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When therefore we contemplate the various relations already hinted, and mark in how friendly a manner they bring the most distant beings together, we may be tempted to say with the philosopher, that “all things are full of friendly principles." • But we must not suffer this sentiment to carry us too far, Things are not only full of friendly principles, but of hostile likewise.

The fangs of the lion are as much the work of nature as the tendrils of the vine, or the nurturing teats of the ewe. To what then have these formidable weapons relation ; for nature, we are assured, makes nothing in vain ?P If to offence, then is the lion himself a source of hostile relation; if to defence, then is he the object of injury from some other; so that hostility in either case is necessarily implied. Were it possible to doubt as to the offensive here, we could never doubt as to the structure of the spider's web; a structure clearly taught her by nature for offence alone. These and the like preparations, such as the boar's tusk,

Where, then, were these ends, when the defended Plato, yet appears to have done things themselves first appeared ? In ex- it, according to Bessario's letter, with a zeal ternal and visible nature ? This from the and bitterness not becoming him; a zeal hypothesis is impossible, for the hypothesis and bitterness too frequent in controversy, makes them subsequent. No other place and (unfortunately for the cause of letters) then remains, but either the Sovereign Mind, nowhere more than among learned men, or a mind subordinate, according as the and those in particular whom we call prowork itself is a work of nature or of art.” fessors of humanity. See before, p. 281, 282.

The epistle above mentioned may be I have taken the preceding extract from found in Greek and Latin, published by a manuscript of that able scholar and philo- the learned Boivinus, in the second tome of sopher George Gemistus, otherwise called l'Histoire de l'Academie Royale des InPletho, who flourished in the fifteenth cen- scriptions, &c. p. 455 ; and it is well worth tury, both before and after the taking of perusal, for its temper and elegance. Constantinople. If it apply not immedi- See also Cicero de Senectute, c. 15. Vitis ately to the subject, it has at least the quidem, &c. merit of being something rare and ingenious. ο Πάντα δέ φίλων μεστά. Arrian. Epict. It is a morsel of that controversy among l. iii. c. 24. p. 486. edit. Upt. the learned Greeks of this period, whether p This was an axiom inculcated everythe preference in philosophy was due to where by Aristotle; and more especially Plato or to Aristotle. Scholarius, among when he is speaking of final causes, which, others, was for Aristotle ; Pletho for Plato; though now they make a small part of phifrom whose work on this subject (which losophy, were never omitted by the Stagiwas an answer to Scholarius) this extract is rite, as often as they could be introduced. taken. There is another small work of His own words deserve attention : 'H puois Pletho's upon the same subject, entitled, vùody TOLET Mátny, åxx' el ék Twv {vdexoΠερί ών Αριστοτέλης προς Πλάτωνα δια- μένων τη ουσία περί έκαστον γένος ζώου pépetal, printed at Paris, 1541; and Bes- td á plotov: “Nature makes nothing in sario (a learned Greek of that age, who vain; but with respect to each animal genus, went over to the Latin church, and became out of the several ways practicable, she ala cardinal) wrote a large tract to defend ways makes that which is best.” De Anithe Platonic doctrine, entitled, Contra Ca- mal. Ingressu, p. 28. edit. Sylb. And again, lumniatorem Platonis. The printed edition in the same tract: 'H Qúois oùdèy dnuloupyei is in Latin, but the whole work is extant μάτην, ώσπερ είρηται πρότερον, αλλά πάντα in Greek armong the manuscripts of St. προς το βέλτιον εκ των ενδεχομένων: Marc's library at Venice, to which library “ Nature creates nothing in vain, but (as Bessario bequeathed his own. There is, has been said already) all things for the too, a fine letter remaining of the same best, out of the several ways that are pracBessario, addressed to Michael Apostolius; ticable.” Ibid. p. 141. edit. Sylb. who, though he took Bessario's side, and

the eagle's talons, the viper's venom, &c. are all founded on such wants as can never be satisfied amicably. The wants, therefore, of this character naturally rouse up similar instincts, and thus the world becomes filled as well with hostile relations, as friendly.

Torva leæna lupam sequitur, lupus ipse capellam. Virg. Ecl. ä. It appears to have been these relations of hostility that first gave rise to the phenomena of natural and moral evil. Now whether real evil exist at all, or whether we should confine it, with the Stoics, to evil purely moral, are questions beyond the scope of this treatise to examine. It will be sufficient to say, that much evil is imaginary, and founded merely on false opinion: that of the evils more real, there are many which have their end, and so may be said to partake, ultimately, the nature of good. Many of the difficulties and distresses which befall the human species, conduce to save it from sloth, and to rouse it up to action; to action which is, in fact, the very life of the universe.

Pater ipse colendi
Haud facilem esse viam volait, primusque per artem
Movit agros, curis acuens mortalia corda,

Nec torpere gravi passus sua regna veterno. Virg. Georg. i. If there were no dangers, then could there be no fortitude; if no temptations, then no temperance; if no adverse accidents, nor loss of what we love, then no submissive resignation, no pious acquiescence.

Ουκ αν γενοϊτο χωρίς εσθλά και κακά: .
'Αλλ' έστι τις σύγκρασις, ώστ' έχειν καλώς.
“ Things good and ill can ne'er exist apart ;

But such the mixture, that they well accord.”! Again, the jaws of the lion, the poison of the rattle-snake, the sword of the conqueror, and every instrument of destruction, may be said incidentally to prepare the way for generation; and that not only by making room for new comers, but by furnishing fresh materials towards their respective production. For though the theatre of the world so far resembles other theatres, that it is perpetually filled with successions of new spectators; yet has it this in peculiar, that the spectators which succeed here, are made out of those that went before. Every particular birth, or

9 The fine distich here translated is from “ Perhaps it is difficult to prove any thing Euripides, quoted by Plutarch, De Isid. et clearly upon subjects such as these, without Osirid. p. 369. edit. Xyland.

having often considered and examined them. As to the speculations here offered, and And yet to have thrown out doubts conthe solutions suggested, we may well apply cerning them, is a thing not altogether to them that just reflection of the Stagirite, without its use.” Aristot. Præd. p. 40. edit. though used by him on a different occasion. Sylb. "Ίσως δε χαλεπόν και περί των τοιούτων The subject matter is the same in many σφοδρώς αποφαίνεσθαι, μη πολλάκις επε- succeeding beings ; as the river is the same, Okejuevove To MéVTOSintonkévai tepl which, as it flows along, refleets many difεκάστου αυτών, ουκ άχρηστόν έστι: ferent objects. It is in this sense we are to

natural production, appears an act, if not of hostility, at least of separation; a secession from the general mass; a kind of revolt from the greater bulk in favour of a smaller; which smaller would detach itself, and, were it able, be independent.

In a word, as friendship, by cementing multitude, produces union ; so strife, by dissolving union, produces multitude; and it is by multitude that the world becomes diversified and replenished.

And hence we may perceive the meaning of what Heraclitus says in Plutarch, where he calls “ war, the father and king and lord of all things;" and asserts, “ that when Homer prayed,

That strife be banished both from gods and men, he was not aware that he was cursing the generation of all things; as, in fact, they deduce their rise out of contest and antipathy." The same philosopher adds immediately, “ that the sun could not pass his appointed bounds: that otherwise, if he could,

Tongues he would find to patronise the cause :" meaning, by this mythological way of talking, that the sun could not desert his course, because so much depended on it; or otherwise, if he could, that being himself one of the primary authors of generation upon this earth, and well knowing how much strife cooperated in the same work, he would surely look out for an advocate (were such any where existing) to defend the cause of strife against the calumnies of Homer.5 understand the following assertion, and not Plutarch. de Isid. et Osir. p. 370. edit. Xywith the least view to equivocal produc- land. fol. tion.

Dr. Squire, the late bishop of St. David's, Ουκούν διά τό τήν τούδε φθοράν άλλου has given a fair edition of this tract in the είναι γένεσιν, και την τούδε γένεσιν άλλου original, to which he has subjoined an Engείναι φθοράν, άπαυστον αναγκαίον είναι την lish translation ; but (according to a pracMetabornu : “ Wherefore, from the disso- tice too frequent with the best critics) he lution of one thing being the generation of has, in the passage above quoted, attempted another, and the generation of one thing to mend, where no emendation was wantbeing the dissolution of another, it necessa- ing. rily follows that the change must be perpe- Chalcidius plainly alludes to the same tual, and never cease.” Arist. de Gen. et sentiment of Heraclitus in the following Corr. I. i. c. 3. p. 10. edit. Sylb.

extract from his commentary on Plato's The change here alluded to is the com- Timæus: Proptereaque Numenius laudat mon course of nature in the production of Heraclium (lege Heraclitum) reprehendenbeings, which, were it not for the process tem Homerum, qui optaverit interitum et above mentioned, would either soon be at a vastitatem malis vitæ, quod non intelligeret stand, or would require a perpetual miracle mundum sibi deleri placere: si quidem for the supply of new materials.

sylva, quæ malorum fons est, exterminare'Hpákheitos uèv ydp áutiKPUS TÓRemov tur. Chal. p. 396. edit. Meurs. 1617. ονομάζει πατέρα και βασιλέα και κύριον In the Greek quotation Homer is supπάντων και τον μεν "Ομηρον, ευχόμενον, posed to wish inadvertently against the ge"Ek Te Dewv épuv, čk pl å vopórwv åtto- neration of all things; in the Latin, he λέσθαι,

wishes, in the same inadvertent manner, havdávely ono návrwv gevégei kata- against the existence of sylva, that is, of ρώμενον, εκ μάχης και αντιπαθείας την γέ- “matter.” The difference is easily reconciled, νεσιν εχόντων ήλιον δε μη υπερβήσεσθαι if we suppose matter to be the basis of geτους προσήκοντας όρους ει δε μή,

neration, and to be essentially requisite to Γλώττας μιν δίκης επικούρους εξευρήσειν. the existence things generable and pe

From all these speculations one thing at least appears, (whatever else may be doubtful,) that relations of hostility, as well as friendship, have their use in the universe. Both also equally arise from want on one side, and from the power of removing it on the other. The difference is, that in friendly relations the help is communicated either with pleasure, as when the mother suckles her child; or at least without pain, as when we shew a traveller his way, In hostile relations, the help, without regard to the communicator, is either taken by force, as when the wolf devours the lamb; or obtained by stratagem, as when the spider ensnares the fly.

And thus by the reciprocal relations of want and help, (both of which under a variety of forms exist in every individual,) is there a kind of general concatenation extended throughout the universe; while each being communicates what help it can afford, and obtains, in its turn, that help which it requires.

To all these relations must be added that chief, though mentioned last, that of the whole universe, and every being in it, to the first, supreme, and intelligent Cause, through which relation they are called his offspring, and he their Father. Here, indeed, the relations are not blended as before; they are all purely referable to want on one side, and all purely arise from spontaneous help on the other; the correspondence existing, as far as perfect has respect to imperfect, independent to dependent, the object desired to the beings which desire," the maker to his works, the parent to his children.*

And now to conclude with a remark, which regards relation in general. “As to every continuous being the genus of quality gives distinctions, which help to mitigate its sameness, and render it, as it were, discrete; so to beings discrete, however remote, the genus of relation gives a connection, which serves to mitigate their diversity, and to render them, as it were, continuous. Thus is the world maintained as well in its union, as in its variety, while both species of quantity run through the whole, and through every part."

And so much for the arrangement or genus of relation, its nature, its properties, its utility, and extent.y

rishable, out of which this lower and visible relation between the object of desire, and world is wholly composed.

the being which desires ?" Simplic. in Præ• How far the want of good leads to arts dic. p. 43. B. edit. Basil. 155). See be and action, may be seen in p. 14, and in fore, note c, p. 314. notes subjoined. We here perceive it to ex- * St. Paul has given his sanction to that tend, not only to the whole animal world, verse of Aratus, Toù gàp kal gyévos douév: but even to the vegetable. More will be "For we are his offspring.” Arat. Pheen. found on this subject in the treatise upon v. 5. Acts xvii. 28. Motion, a part of the present work,

y Before we quit this arrangement, we υ Πώς δε και έφετών πάσιν ο θεός λέγε- shall subjoin the following note. ται, ει μηδεμία σχέσις εστί προς το εφετόν The old logicians held, that things inToo èpleuévw; “How is God called an ob- telligible, and intellection, were relatives ; ject desirable to all beings, if there be no so also things sensible, and sensation. But




In treating of relatives, we have considered principally those which possess the relative character in a degree above every


then they started an objection-If relatives quarter-tone, but now we are unable to coexist, and always reciprocate in their distinguish this interval.” Simplic, in existence, what would become of Euclid's Præd. p. 48. B. edit. Basil. 1551. theorems, supposing there were no geome- Porphyry having told us, that though tricians? What would become of sensible there were no geometry, considered as a objects, supposing there were no beings science, there would still be objects geomesensitive ?

trical, subjoins-έπει και εν τη μουσική το One solution of this objection is derived μεν πάλαι του διεσιαίου διαστήματος ήκουον from the percipient: the first original and οι μουσικοί, ύστερον δε αμεληθείσης της supreme percipient is everywhere, and al- εναρμονίου μελωδίας, καθ' ήν το διεσιαίον ways in the full energy of universal per- διάστημα έμελωδείτο, ουκέτι του τοιούτου ception.

αίσθησις έσται (lege εστί) διαστήματος και Another solution is from the objects per- δήλον ότι εν τη φύσει εστί το αισθητόν ceived, be they sensible or intelligible. τούτο διάστημα, εί και η αίσθησις εκλέλοιEvery such object has a double nature ; an “For thus, too, in music, musicians absolute nature, and a relative one. The used formerly to hear (and distinguish) the sound A is an octave to the sound B. B interval of the quarter-tone ; but in latter ceases, and A continues. A is no longer days, the enharmonic melody having been an octave, but still it is a sound: and even neglected, by which this interval used to though we should call it no sound, if there be modulated, there is no longer now any were to be no hearers ; it would still be sensation of such an interval: and yet it is an undulation of air, capable of producing evident that this sensible interval has an sound, if there were an ear capable of per- existence in nature, although for the preceiving it, that is, an organ adequate to the sent the sensation of it be lost.” Porphyr. sensation.

in Prædic. p. 40. ed. Paris. 1543. The instance given on this occasion by Porphyry flourished in the third century ; the philosophers Porphyry and Simplicius, Simplicius in the sixth. is curious, because it is taken from that We may remark, by the way, from the difficult system of music, the enharmonic. above quotations, how fast the arts of eleThe following are the words of Simplicius: gance were sinking, even in the more early καν γάρ διά ραθυμίαν αποβάλωμεν ποτέ of those two periods. την των όντων γνώσιν, ουδέν ήττον μένει As for the state of philosophy in the τα όντα, όπερ έστι τα επιστητά και γαρ latter period, we may form a judgment of εν τη μουσική πρότερον μέν κατηκούομεν it by what we learn fron Simplicius in the διέσεως, νύν δε ανεπαίσθητοι τούτου του same treatise, with regard to the Stoics. dlasthuatos douév: “ For if ever, through Having, in his Commentary on the Preany sloth or indolence, we reject know- dicaments of Action and Passion, given ledge, those things, which are intelligible, many quotations from the Stoic logic, he remain nevertheless. It is thus that in concludes the chapter with the following music we used in former days to hear the words: Πολλή δε ή των τοιούτων εξερ

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