacy of this Genus in and through

the World-Illustrations


CHAP. X. Concerning Relatives—their Source-Relatives apparent—real-their

Properties, reciprocal—Inference, and Co-existence-Force of Relation in

Ethics—in matters Dramatic-in Nature, and the Order of Being-Relations,

amicable and hostile-Evil—Want-Friendship-Strife-Relation of all to the

Supreme Cause-Extent and Use of this Predicament, or Arrangement - - 311

CHAP. XI. Concerning Action and Passion-Action, its five Species—those of

Passion reciprocate-Mind Divine, Human-latter, how acted upon-Politics,


Ethics—Passivity in Bodies animate and inanimate-Action and

Re-action, where they exist, where not-Self-motion, what, and where— Power,

whence, and what-requisite both in Action and in Passion-Power, though

like Nonentity, yet widely different-Double in the reasoning Faculty-

Power, not first in Existence, but Energy, which never has ceased, or will cease,


CHAP. XII. Concerning When and Where—Concerning Time and Place, and their

Definitions—When and Where, how distinguished from Time and Place, how

connected with them-Descriptions of When and Where—their Utility and

Importance in human Life-Various Terms, denoting these two Predicaments

-others denoting them not, yet made to denote them—When and Where,

their extensive influence—plausible Topics-concurring Causes-Opportunity,

what-Chance, what it is not, what it is—Fate, Providence-cooperating

Causes Supreme Intelligence

- 335

CHAP. XIII. Concerning Position or Situation-What is, and how deduced--

how it exists in Beings inanimate—in Vegetablesmin Man--animal Progres-

sion-Works of Art-Attitudes-Illustrations of Attitude—from Poets-from

Actors—from Orators—its Efficacy, whence-Position, among the Elements of

Democritus—its Influence and Importance in the natural World—in the



CHAP. XIV. Concerning Habit, or rather the being habited-Its Description—its

principal Species deduced and illustrated—its Privation-Conclusion of the

second or middle part of the Treatise -

- 351

CHAP. XV. Concerning the Appendages to the Universal Genera or Arrangements ;

that is to say, concerning Opposites, prior, subsequent, together or at once,

and Motion, usually called Post-Predicaments—the Modes or Species of all

these (Motion excepted) deduced and illustrated-Preparation for the Theory

of Motion


CHAP. XVI. Concerning Motion Physical—Its various Species deduced and illus-

trated-blend themselves with each other, and why-Contrariety, Opposition,

Rest—Motion Physical—an Object of all the senses—Common Objects of

Sensation, how many-Motion, a thing not simple, but complicated with many

other Things—its Definition or Description taken from the Peripatetics——the

Accounts given of it by Pythagoras and Plato analogous to that of Aristotle,

and why


CHAP. XVII. Concerning Motion Not-physical—This means Metaphysical, and why

so called —Spontaneity-Want-Perception, Consciousness, Anticipation, Pre-

conception- Appetite, Resentment, Reason-Motion Physical and Metaphy-

sical, how united-Discord and Harmony of the internal Principles-Powers

vegetative, animal, rational-Immortality-Rest, its several Species--Motion,

to what perceptive Beings it appertains; to what not--and whence the Difference 367

CHAP. XVIII. Conclusion--Utilities deducible from the Theory of these Arrange-



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· 399

CHAP. I. That the Epic Writers came first, and that nothing excellent in Literary

Performances happens merely from Chance--the Causes, or Reasons of such

Excellence, illustrated by Examples

. 400

Chap. II. Numerous Composition-derived from Quantity Syllabic-anciently es-

sential both to Verse and Prose-Rhythm-Pæans and Cretics, the Feet for

Prose-Quantity Accentual—a Degeneracy from Syllabic—Instances of it,

first in Latin-then in Greek—Versus Politici--Traces of Accentual Quantity

in Terence-essential to Modern Languages, and among others to English,

from which last Examples are taken


CHAP. III. Quantity Verbal in English—a few Feet pure, and agreeable to Syllabic

Quantity-Instances-yet Accentual Quantity prevalent– Instances—Transi-

tion to Prose-English Pæans, Instances of—Rhythm governs Quantity, where

this last is Accentual


CHAP. IV. Other Decorations of Prose besides Prosaic Feet-Alliteration-Sen-

tences—Periods—Caution to avoid excess in consecutive Monosyllables—— Ob-

jections made and answered—Authorities alleged-Advice about reading • 414

CHAP. V. Concerning Whole and Parts, as essential to the constituting of a legi-

timate Work—the Theory illustrated from the Georgics of Virgil, and the

Menexenus of Plato-same Theory applied to smaller Pieces—Totality, essen-

tial to small Works, as well as great—Examples to illustrate—Accuracy,

another Essential-more so to smaller Pieces, and why— Transition to Dramatic



Chap. VI. Dramatic Speculations—the constitutive Parts of every Drama, Six in

number—which of these belong to other Artists, which to the Poet—Transi-

tion to those which appertain to the Poet


CHAP. VII. In the constitutive Parts of a Drama, the Fable considered first—its

different Species-which fit for Comedy, which for Tragedy-Illustrations by

Examples — Revolutions - Discoveries — Tragic Passions-Lillo's Fatal Cu-

riosity compared with the Edipus Tyrannus of Sophocles—Importance of

Fables, both Tragic and Comic—how they differ—bad Fables, whence-other

Dramatic Requisites, without the Fable, may be excellent—Fifth Acts, how

characterized by some Dramatic Writers


CHAP. VIII. Concerning Dramatic Manners—what constitutes them—Manners of

Othello, Macbeth, Hamlet—those of the last questioned, and why—Consistency

required-yet sometimes blameable, and why—Genuine Manners in Shak-

speare—in Lillo-Manners, morally bad, poetically good


Chap. IX. Concerning Dramatic Sentiment—what constitutes it-Connected with

Manners, and how-Concerning Sentiment Gnomologic, or Preceptive-its

Description-Sometimes has a Reason annexed to it—Sometimes laudable,

sometimes blameable-whom it most becomes to utter Sentences-- Bossu,

Transition to Diction


CHAP. X. Concerning Diction—the vulgar—the affected—thc elegant—this last

much indebted to the Metaphor-Praise of the Metaphor-its Description ;

and, when good, its Character—the best and most excellent, what—not turgid

-nor enigmatic--nor basenor ridiculous—Instances—Metaphors by constant

Use sometimes become common Words- Puns—Rupilius Rex - OTTIE-

Enigmas-Cupping—The God Terminus—Ovid's Fasti


Chap. XI. Rank and Precedence of the constitutive parts of the Drama-Remarks

and Cautions both for Judging and Composing


CHAP. XII. Rules defended—do not cramp Genius, but guide it-flattering Doc-

trine, that Genius will suffice-fallacious, and why-further defence of Rules

-No Genius ever acted without them ; nor ever a Time when Rules did not

exist-Connection between Rules and Genius--their reciprocal Aid-End of

the Second Part—Preparation for the Third

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CHAP. L Design of the whole-Limits and Extent of the Middle Age—Three

Classes of Men, during that Interval, conspicuous: the Byzantine Greeks;

the Saracens, or Arabians; and the Latins, or Franks, Inhabitants of Western

Europe-Each Class in the following Chapters considered apart


CHAF. II. Concerning the first Class, the Byzantine Greeks Simplicius-Am-

monius-Philoponus-Fate of the fine Library at Alexandria


CHAP. III. Digression to a short Historical Account of Athens, from the Time of her

Persian Triumphs, to that of her becoming subject to the Turks-Sketch, during

this long Interval, of her Political and Literary State ; of her Philosophers; of

her Gymnasia ; of her good and bad Fortune, &c.—Manners of the present In-

habitants-Olives and Honey


Chap. IV. Account of Byzantine Scholars continued-Suidas—John Stobæus, or of

Stoba-Photius Michael Psellus—this last said to have commented twenty-

four Plays of Menander-Reasons to make this probable-Eustathius, a

Bish the Commentator of Homer-Eustratius, a Bishop, the Commentator

of Aristotle-Planudes, a Monk, the Admirer and Translator of Latin Classics,

as well as the Compiler of one of the present Greek Anthologies—Conjecturer

concerning the Duration of the Latin Tongue at Constantinople


CHAP. V. Nicetas, the Choniate-His curious Narrative of the Mischiefs done by

Baldwyn's Crusade, when they sacked Constantinople in the Year 1205

Many of the Statues described, which they then destroyed-A fine Taste for

Arts among the Greeks, even in those Days, proved from this Narrative-not

so among the Crusaders—Authenticity of Nicetas's Narrative--State of Con-

stantinople at the last Period of the Grecian Empire, as given by contemporary

Writers, Philelphus and Æneas Sylvius National Pride among the Greeks

not totally extinct even at this day


CHAP. VI. Concerning the second Class of Geniuses during the Middle Age, the

Arabians, or Saracens-At first, barbarous—Their Character before the time of

Mahomet—Their greatest Caliphs were from among the Abassidæ-Almanzur

one of the first of that Race-Almamun of the same Race, a great Patron of

Learning, and learned Men-Arabians cultivated Letters, as their Empire grew

settled and established-Translated the best Greek Authors into their own

Language-Historians, Abulpharagius, Abulfeda, Bohadin-Extracts from the

last concerning Saladin


CHAP. VII. Arabian Poetry and Works of Invention-Facts relative to their Man-

ners and Characters -


CHAP. VIII. Arabians favoured Medicine and Astrology-Facts relative to these

two subjects—

They valued Knowledge, but had no Ideas of Civil Liberty—The

mean Exit of their last Caliph, Mostasem-End of their Empire in Asia, and

in Spain-Their present wretched degeneracy in Africa-An Anecdote -


CHAP. IX. Concerning the Latins, or Franks—Bede, Alcuin, Joannes Erigena, &c.

- Gerbertus, or Gibertus, travelled to the Arabians in Spain for improvement-

Suspected of Magic—this the Misfortune of many superior Geniuses in Dark

Ages; of Bacon, Petrarch, Faust, and others—Erudition of the Church ; Ig-

norance of the Laity-Ingulphus, an Englishman, educated in the Court of

Edward the Confessor-attached himself to the Duke of Normandy-Accom-

plished Character of Queen Egitha, Wife of the Confessor-Plan of Education

in those Days—The Places of Study, the Authors studied-Canon Law, Civil

Law, Holy War, Inquisition—Troubadours-William of Poictou—Debauchery,

Corruption, and Avarice of the Times—William the Conqueror, his Character

and Taste-His Sons, Rufus and Henry-little Incidents concerning them-

Hildebert, a Poet of the Times—fine Verses of his quoted

- 497

Chap. X. Schoolmen—their Rise and Character—their Titles of Honour-Remarks

on such Titles-Abelard and Heloisa--John of Salisbury-admirable Quota-

tions from his two celebrated Works-Giraldus Cambrensis—Walter Mapps

-Richard Cour de Leon-his Transactions with Saladin-his Death, and the

singular Interview which immediately preceded it


CHAP. XI. Concerning the Poetry of the latter Latins, or Western Europeans,

Accentual Quantity-Rhyme Samples of Rhyme in Latin-in Classical Poets,

accidental ; in those of a later Age, designed-Rhyme among the Arabians-

Odilo, Hucbaldus, Hildigrim, Halabaldus, Poets or Heroes of Western

Europe-Rhymes in Modern Languages of Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio,

Chaucer, &c.—Sannazarius, a pure Writer in Classic Latin, without Rhyme

Anagrams, Chronograms, &c., finely and accurately described by the ingenious

Author of the Scribleriad

- 515

CHAP. XII. Paul the Venetian and Sir John Mandeville, great Travellers—Sir

John Fortescue, a great Lawyer-his valuable Book addressed to his Pupil

the Prince of Wales -King's College Chapel in Cambridge Founded by Henry

the Sixth


CHAP. XIII. Concerning Natural Beauty—its Idea the same in all Times--Thes-

salian Temple-Taste of Virgil and Horace—of Milton, in describing Paradise

-exhibited of late Years, first in Pictures—thence transferred to English

Gardens—not wanting to the enlightened Few of the Middle Age-proved in

Leland, Petrarch, and Sannazarius-Comparison between the younger Cyrus

and Philip le Bel of France

· 525

CHAP. XIV. Superior Literature and Knowledge both of the Greek and Latin

Clergy, whence --Barbarity and Ignorance of the Laity, whence-Samples of

Lay-manners, in a Story from Anna Comnena's History--Church Authority

ingeniously employed to check Barbarity—the same Authority employed for

other good Purposes—to save the poor Jews--to stop Trials by Battle--more

suggested concerning Lay-manners- Ferocity of the Northern Laymen, whence

-different Causes assigned—Inventions during the Dark Ages-great, though

the Inventors often unknown-Inference arising from these Inventions - 529

Chap. XV. Opinions on past Ages and the present—Conclusion arising from the

Discussion of these Opinions.
Conclusion of the whole


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